Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)

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Ord, Boris [Bernhard]

(b Clifton, Bristol, 9 July 1897; d Cambridge, 30 Dec 1961). English organist and conductor. His mother, Johanna Anthes, came of a German family that numbered many musicians. Bernhard (he was later universally known as Boris), the youngest son, went to Cambridge in 1920 as organ scholar of Corpus Christi College. In 1923 King's College recognized his contribution to university life, in particular the foundation of the Cambridge University Madrigal Society, by electing him to a fellowship. A year on the staff of the Cologne Opera broadened his experience and in 1928 he returned to Cambridge to conduct a remarkable performance of Stravinsky's The Soldier's Tale with Lydia Lopakhova, Dennis Arundell and Michael Redgrave. Succeeding C.B. Rootham in 1936, he extended the repertory of the Cambridge University Musical Society and conducted many outstanding stage performances, especially Handel's Saul (1937) and Solomon (1948), and Vaughan Williams's The Pilgrim's Progress (1954). Ord's greatest achievement, however, was with the choir of King's College, which became internationally famous through its Christmas Eve broadcasts, European tours and recordings. From 1929 until his resignation in 1957 (except for four years in the Royal Air Force) he maintained a standard of excellence; he demanded of the choir the highest professionalism in matters of intonation, attack and sensitivity to styles ranging from Dunstaple to contemporary composers. The work of former organ and choral scholars such as David Willcocks, John Alldis, Louis Halsey and others shows his influence.

As a keyboard player Ord was much more progressive than many of his contemporaries, and in the early years of the Baroque revival in England he was an imaginative and resourceful harpsichordist. His annual performances from open score of Bach's Art of Fugue on the King's College organ were a tour de force. He published one carol, Adam lay y-bounden (London, 1957). He was made an honorary MusD of Durham University in 1955 and of Cambridge in 1960; in 1958 he was made a CBE.


P. Radcliffe: Bernhard (Boris) Ord: a Memoir (Cambridge, 1962)



(from Lat. ordinarius, ordinale).

A liturgical book of the Western Church that describes the ritual practices of a specific cathedral, collegiate church, or monastery throughout the liturgical year. The medieval ordinal adapted Roman use to local customs. See Liturgy and liturgical books, §II, 4.

Ordinary chants

(from Lat. Ordinarium [missae et officii]).

Chants whose texts remain constant from day to day in the services of the Western Church, as distinct from those whose texts vary (Proper chants). Strictly the term applies to chants from both Mass and Office, but it is chiefly used to refer to the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei, the parts of the Mass Ordinary most frequently set polyphonically by composers from the second half of the 14th century onwards. The Ite missa est at the close of Mass, with choral response ‘Deo gratias’, has also been included in a few such settings (e.g. by Machaut). Although the texts of the chants do not vary, they have been influenced by the principle of variation for reasons of liturgical propriety, in that they are recommended, though not prescribed, to be sung to a small corpus of different melodies, each one for use on different occasions (double feasts, single feasts, feasts of the BVM etc.). In the Middle Ages, Ordinary chants for important feasts had trope texts which rendered them Proper in the liturgical sense.

For the transmission of Ordinary chants from the Middle Ages, see Kyriale, the name given to a collection of the chants. See also Mass, §I, 2, and separate articles on the chants mentioned above.

Ordines romani

(Lat., sing. Ordo romanus).

Liturgical manuals of the 8th century or earlier that describe liturgical practices (Mass, readings for the night Office, Holy Week, ordination etc.) of the city of Rome. Most often the texts, which transmit Roman and papal practice, have been adapted for/to Frankish use. See Liturgy and liturgical books, §II, 4.



SeeMedieval drama.

Ordo cantus missae.

The Latin chants appointed to be sung with the Roman Missal of 1970. The foundations for a general revision of the Roman Missal of 1570 were laid by the Second Vatican Council in its Constitution De sacra liturgia (22 November 1963). Paul VI promulgated the new missal in an Apostolic Constitution, Missale romanum, of 3 April 1969; three days later the new order of Mass was published by the Sacred Congregation Pro cultu divino, together with a first draft of the introduction to the new missal, the Institutio generalis missalis romani. The new missal itself was published in 1970 and necessitated some considerable revision of the gradual: the Ordo cantus missae (1972) was the result. The Ordo was followed in 1974 by a new edition of the Graduale romanum. All this work was achieved under the Consilium, a body made up of several hundred specialists divided into 30 study groups. The group chiefly responsible for the Ordo was no.XXV, ‘De libris cantus liturgici revisendis et edendis’, but the other groups also influenced the final draft.

The Ordo followed the revised rubrics and calendar and made provision for a daily sung liturgy in Latin. It appointed chants for the Proper of the Time and of the Saints, and many additional Mass chants for optional use. The Common chants were reorganized to include Masses for new categories of saints, such as religious, teachers, those who exercised works of mercy, and public leaders. A whole section was devoted to ritual Masses, another to Masses for special necessities, and a third to the customary votive Masses. Most of the chants in the new schemes were borrowed from existing Masses. The Ordinary chants include settings of the new or revised portions of the Mass, such as the introductory rites and the acclamations after the readings and after the consecration. Three tones are provided for the Lord’s Prayer, one being the so-called Mozarabic, stripped of its interjected Amens.

In their choice and redistribution of Proper chants, the editors aimed wherever possible to retain the most authentic pieces of the oldest layers of the chant. Some inferior compositions of more recent date were discarded. 20 additional pieces of authentic Gregorian chant were introduced and printed in full in the Ordo, such as the introit Memento nostri Domine (p.29) and the gradual Posuisti Domine (p.78); the texts of 11 of them are contained in the Antiphonale missarum sextuplex (Brussels, 1935/R), a comparative edition by R.-J. Herbert of six manuscripts dating from the 8th century to the 10th, and thus belong to an early layer of the chant. Most of the alleluias, such as the one with the verse Benedictus qui venit (p.34), are early adaptations or slightly later compositions.

The principles underlying the provision of musical settings for new or revised texts may be summarized as follows. If a new text already had a musical setting, this was automatically adopted. If no musical setting existed, the new text was adapted to a simple pre-existing tone, such as a collect tone or the Te Deum. Occasionally, following an ancient technique of chant composition, a new text was adapted to the music of another text that it closely resembled and that already had a musical setting. ‘Mortem tuam annuntiamus Domine et tuam resurrectionem’, for example, was cast into the same mould as ‘Crucem tuam adoramus Domine et sanctam resurrectionem tuam’ from the Good Friday liturgy; and the ending ‘donec venias’ was modelled on ‘donec veniam’ from the antiphon Hic est discipulus meus for St John the Evangelist (AM, p.256), following another time-honoured principle, that of centonization.


De sacra liturgia (Rome, 1964; Eng. trans., 1967)

Constitutio apostolica Pauli PP VI ‘Missale romanum’ (Rome, 1969; Eng. trans., 1973)

L. Sheppard, ed.: The New Liturgy (London, 1970)

Missale romanum ex decreto sacrosancto oecumenici concilii vaticani II instauratum auctoritate Pauli PP VI promulgatum (Rome, 1971)

Ordo cantus missae (Rome, 1972)

Graduale romanum (Solesmes, 1974)

P. Ludwig: ‘Les sources des chants réintroduits dans l’“Ordo cantus missae”’, Notitiae, xci (1974), 92–4


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