Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)

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Original Dixieland Jazz [Jass] Band [ODJB], the.

American jazz band. Its original members, all from New Orleans, were Nick LaRocca (1889–1961; leader and cornet), Larry Shields (1893–1953; clarinet), Eddie Edwards (1891–1963; trombone), Tony Sbarbaro (1897–1969; drums) and Henry Ragas (1891–1919; piano, later replaced by J. Russel Robinson). After playing in Chicago in 1916 the five musicians moved to New York, where they enjoyed sensational receptions during their residency at Reisenweber’s Restaurant from January 1917. During the same year the group became the first jazz band to make phonograph recordings. In the mid-1920s, when the vogue for jazz dancing temporarily subsided, the group disbanded; it re-formed in 1936, but the reunion was brief and only moderately successful.

No member of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band was particularly talented as an improviser, and the group’s phrasing was rhythmically stilted; but even so, its collective vigour had an infectious spirit. When black jazz bands began to record regularly it soon became apparent that many of them were more adept at jazz improvising and phrasing than was the Original Dixieland Jazz Band. Detractors of the band maintain that it merely simplified the music of black New Orleans groups, and cite specific antecedents for its compositions Tiger Rag and Sensation Rag (both 1918, Vic.). Casual listeners were intrigued by its repertory, however, which was unlike anything else then on record. The group presented a new sound rather than a new music; this sound, and the rhythms in which it was couched, appealed to young dancers, who were eager to break away from the rigidly formal dance steps of the era.

The most passionate advocate of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band’s importance to jazz history was LaRocca himself, who never ceased claiming that his group had played a vital role in the ‘invention’ of jazz in New Orleans during the early years of the 20th century. The fact that there is no evidence to support LaRocca’s contention has caused many jazz devotees to ignore the merits of the band’s music. But it is indisputable that the group played a major part in popularizing the dixieland style of jazz throughout the USA and Europe.


Second Line, vi/9–10 (1955) [special issue]

H.H. Lange: Nick LaRocca: ein Porträt (Wetzlar, 1960)

N. LaRocca: ‘Jazz Began with Us’, Melody Maker (25 June 1960)

H.O. Brunn: The Story of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band (Baton Rouge, LA, 1960/R)

B. Rust: ‘Grateful for the Warning’, Storyville, no.9 (1967), 24–8

G. Schuller: Early Jazz (New York, 1968/R)

H.H. Lange: Als der Jazz begann, 1916–1923: von der Original Dixieland Jazz Band bis zu King Olivers Creole Jazz Band (Berlin, 1991)


Orinaga, Joaquín de.

See Oxinaga, Joaquín de.

Oriola, Pietro [Orihuela, Pedro de; Pere]

(b Valencia; fl c1440–1484). Spanish composer. He was a singer at the court of Alfonso V of Aragon in Naples, where his presence is first recorded in November 1441. His name reappears in the surviving registers for 1444 and 1455, and he was still living in the city in 1470, when he wrote two letters to Ludovico III Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua. He is almost certainly identifiable with the Pedro de Orihuela, native of Valencia, who was appointed a singer and chaplain in the chapel of King Ferdinand of Aragon in October 1484, but his name does not appear in the household accounts thereafter, and he may have died at about that time.

The manuscript I-MC 871, which contains repertory from the Neapolitan court, has two works attributed to Oriola (both ed. in Pope and Kanazawa): a four-voice setting of the psalm In exitu Israel de Egypto in fabordón style, and O vos homines qui transitis, a parody, in the manner of a courtly love poem, of the antiphon sung on Holy Saturday; the ornamented melody of this work bears no relation to the Roman plainchant. The text is also included in an anthology of poets active at the court (F-Pn f.it.1035). Two more songs, Trista che spera morendo and a textless piece, are attibuted to Oriola in I-PEc 431. Both are for three voices; the textless work (ed. in Atlas) appears to be in the form of a canción with a five-line estribillo, and uses imitation fairly consistently in the two upper voices.



E. Motta: ‘Musici alla corte degli Sforza’, Archivio storico lombardo, ix (1887), 29–64, 278–340, 514–61; pubd separately (Milan, 1887/R)

H. Anglès, ed.: La música en la corte de los Reyes Católicos, MME, i (1941, 2/1960/R), 116

I. Pope and M. Kanazawa: The Musical Manuscript Montecassino 871: a Neapolitan Repertory of Sacred and Secular Music of the Late Fifteenth Century (Oxford, 1978)

A.W. Atlas: Music at the Aragonese Court of Naples (Cambridge, 1985)



(? from Gk. horos: ‘limit’, or ōriskos: ‘little hill’).

In Western chant notations a special neume signifying one note. It is usually found added to another neume as an auxiliary note (? forming its ‘limit’), perhaps rising to anticipate the succeeding note (hence the second possible derivation of the name). It is not clear how the oriscus should be performed. Wagner believed that intervals of less than a semitone were involved; but in the Dijon tonary (F-MOf H.159), although special signs possibly signifying quartertone steps are used, they are not used to represent the oriscus. For Cardine it implied ‘tension vers la note suivante’. The oriscus is the central element in the Salicus and the Pressus; added before a Virga it gives rise to the pes Quassus; added after a virga it gives rise to a Virga strata or gutturalis. (For illustration see Notation, §III, 1, Table 1.)


P. Wagner: Neumenkunde: Paläographie des liturgischen Gesanges (Fribourg, 1905, rev., enlarged 2/1912/R)

H.M. Bannister: Monumenti vaticani di paleografia musicale latina (Leipzig, 1913/R)

G.M. Suñol: Introducció a la paleografia musical gregoriana (Montserrat, 1925; Fr. trans., rev., enlarged 2/1935)

M. Huglo: ‘Les noms des neumes et leur origine’, EG, i (1954), 53–67

E. Jammers: Tafeln zur Neumenkunde (Tutzing, 1965)

E. Cardine: Semiologia gregoriana (Rome, 1968; Eng. trans., 1982); Fr. trans. in EG, xi (1970), 1–158, and also pubd separately (Solesmes, 1970)
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