Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)

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III. Larger and smaller European oboes.

1. Introduction.

2. Early lower oboes.

3. Mezzo-soprano oboes.

4. Tenor oboes.

5. Bass oboes and larger forms.

6. Smaller oboes.

Oboe, §III: Larger and smaller European oboes.

1. Introduction.

Lower oboes began to appear at the court of Louis XIV in the mid-17th century, at the same time as the treble instrument. They were needed to play the middle parts between treble oboe and bassoon in the five-part, later four-part, double-reed consort. But while the treble oboe spread rapidly throughout Europe and soon developed into a solo instrument and an integral member of the orchestra, the lower oboes followed a more erratic course, in some places disappearing completely for a time from the musical scene. The mezzo-soprano oboes were favoured during the late 17th and early 18th centuries but then faded from view, not to re-emerge until the 20th century. The tenor oboe, which had more variants than the other sizes, was continuously in use from the 17th century. Bass oboes, always less widespread than the others, have appeared occasionally as ensemble instruments. By the late 20th century each member of the family had become a soloist in its own right.

One feature common to all modern lower oboes is the bulb-shaped bell (Fr. pavillon d'amour; Ger. Liebesfuss). It was first applied to the tenor instrument about 1700 and to the mezzo-soprano about 1720. Such bells were used on shawms and bagpipes from the Middle Ages onwards; small bulb-belled shawms are depicted in the Cantigas de Santa María, from the court of Alfonso X of Spain (late 13th century; fig.22), and bulb bells appear on both the drones and chanters of bagpipes from Iberia to eastern Europe. The bulb bell has long been considered the source of the distinctive tone of the modern english horn and other lower oboes. While this is still open to debate, it is clear that the voicing of the bell affects the tonal quality and response of the instrument as a whole.

Oboe, §III: Larger and smaller European oboes.

2. Early lower oboes.

(i) Haute-contre de hautbois.

A mezzo-soprano oboe in A. It was used to play the second line (which sometimes descended to a, too low for the treble instrument) in the five-part ensemble music of the Lullian era. There are no extant examples. Personnel lists for Louis XIV's Douze Grands Hautbois reveal that there were usually two players of the haute-contre in the ensemble (see Paris, §V, 1(b)), and Sébastien de Brossard (Dictionaire de musique, 1703) mentioned the instrument, although he did not provide a separate entry for it. Lully used the haute-contre de hautbois in stage works, including Les plaisirs de l'île enchantée (1664), Atys (1676) and Persée (1682), and in instrumental music (Airs de Carrousel, 1686). It fell out of use in the late 17th century as interest shifted to the four-part ensemble of two oboes, tenor oboe (taille de hautbois) and bassoon and the trio of two oboes and bassoon. Although the second line in these ensembles was usually taken by a treble oboe, the part itself continued to be referred to as ‘haute-contre’, a practice that has led to doubt about the existence of the haute-contre de hautbois. However, by the late 17th century the instrument had been carried to other parts of Europe, where it would take on new forms during the early 18th century.

(ii) Taille de hautbois.

A tenor oboe in F, a 5th below the treble, employed to play the third line in the wind ensembles and orchestras of Lully's time and later. Like the haute-contre, the taille de hautbois had a straight body with two keys and an open bell. It may have made its first appearance in Lully's Alcidiane (1658); he also used it in L'impatience (1661), Les noces de village (1663) and La princesse d'Elide (1664). A true solo part appears in Pascal Collasse's Enée et Lavinie (1690). Along with other members of the oboe family, the taille de hautbois was carried to England, Germany and the Netherlands, where it was employed in orchestras and wind ensembles (fig.23). The term Taille survived into the 18th century as a designation for a middle part in an ensemble work or for an instrument that played such a part.

(iii) Quinte de hautbois.

A basset oboe in D, a 3rd below the taille de hautbois and a 5th below the haute-contre, apparently the fourth voice in the five-part double-reed ensemble during the early experimental years of the Lullian era. No examples are extant. Its existence is inferred by analogy with the recorder family of the time, which included haute-contres, tailles and quintes, and on a single piece of iconographical evidence: the frontispiece of Pierre Borjon de Scellery’s Traité de la musette (1672), which depicts an hautboïste of the period with his ‘full kit’, including what might be a quinte de hautbois (fig.24). This instrument is equipped with keys, probably modelled on those of the musette and designed to assure reasonable intonation. The instrument did not survive the experimental years.

Oboe, §III: Larger and smaller European oboes.

3. Mezzo-soprano oboes.

(i) Oboe grande

(It., also oboe luongo, oboe basso; Fr. grand hautbois; Ger. grosse [H]oboe). The 18th-century designation for the haute-contre de hautbois, a mezzo-soprano oboe with an open bell, made in A and B versions. It was used in central Europe in Hautboisten bands and other ensembles: Johann Fischer, J.C. Pez and Telemann, for example, scored for it in wind music; J.G. Hoffman, G.A. Homilius and Telemann, among others, used it in church cantatas. The instrument in A was favoured for music in keys with several sharps, and the instrument in B for keys with several flats; the treble in C did not play well in tune in these keys. The oboe grande was used in a number of works by Italian composers, beginning in the 1720s. Porpora’s Angelica (1720) and Vinci's La caduta de’ Decemviri (1727) have parts for a pair of ‘oboi lunghi’, and Conforto’s Livia Claudia vestale (1755) includes a solo for the instrument. By the late 18th century it was not much in evidence, although the Viennese oboist-composers Johann Went and Josef Triebensee wrote for it. In the 19th century a few oboes in B were made for use in bands. In 1874 Victor-Charles Mahillon produced a pair of open-belled ‘hautbois d’amour’ in A, with 19th-century keywork, for the first London revivals of J.S. Bach’s works; similar instruments were also made in Germany around the same time.

(ii) Oboe d’amore

(It.: ‘oboe of love’; Fr. hautbois d’amour; Ger. Liebes[h]oboe). A mezzo-soprano oboe in A with a bulb bell (fig.25a), developed in south-central Germany during the second decade of the 18th century. The tone of the oboe d’amore, described as ‘more sombre than the treble, but less weighty than the tenor’, was exploited by J.S. Bach, Telemann and their contemporaries. Unlike the oboe grande, which was primarily an ensemble instrument, the oboe d’amore was used as a solo and obbligato instrument. The earliest extant specimen, dated 1719 (Musikmuseum, Stockholm), is by J.G. Bauer (1666–1721) of Leipzig. That city appears to have been a centre for oboe d’amore making; there are a number of extant instruments by J.H. Eichentopf and J.C. Sattler, both of whom were also active there about 1720.

The rich harvest of solo, concertante, obbligato and chamber music produced for the oboe d’amore in Germany during the late Baroque testifies to a strong interest in this new tone-colour. Soloists such as J.C. Gleditsch of Leipzig, who worked with Kuhnau, then Bach, and J.M. Böhm (fl c1685–1753) of Darmstadt, who worked with Graupner and Telemann, developed the new instrument as a distinctive solo voice. Bach used it with special effectiveness. His earliest surviving score to include it (Die Elenden sollen essen bwv75) dates from 1723, after his arrival in Leipzig. He achieved a particularly striking effect in the opening chorale of Meinen Jesum lass ich nicht bwv124 (1725); there a solo oboe d’amore weaves an obbligato around the choral lines. One of his best-known solos for the instrument is that in the alto aria ‘Qui sedes’ in the B minor Mass. Telemann’s output includes solo concertos for the instrument and a triple concerto for flauto d’amore, oboe d’amore and viola d’amore as well as obbligato parts in vocal works for church and stage. Interest in the oboe d’amore began to flag in the 1740s, and by the 1760s few works were being written for it. The instrument was heard occasionally during the second half of the 18th century: a concerto by Dittersdorf (c1778) and several other works from this period with orchestral parts for it are preserved (D-Rtt), and instruments are known to have been made by Grundmann of Dresden (1774) and Otto of Neukirchen (1799).

Renewed interest in the music of J.S. Bach led to the development in the late 19th century of a new version of the oboe d’amore with ‘modern’ keywork and bore proportions. After first producing mezzo-soprano oboes with open bells, Mahillon began to make instruments with bulb bells; both types earned him medals at the Paris Exposition of 1878. Shortly thereafter, the Berlin firm of C.W. Moritz began to make Liebesoboen for performances at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik and the Bach summer festivals then becoming popular in Germany. Other makers followed, including François Lorée, who produced the first French oboes d’amore in the 1880s. The first modern composer to use the new instrument was Richard Strauss, who scored for it in his Symphonia domestica op.53 (1903). During the 20th century the instrument was used in the orchestra by many composers, including Mahler (‘Um Mitternacht’, orchestrated 1904–5), Debussy (‘Gigues’, Images, 1913), Holst (A Somerset Rhapsody op.21 no.2, 1906–7), Ravel (Boléro, 1928), Havergal Brian and Ligeti. Holbrooke, Koechlin and Ligeti have written solo and chamber works for it.

Oboe, §III: Larger and smaller European oboes.

4. Tenor oboes.

(i) The taille (de hautbois) in the 18th century.

(ii) Vox humana

(iii) Oboe da caccia

(iv) English horn

(v) Alt[h]oboe.

Oboe, §III, 4: Larger and smaller European oboes., Tenor oboes.

(i) The taille (de hautbois) in the 18th century.

At the end of the 17th century the taille de hautbois had the same profile as the treble oboe, but about 1700 the instrument began to be fitted with a bulb bell (fig.25b), probably by German makers. The taille served as the middle voice of the double-reed consort in France, northern and central Europe, England and Italy. In France it was used in theatre and concert works until the middle of the 18th century, and after that its use waned. In Germany it was called for in numerous church cantatas (for example, J.S. Bach’s Falsche Welt, dir trau ich nicht bwv52). The taille de hautbois probably arrived in England in 1673, along with the first treble oboes; there it became known as the ‘tenner hautboy’. Henry Purcell was the first English composer to take an interest in the instrument, scoring for it in The Prophetess, or The History of Dioclesian (1690) and other theatre music. By the 1720s horns had replaced tenor oboes in wind bands. However, a preference for the older consort instrumentation was retained in some locations, and tailles continued to be made for several more decades. The instrument had disappeared by about 1780. The bulb-belled version was revived half a century later when Henri Brod developed the cor anglais moderne, the prototype of the modern english horn. The open-belled version enjoyed a brief reincarnation as Wagner's ‘Althoboe’ (see (v) below).

Oboe, §III, 4: Larger and smaller European oboes., Tenor oboes.

(ii) Vox humana

(Lat.: ‘human voice’; It. voce umana). A tenor oboe in F, pitched a 5th below the treble, in use in the mid- to late 18th century. It is characterized by a narrow and largely unadorned profile, two-part construction (with the bell integral with the lower joint; fig.25c), minimal flare at the bell aperture and an angular crook to support the reed. It has two keys and six single finger-holes. The name of the instrument was apparently derived from the eponymous organ stop. Long associated exclusively with England, the vox humana is now known also to have been used in southern Italy.

The vox humana appeared in England just as the ‘tenner hautboy’ was giving way to the horn. It may have been invented by Thomas Stanesby (ii), the earliest active of the known makers of the instrument, who was also the author of a fingering chart for it. The first known appearance of the vox humana was in a concert at the Drury Lane Theatre, London, in May 1733; according to an advertisement, duets were to be performed on a pair of these new instruments. Though heard occasionally in the theatre, the vox humana was used primarily in the double-reed bands often employed in lieu of organs in poor provincial churches. One such band at Swalcliffe, north Oxfordshire, purchased a vox humana, reeds, a reed case and a fingering chart from Thomas Collier in 1783. This church supported a double-reed ensemble until 1815. A similar type of ensemble was used in Swiss churches around the same time (see Hautbois d'église).

During the 1770s and 80s Gregorio Patria, an Italian living in Dublin, performed with success there on the vox humana, ‘a new Italian instrument’. The vox humana was a favoured instrument in southern Italy, especially Naples, in the era before the english horn became common there. Paisiello included it in church and theatre music performed in Naples and Rome, primarily in the 1760s and early 1770s, and Sacchini and G.F. de Majo also wrote for it. The only known Italian maker of the vox humana was Giovanni Panormo of Naples, whose instruments have more flaring bells than the English models, a doubled third hole for C and carved ivory rosettes at the bell aperture. By the 1780s the vox humana had been supplanted by the english horn. The term ‘vox humana’ was sometimes used for the english horn in Italy and England in the late 18th and early 19th centuries; it is often unclear which instrument was being referred to.

The vox humana was also made in a larger size, pitched in C, a 4th below the tenor instrument. Such instruments were probably used in lieu of bassoons to play the bass parts in church bands. An unmarked example with an octave key and keys for C, C and E, three-part construction and vent holes in the bell is preserved in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Oboe, §III, 4: Larger and smaller European oboes., Tenor oboes.

(iii) Oboe da caccia

(It., also oboe di silva; Fr. hautbois de chasse, hautbois de forêt; Ger. Jagd[h]oboe, Jagdhautbois, Wald[h]oboe, Waldhautbois). A curved, leather-covered tenor oboe in F with a broadly flaring bell, in use between 1720 and about 1760 (fig.25d). It was produced by only a few makers and used in a small number of places in central Europe. The one-piece body of the oboe da caccia is strongly curved, sometimes in a complete semicircle. It was constructed by cutting a row of small wedges along the back of a straight instrument, then bending the body into an arc. The joins were usually pinned and the body sealed and covered with a leather binding, often decoratively tooled. The curved shape and flaring bell give the instrument a horn-like appearance, hence its name. The most distinguished maker of the oboe da caccia was J.H. Eichentopf of Leipzig, who made instruments with brass rather than wooden bells.

Bach began to use the oboe da caccia shortly after his arrival in Leipzig, where he found a fine soloist in J.C. Gleditsch. The instrument has a gentle and expressive nature, which Bach understood perfectly; one of the most striking moments in the St Matthew Passion is the soprano aria ‘Aus Liebe will mein Heiland sterben’, accompanied only by a solo transverse flute and two oboes da caccia. Other composers who wrote for the instrument include J.F. Fasch in Zerbst and Graupner in Darmstadt; in Munich G.B. Ferrandini wrote three symphonies for a pair of oboes da caccia with strings and continuo. Although the instrument had a distinctive sound, it was still considered a tenor oboe and as such was also used to play parts marked ‘taille’.

Oboe, §III, 4: Larger and smaller European oboes., Tenor oboes.

(iv) English horn

(Fr. cor anglais; Ger. englisches Horn, Englisch-Horn, Englischhorn; It. corno inglese; in the 18th century the instrument was also known as: Fr. hautbois anglois, corne d’anglois, cor de chasse anglais; Ger. englische Wald[h]oboe, englisches Waldhorn). The tenor oboe in F, a 5th below the oboe, in use from the early 18th century to the present. Its keywork corresponds to that of the oboe of its day and the reed is mounted on a short crook. It was created when a bulb bell was added to an oboe da caccia body shortly after 1720, possibly by J.T. Weigel of Breslau. Late 18th-century english horns were more gently curved than Baroque models, and by about 1790 some were being made in angular form, resembling contemporary basset-horns. Both curved and angular forms were made into the 19th century (fig.25e and fig.26).

The open-belled straight tenor oboe and particularly the flare-belled oboe da caccia reminded people of the angels’ horns depicted in medieval and later religious imagery, especially in German-speaking central Europe. In Middle (High) German, the word engellisch meant ‘angelic’ (as engelgleich in modern Hochdeutsch). With the Middle German word for ‘England’ being Engellant, the word engellisch also meant ‘English’. These dual meanings naturally became conflated, and ‘angel's horn’ thus became ‘English horn’. This unlikely epithet remained with the curved, bulb-belled tenor oboe even after the oboe da caccia had faded (c1760) and in the absence of any better denominations.

Music for the english horn has been notated in a variety of ways. In Italy, during the late 18th century and the first half of the 19th, the parts were notated in the bass clef an octave below sounding pitch, because the instrument was often played by bassoonists. Elsewhere parts were notated at pitch in the alto clef (the method also preferred by Bach for the oboe da caccia parts). In France they were notated in the mezzo-soprano clef, to be read as if in the treble clef in order to effect the correct transposition. In modern notation the player reads from the treble clef, fingering the notes as on the oboe; the instrument sounds a perfect 5th below. In modern scores, however, the part is often notated at sounding pitch.

During its early years the english horn was used interchangeably with other tenor oboes, and few works were written specifically for it; most of those known came from Poland or Saxony, near the birthplace of the instrument. It began to be specified more frequently by the late 1740s; the Viennese version of Jommelli’s Ezio (1749) called for a pair. One of the first composers to exploit the instrument was Gluck, who began to use it in 1755, scoring for a pair in La danza. In Orfeo ed Euridice (1762) a pair of english horns appears in Orfeo’s aria ‘Piange, il mio ben così’, an operatic lament; this foreshadows the use of the instrument in the works of many of Gluck’s followers, particularly Berlioz. Joseph Haydn had a pair of english horns available to him at the Esterházy court and he used the instrument in a number of works, including Symphony no.22 (‘The Philosopher’, 1764), in which two english horns replace the usual oboes. Others who scored for the instrument in the mid- to late 18th century included Bonno, Hasse and Starzer in Vienna, Michael Haydn in Salzburg, who treated the instrument as a soloist in several works, and the player-composers Joseph Fiala, Joseph Lacher, Ignaz Malzat, Josef Triebensee and Johann Went.

In the German-speaking parts of Europe, the most significant english horn player of the late 18th century was Philipp Teimer (Filip Matyas Tajmar, 1761–c1817), the youngest of three oboe-playing brothers. He served, with his brothers and father, in the musical establishment of Prince Johann Joseph Schwarzenburg (who maintained a Harmonie with pairs of oboes, english horns, horns and bassoons), and also appeared frequently as a soloist. A number of trios for oboes and english horn, including possibly Beethoven’s op.87, were written for the three brothers. Other works written with Teimer in mind include the Singspiel Babylons Pyramiden (1797) by Johann Mederitsch and Peter Winter, in which the english horn plays a role analogous to that of the flute in Die Zauberflöte, Salieri’s Requiem of 1804 and Hummel’s cantata Lob der Freundschaft (1807), which includes an extraordinarily difficult obbligato part rising to written g'''. Another well-known english horn player of the late 18th century was the oboist-composer Giuseppe Ferlendis (1755–1810), who was so closely associated with the instrument that he was credited in several sources with its invention. His success as a performer was probably due at least in part to the excellent curved instruments made for him by the Venetian maker Andrea Fornari (1753–1841).

The english horn was usually associated with Italian opera in the late 18th century, and the majority of instruments were made in cities that supported Italian opera houses, among them Vienna, Dresden, Milan, Venice and Lisbon. Towards the end of the century Venice became an important centre for english horn writing; perhaps not coincidentally, Ferlendis was employed there between 1778 and 1801. Among the composers who wrote operatic scores with english horn for performance there were Bianchi, Cimarosa, Simon Mayr, Traetta, Sarti and Zingarelli. While in some of these works the english horn rivals the voice in virtuosity, the obbligato parts by Bianchi and Sarti, although occasionally florid, are essentially lyrical. The singing style would soon become accepted as the most effective for the instrument.

The english horn did not become established in France until the early 19th century. The first important player of the instrument there was Gustave Vogt (1781–1870), soloist at the Opéra and the leading French oboist of his day. Vogt’s english horn playing was highly praised by critics such as Castil-Blaze and F.-J. Fétis, and many solos were written for him, including that by Rossini in the Overture to Guillaume Tell (1829). From 1810 Vogt worked with the firm of Guillaume Triébert to improve the instrument. Triébert’s english horns were initially patterned after the curved, two-keyed models made in Italy at the end of the 18th century. The firm soon began to add its own keywork and other refinements, and its instruments gained a high reputation. Later instruments have a straight lower joint and a curved upper joint, and those made by Frédéric Triébert from about 1860 are entirely straight.

Vogt’s playing was greatly admired by Berlioz, who exploited the special character of the instrument from his earliest works; in his Huit scènes de Faust op.1 (1828–9) the english horn was associated with absence and melancholy, an idea continued in the Symphonie fantastique (1830), which also linked the instrument with pastoral scenes. More than any other composer, Berlioz helped to form the character of the english horn as an instrument creating ‘feelings of absence, of forgetfulness, of sorrowful loneliness’ (Grand traité d’instrumentation).

Henri Brod (1799–1839), Vogt’s successor at the Opéra, became dissatisfied with the muffled sound and unwieldy shape of the contemporary english horn and by 1823 had begun to collaborate with the Triéberts in an attempt to modernize it. By 1830 he was making instruments himself, developing a straight tenor oboe, the ‘hautbois-alto’, which was easier to hold and more resonant than the old instrument. He later renamed this instrument the ‘cor anglais moderne’ (see fig.15). François Lorée, who had been Triébert’s chief of staff, opened his own workshop in 1881 and began to make english horns based on Brod’s straight-form model. In the hands of this maker, the instrument reached its modern form.

The english horn was little known in Germany and Austria in the early to mid-19th century. German orchestration texts of the first half of the century scarcely mention the instrument, composers did not use it, and Mendelssohn was unable to find a pair for his Berlin revival of the St Matthew Passion in 1829. Wagner, who had heard the english horn in Paris, was the first German composer of the era to make extensive use of it. As Kapellmeister at Dresden he had in his orchestra Rudolf Hiebendahl (c1818–90), one of the first German oboists of the period to develop an interest in the instrument. Wagner’s first score to include it was Der fliegende Holländer (1843), in which it was employed in the overture. In both Tannhäuser (1845) and Tristan und Isolde (1865) it imitates a shepherd’s pipe. Lohengrin (1850) had the first ‘symphonic’ part for the english horn; the instrument was used as a full member of the orchestra, not only for special effects. Other composers who wrote for the instrument included Schumann (Manfred, 1848–9) and Liszt, especially Der nächtliche Zug from the two episodes from Lenau’s Faust (1856–61) and Christus (1866–72).

The english horn continued to be heard regularly in Italian opera all over Europe, including in areas where it otherwise had no exposure. Rossini made much use of the instrument, particularly in the operas he wrote for Venice, including La scala di seta (1812), Tancredi (1813), Il signor Bruschino (1813) and Sigismondo (1814). Significant obbligatos also appear in two of his scores for Naples, the Messa da gloria (1821) and Zelmira (1822). Rossini's younger colleague Bellini requested the instrument in Il pirata (1827) and Bianca e Fernando (revised version, 1828). The former uses the corno inglese to enhance the tragic mood in the heroine's mad scene and prayer. Later composers used the instrument to advantage in similar settings. In Donizetti, for example, the unique voice of the english horn is heard to excellent effect in Gabriella di Vergy (composed 1826, rev. c1838), L'esule di Roma (1828), Anna Bolena (1830), La fille du régiment (1840), Maria Padilla (1841) and Maria di Rohan (1843). Verdi was certainly familiar with most of these works, and he began scoring for the instrument early in his career, notably in Nabucco (1842). Other outstanding uses of the corno inglese in his output occur in Giovanna d'Arco (1845), Attila (1846), Un ballo in maschera (1859), Don Carlos (1867) and particularly in Otello (1887). Mercadante's Il giuramento (1837) is another work in which, as in most of the Italian Romantic repertory, the instrument is used to underscore a tragic situation. The instrument was used similarly in French opera (Halévy, La Juive, 1835). In Russia Glinka laid the groundwork for use of the instrument there in his A Life for the Tsar (1836).

Concert works of this era to include the instrument used it, as in opera, as a pastoral or sentimental instrument. Mercadante included it in at least four symphonies from the 1850s and 60s, and Saint-Saëns also scored for it in two of his early symmphonies. Franck’s Symphony in D minor (1886–8) has a continuous symphonic part as well as an elegiac solo in the second movement. Dvořák wrote frequent solos for the english horn; that in his Symphony no.9 (‘From the New World’, 1893) well exploits the nostalgic and elegiac character of the instrument. In Richard Strauss’s colourful scoring the english horn was treated as an essential member of the orchestra. The Scandinavian nationalists were also attracted to it. In The Swan of Tuonela (1893) Sibelius used the english horn as the voice of the swan, singing over a sombrely coloured orchestra. The english horn was also used to create an exotic mood, imitating the reed pipes of the Middle East and Asia (Saint-Saëns, Samson et Dalila, 1877, and Borodin, In Central Asia, 1880).

By the beginning of the 20th century the english horn was established as a solo voice within the orchestra. Most of the orchestral works of the first half of the century continued to exploit the Romantic sentiments associated with the instrument. A mysterious mood is created in C.M. Loeffler’s A Pagan Poem (1906), scored for large orchestra with english horn, piano and offstage solo trumpets; Janáček’s Taras Bulba (1915–18) and Rodrigo's Concierto de Aranjuez (1939) exemplify the nostalgic, Vaughan Williams’s Pastoral Symphony (1921) the pastoral, and Rachmaninoff’s The Bells (1913) the tragic. The most substantial solo works of the period are Carter’s Pastoral (1940) and Hindemith’s Sonata (1941), both with piano.

During the second half of the century the english horn was often included in chamber and orchestral music, and many concertos were written for it. While the traditional character of the instrument was often set aside in concert music, it was retained in many film scores; those of Virgil Thomson, Hugo Friedhofer, David Raksin, Miklós Rózsa and Victor Young contain some outstanding parts. The Concertino op.4 (1982) for english horn and strings by Arne Running is particularly well written for the instrument, and the Australian oboist-composer Graham Powning has written an effective and interesting quartet for four english horns, among his many ensemble works for double reeds.

Important players of the 20th century included Hans Hadamowsky (1906–96) of the Vienna PO, Leo van der Lek (1908–99) in Amsterdam, James McDonagh (d 1933) and his son Terence (1908–86) in London, Paul Brun and Paul Taillefer (b 1912) in Paris, Peter Henkelman (1882–1949), John Minsker (b 1912) and Louis Rosenblatt (b 1928) in Philadelphia, Louis Speyer (1890–1980), to whom many works were dedicated, in Boston, and Thomas Stacy (b 1938), who has commissioned and given first performances of many works for the instrument in New York.

Oboe, §III, 4: Larger and smaller European oboes., Tenor oboes.

(v) Alt[h]oboe.

A tenor oboe in F, with an english horn body and a clarinet-like bell. Some time between 1872 and mid-1875 Wagner had the Bayreuth woodwind instrument maker J.S. Stengel (1803–85) build this new oboe to his specifications. It was meant to provide a more penetrating sound than the english horn, in effect extending the oboe section into the tenor register. In the first edition of Siegfried (1875), Wagner specified that the new Altoboe was to replace the english horn in all future performances of his scores. However, the instrument is specifically called for only in Parsifal (1882). It was used at Bayreuth with some regularity, especially between 1882 and 1894, but it seems to have fallen out of use by 1896. A single specimen from Stengel’s workshop survives (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna) and there are several by other makers, including two by Joseph Pöschl (1866–1947) with both Altoboe and english horn bells (Musikinstrumentenmuseum im Münchner Stadtmuseum; private collection). During the last quarter of the 19th century and the first quarter of the 20th ‘Altoboe’ was sometimes used in Germany as an alternative term for the english horn.

Oboe, §III: Larger and smaller European oboes.

5. Bass oboes and larger forms.

(i) Bass oboe.

A large oboe pitched an octave below the treble. The instrument has also been known as the baritone oboe, after Triébert’s bass oboe of 1825, which he called ‘hautbois baryton’ by analogy with the baritone voice. The modern bass oboe is an enlarged english horn equipped with a bulb bell and a bassoon-like crook, on which the reed is placed. Music for the instrument is notated in the treble clef, sounding an octave below written pitch. A few instruments in this range survive from the 18th century, including a specimen from about 1700 by J.C. Denner of Nuremberg in the form of an enlarged treble oboe (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg). Two instruments made by Charles Bizey in Paris about 1749 have a bassoon-like boot and wings with obliquely drilled tone holes, and an open oboe-like bell (see fig.25f). About 1825 Triébert began to make bass oboes patterned, apparently, after Bizey’s instruments, but with added keys and bulb bells (see fig.25g). Brod received a medal for a straight bass oboe at the Paris Exposition of 1839. No period music for this instrument survives. It is not known how it was used; it may, perhaps, have been played in wind ensembles.

The first modern bass oboe was built by François Lorée about 1889. Lorée’s instrument was straight-formed, like the model designed by Brod 50 years before, and equipped with the latest keywork. The first composer to interest himself in the new instrument was Delius, who became familiar with the instrument during his years in Paris (1888–96). Through him the instrument became known in England, where it was used by a number of composers, including Holst, Brian and Tippett. It has been used in chamber music and film scores in Europe and America. The first solo concerto for the instrument, East Coast by Gavin Bryars, was written in 1994.

(ii) Sub-bass and contrabass oboes.

Only a few experimental oboes have been made to play in this register, for which there was already a successful instrument, the bassoon. Several 18th-century sources, including Majer and Walther, mention an oboe in this register, and according to Garsault (1761) it was known in its day as the basse de cromorne (see Cromorne (i)). An enormous contrabass 203 cm in height, with a sounding length of 267 cm, a huge brass crook and nine keys, was made by Christophe Delusse before 1781 (Musée Instrumental du Conservatoire, Paris). According to the Almanach musical of 1781, the instrument was used in place of the bassoon at the Opéra for six months. Pierre wrote that Lorée had proposed to complete the oboe family with an instrument two octaves below the treble, but that plan was never realized.

Oboe, §III: Larger and smaller European oboes.

6. Smaller oboes.

In the mid-19th century S.-X. Verroust, who had taught at the Gymnase Musical Militaire, advocated the use of a range of hautbois pastoraux, small oboes with a penetrating tone, in military music. These instruments, pitched in A, G, E or D, were suited to tonalities preferred by the clarinets and the brass instruments. They are often used to play the difficult high oboe part in the third of Canteloube's Chants d'Auvergne. Similar instruments were made in Germany and the USA (where they were called Oboettes). At Heinz Holliger's behest, Marigaux created a full Conservatoire-system ‘musette’ in F for use in contemporary music. The instrument is required in Maderna's Grande aulodia for the flute and oboe (1970), in which the oboist is also required to play the oboe, oboe d'amore and english horn.




Journal of the International Double Reed Society (1972–)


T.E. Warner: An Annotated Bibliography of Woodwind Instruction Books, 1600–1830 (Detroit, 1967)

M. Hošek: Oboen-Bibliographie (Wilhelmshaven, 1975–94)

V.S. Gifford: Music for Oboe, Oboe d'amore, and English Horn: a Bibliography of Materials at the Library of Congress (Westport, CT, 1983)

B. Haynes: Music for Oboe 1650–1800: a Bibliography (Berkeley, 1986, 2/1992)

D. Bournes: ‘Oboereedbib: an Annotated Bibliography of Oboe Reed Material’, JIDRS, xvi (1988), 93–7

instruction materials

For a more complete list see Warner (1967) above

E. Loulié: Méthode pour apprendre à jouer de la flûte douce (MS, c1685, F-Pn n.a.fr.6355)

B. Bismantova: ‘Regola generale per suonare l’oboe’, Duetti à due trombe da camera, libro secondo (MS, 1688/9, D-BSKt Sign.4017–002)

J.P. Freillon-Poncein: La véritable manière d’apprendre à jouer en perfection du haut-bois, de la flûte et du flageolet (Paris, 1700/R; Eng. trans., 1969, 2/1992)

J.M. Hotteterre: Principes de la flûte traversière, ou flûte d’Allemagne, de la flûte à bec, ou flûte douce, et du haut-bois (Paris, 1707/R, 7/1741; Eng. trans., 1968, 2/1983)

[J.P. Eisel]: Musicus autodidactus (Erfurt, 1738/R) [description of the oboe almost exactly as in Mattheson (1713)]

J.J. Quantz: Versuch einer Anweisung, die Flöte traversiere zu spielen (1752/R, 3/1789; Eng. trans., 1966/R, 2/1985)

F. Chalon: Méthode pour le cor anglais ou hautbois (Paris, 1802)

F.-J. Garnier: Méthode raisonnée pour le haut-bois (Paris, 1802/R; Eng. trans., 1987)

B. Asioli: Principj elementari di musica (Milan, 1809)

J. Fröhlich: Hoboeschule nach den Grundsätzen der besten über dieses Instrument bereits erschienenen Schriften (Bonn, 1810)

G. Vogt: Méthode de hautbois (MS, c1816–25, F-Pn)

J. Sellner: Theoretisch-praktische Oboeschule (Vienna, 1825, 2/1901)

H. Brod: Méthode pour le hautbois (Paris, 1825–35, rev. 2/1890 by G. Gillet)

A. Vény: Méthode abrégée pour le hautbois (Paris, 1828/R as Méthode complète)

A.M.-R. Barret: A Complete Method for the Oboe (London, 1850, 2/1862/R)

P. Soler: Tablature du nouveau système de hautbois à anneaux mobiles (Paris, c1850)

S. Verroust: Méthode pour le hautbois, d’après Joseph Sellner op.68 (Paris, c1857)

V. Chalon: Méthode de hautbois ordinaire et à système Boehm (Paris, 1877)

R. Rosenthal: Theoretisch-praktische Oboe Schule (London, Mainz and Brussels, 1901)

G. Gillet: L’enseignement supérieur du hautbois (Paris, 1909)

W. Spassoff: Griff-Tabelle für die Oboe: Modell der Wiener Oper und Wiener Musik Akademie (Vienna, ?1914–35)

E. Rothwell: Oboe Technique (London, 1953, 3/1982)

R. Sprenkle and D. Ledet: The Art of Oboe Playing (Evanston, IL, 1961)

L. Singer: Metodo per oboe (Milan, 1969)

H. Holliger: Pro musica nova: Studien zur neuen Musik (Wiesbaden, 1972)

E. Rothwell: The Oboist’s Companion (London, 1974–7)

P. Veale and C.-F. Mahnhopf: The Techniques of Oboe Playing/Die Spieltechnik der Oboe (Kassel, 1994, 3/1998) [with sound disc]


W. Bainbridge: Observations on the Cause of Imperfections in Woodwind Instruments, particularly in German Flutes; with Remarks on the Embouchure … also Remarks on Oboe, Clarionet and Bassoon Reeds (London, 1823)

F.-J. Fétis: ‘Variétés: machine à faire les anches de hautbois et de basson’, Revue musicale, xiv (1834), 221

R.E. Perdue: ‘Arundo donax’, Economic Botany, xii (1958), 368–404

B. Haynes: ‘Making Reeds for the Baroque Oboe’, EMc, iv (1976), 31–4, 173–9

D. Ledet: Oboe Reed Styles (Bloomington, IN, 1981)

N. Post: ‘The 17th-Century Oboe Reed’, GSJ, xxxv (1982), 54–67

B. Haynes: ‘Double Reeds, 1660–1830: a Survey of Surviving Written Evidence’, JIDRS, xii (1984), 14–33

D. Bournes: ‘Oboereedbib: an Annotated Bibliography of Oboe Reed Material’, JIDRS, xvi (1988), 93–7

G. Burgess and P. Hedrick: ‘The Oldest English Oboe Reeds? An Examination of Nineteen Surviving Examples’, GSJ, xlii (1989), 32–69

A Time of Questioning: Utrecht 1994 [incl. G. Burgess: ‘Historical Oboe Reeds: Avenues for Further Research, or “Now what do we do with all these measurements?”’, 205–22]

history and construction






M. de Pure: Idée des spectacles anciens et nouveaux (Paris, 1668)

M. de La Barre: Mémoire de M. de La Barre sur les musettes et hautbois (MS, c1740, Paris, Archives Nationales 01 878 no.240); ed. in BenoitMC

G.P. Telemann: ‘Neues musikalisches System’, in L.C. Mizler von Kolof: Neu eröffnete musikalische Bibliothek, oder Gründliche Nachricht nebst unpartheyischem Urteil von musikalischen Schriften und Büchern, iii/4 (Leipzig, 1752/R), 713–19 [incl. table]

J.J. Quantz: ‘Herrn Johann Joachim Quantzens Lebenslauf, von ihm selbst entworfen’, Historisch-kritische Beyträge zur Aufnahme der Musik, ed. F.W. Marpurg, i (1755/R), 197–250; ed. in W. Kahl: Selbstbiographien deutscher Musiker des XVIII. Jahrhunderts (Cologne, 1948); Eng. trans. in P. Nettl: Forgotten Musicians (New York, 1951), 280–319

L.J. Francoeur: Diapason général de tous les instruments à vent (Paris, 1772)

‘Ueber die Hoboe’, AMZ, xiv/5 (1812), 69–74

‘The Rise and Progress of the Hautboy’, Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review, ix (1827), 464–74

I.P.: ‘On the Oboe and Bassoon’, The Harmonicon, viii (1830), 192–3

W.T. Parke: Musical Memoirs (London, 1830/R)

F.-J. Fétis: ‘Exposition des produits de l’industrie’, Revue musicale, viii/19 (1834), 145–9

W. Schneider: Historisch-technische Beschreibung der musikalischen Instrumente (Neisse and Leipzig, 1834)

F.-J. Fétis: Exposition des produits de l’industrie française en 1839, ii (Paris, 1839)

H. Berlioz: Grand traité d’instrumentation et d’orchestration modernes (Paris, 1843, 2/1855/R; Eng. trans., 1856, rev. 2/1882/R by J. Bennett); Ger. trans. by R. Strauss as Instrumentationslehre (Berlin, 1904; Eng. trans., 1948)

F.J. Fétis: ‘Exposition universelle de Londres, 14ème lettre’, RGMP, xviii (1851), 393–5

F.-J. Fétis: Fabrication des instruments de musique, Paris, Exposition universelle de Paris 1855: rapports du jury mixte international (Paris, 1859)

E. Pauer: Amtlicher Bericht über die Industrie- und Kunst-Ausstellung zu London im Jahre 1862 (Berlin, 1863)

F.-J. Fétis: Rapports du jury international: Exposition universelle 1867, groupe II, classe 10 (Paris, 1868)

C. Pierre: La facture instrumentale à l’Exposition universelle de 1889 (Paris, 1890)

C.R. Day: A Descriptive Catalogue of the Musical Instruments Recently Exhibited at the Royal Military Exhibition (London, 1891)

W. Altenburg: ‘Eine Original-Oboe von Theobald Boehm’, ZI, xx (1899–1900), 34–7

L. Bechler and B. Rahm: Die Oboe und die ihr verwandten Instrumente (Leipzig, 1914/R)

F. Dubitzky: ‘“Englisch Horn” oder “Alt-Oboe”? Eine Entgegnung’, Die Musik, xiv/3 [no.17] (1914–15), 224–6

L. Bleuzet: ‘Hautbois d’amour, cor anglais, hautbois baryton’, EMDC, II/iii (1927), 1542–4

A. Baines: ‘James Talbot’s Manuscript, I: Wind Instruments’, GSJ, i (1948), 9–26

E. Halfpenny: ‘The English Début of the French Hautboy’, MMR, lxxix (1949), 149–57

E. Halfpenny: ‘The English 2- and 3-Keyed Hautboy’, GSJ, ii (1949), 10–26

E. Halfpenny: ‘The “Tenner Hoboy”’, GSJ, v (1952), 17–27

E. Halfpenny: ‘The French Hautboy: a Technical Survey’, GSJ, vi (1953), 23–34; viii (1955), 50–69

P. Bate: The Oboe: an Outline of its History, Development and Construction (London, 1956, 3/1975)

A.C. Baines: Woodwind Instruments and their History (London, 1957, 3/1967/R)

M. Byrne: ‘The Church Band at Swalcliffe’, GSJ, xvii (1964), 89–98

A. Schnoebelen: ‘Performance Practices at San Petronio in the Baroque’, AcM, xli (1969), 37–55

K. Ventzke: Boehm-Oboen und die neueren französischen Oboen-Systeme (Frankfurt, 1969)

P. Hailperin: Some Technical Remarks on the Shawm and Baroque Oboe (diploma, Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, 1970)

M. Benoit: Versailles et les musiciens du Roi, 1661–1733 (Paris, 1971)

W. Braun: ‘Entwurf für eine Typologie der “Hautboisten”’, Der Sozialstatus des Berufsmusikers vom 17. bis 19. Jahrhundert, ed. W. Salmen (Kassel, 1971), 43–63; (Eng. trans., enlarged, 1983), 123–58

E. Nickel: Der Holzblasinstrumentenbau in der Freien Reichsstadt Nürnberg (Munich, 1971)

D.L. Busch: A Technical Comparison of an 1807, 1916 and a 1968 Oboe and Related Reed-Making and Performance Problems (diss., Louisiana State U., 1972)

J. Grush: A Guide to the Study of the Classical Oboe (DMA diss., Boston U., 1972)

R. Dahlqvist: ‘Taille, Oboe da Caccia and Corno Inglese’, GSJ, xxvi (1973), 58–71

S. Sandman: Wind Band Music under Louis XIV: the Philidor Collection, Music for the Military and the Court (diss., Stanford U., 1974)

J.A. Sidorfsky: The Oboe in the 19th Century: a Study of the Instrument and Selected Published Solo Literature (diss., U. of Southern Mississippi, 1974)

R. Hildebrand: Das Oboenensemble in Deutschland von den Anfängen bis ca. 1720 (diploma, Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, 1975); summary in Tibia, iii–iv (1978–9), 7–12

E. Selfridge-Field: Venetian Instrumental Music from Gabrieli to Vivaldi (Oxford, 1975)

J.W. Denton: The Use of Oboes in the Church Cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach (diss., U of Rochester, NY, 1977)

L. Goossens and E. Roxburgh: Oboe (London, 1977)

K.F. Golde: ‘On Oboe Making’, GSJ, xxxi (1978), 19–28 [appx 1 to C. Karp: ‘Woodwind Instrument Bore Measurement’, 9–18]

B. Haynes: ‘Oboe Fingering Charts, 1695–1816’, GSJ, xxxi (1978), 68–93

B. Haynes: ‘Tonality and the Baroque Oboe’, EMc, vii (1979), 355–7

G. Joppig: Die Entwicklung der Doppelröhrblattinstrumente von 1850 bis heute und ihre Verwendung in Orchester und Kammermusik (Frankfurt, 1980)

N. Post: ‘The Oboe in the Electronic Age’, JIDRS, viii (1980), 1–16

C. Schneider: ‘Ein Oboisten-Portrait von 1767’, Tibia, v (1980–81), 205–7 [Sante Aguilar]

G. Joppig: Oboe und Fagott (Berne, 1981; Eng. trans., 1988)

H.O. Koch: Sonderformen der Blasinstrumente in der deutschen Musik vom späten 17. bis zur Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (?Heidelberg, 1981)

N. Post: ‘Multiphonics for the Oboe’, Interface, x (1981), 113–36

N. Post: ‘Varèse, Wolpe and the Oboe’, PNM, xx (1981–2), 135–48

D. Hilkenbach: ‘Die Boehm-Oboe: Illusion oder verpasste Chance?’, Tibia, vii (1982), 21–30

N. Post: ‘Monophonic Sound Resources for the Oboe’, Interface, xi (1982), 131–76

R. Fischer-Waldhagen: ‘Richard Wagner und die Altoboe’, Bläserklang und Blasinstrumente im Schaffen Richard Wagners: Seggau 1983, 89–97

D. Lasocki: Professional Recorder Players in England, 1540–1740 (diss., U. of Iowa, 1983)

G. Ziegler, ed.: The Writings of Josef Marx: an Anthology, i (New York, 1983)

M. Gerard: Du hautbois à trois clefs au hautbois à treize clefs (diss., U. of Strasbourg, 1983–4)

F. Fleurot: Le hautbois dans la musique française, 1650–1800 (Paris, 1984)

C.D. Lehrer: ‘Repertoire of the Oboe in the Nineteenth Century: the Hidden Structure’, JIDRS, xii (1984), 3–13

A. Bernardini: ‘Carlo Palanca e la costruzione di strumenti a fiato a Torino nel Settecento’, Flauto dolce, no.13 (1985), 22–6

B. Haynes: ‘Questions of Tonality in Bach’s Cantatas: the Woodwind Perspective’, JAMIS, xii (1986), 40–67

H. Heyde: Musikinstrumentenbau, 15.–19. Jahrhundert: Kunst-Handwerk-Entwurf (Leipzig, 1986)

A. Bernardini: ‘Due chiavi per Rossini? Storia e sviluppo dell'oboe a Bologna prima del 1850’, Flauto dolce, nos.17–18 (1987), 18–32

E. Selfridge-Field: ‘The Viennese Court Orchestra in the Time of Caldara’, Antonio Caldara: Essays on his Life and Times, ed. B.W. Pritchard (Aldershot, 1987), 115–51

EMc, xvi/3 (1988) [double-reed issue; incl. articles by A. Bernardini, B. Haynes, D. Lasocki, J.K. Page]

M. Piguet: ‘Die Oboe im 18. Jahrhundert’, Basler Jb für historische Musikpraxis, xii (1988), 81–107

A. Bernardini: ‘Woodwind Makers in Venice, 1790–1900’, JAMIS, xv (1989), 52–73

J. de La Gorce: ‘Some Notes on Lully’s Orchestra’, Jean-Baptiste Lully and the Music of the Baroque: Essays in Honor of James R. Anthony, ed. J.H. Heyer (Cambridge, 1989), 99–112

B. Haynes: ‘The Oboe Solo before 1800: a Survey’, JIDRS, xvii (1989), 7–14

P. Hedrick: ‘A Ten-Keyed Oboe by Guillaume Triébert’, JIDRS, xvii (1989), 19–28

O. Landmann: ‘The Dresden Hofkapelle during the Lifetime of Johann Sebastian Bach’, EMc, xvii (1989), 17–30

A. Bernardini: ‘Vier Oboistenporträts als Quelle zum Studium der Zwei-Klappen-Oboe’, Oboe, Klarinette, Fagott, v (1990), 30–42

R. Harris-Warrick: ‘A Few Thoughts on Lully’s Hautbois’, EMc, xviii (1990), 97–106

B. Haynes: ‘Bressan, Talbot and the “Galpin” Oboe’, GSJ, xliii (1990), 112–23

B. Haynes: ‘Johann Sebastian Bachs Oboenkonzerte’, BJb 1992, 23–43

B. Haynes: ‘Mozart and the Oboe’, EMc, xx (1992), 43–62

R. Harris-Warrick: ‘From Score into Sound: Questions of Scoring in Lully’s Ballets’, EMc, xxi (1993), 355–62

J. Page: ‘“To Soften the Sound of the Hoboy”: the Muted Oboe in the 18th and Early 19th Centuries’, EMc, xxi (1993), 65–80

A Time of Questioning: Utrecht 1994 [incl. M. Ecochard: ‘Hautbois in Mersenne's Harmonie universelle: Tuning, Classification, Evolution’, 155–65]

G. Burgess: ‘Gustave Vogt (1781–1870) und Konstruktionsmerkmale französischer Oboen im 1. Viertel des 19. Jahrhunderts’, Tibia, xix (1994), 14–26

G. Burgess: ‘On Writing a History of the Oboe in the 19th Century’, FoMRHI Quarterly, no.76 (1994), 25–44

B. Haynes: ‘The Addition of Keys to the Oboe, 1790–1830’, JIDRS, xxii (1994), 31–46

S. Weth: Die französischen und deutschen Oboenschule des 19. Jahrhunderts (diss., Hochschule für Musik, Cologne, 1994)

C. Adkins: ‘William Milhouse and the English Classical Oboe’, JAMIS, xxii (1996), 42–88

B. Haynes: ‘Das Fingervibrato (Flattement) auf Holzblasinstrumenten im 17., 18. und 19. Jahrhundert’, Tibia, xxii (1997), 401–7, 481–7

B. Haynes: ‘New Light on some French Relatives of the Hautboy in the 17th and Early 18th Centuries: the Cromorne, Hautbois de Poitou and Chalumeau simple’, Sine musica nulla vita: Festschrift Hermann Moeck, ed. N. Delius (Celle, 1997), 257–70

B. Haynes: ‘Playing “Short” High Notes on the Hautboy’, JIDRS, xxv (1997), 115–18

B. Haynes: ‘Tu ru or not Tu ru: Paired Syllables and Unequal Tonguing Patterns on Woodwinds in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries’, Performance Practice Review, x/1 (1997), 41–60

R. van Acht, J. Bouterse and P. Dont: Niederländische Doppelrohrblattinstrumente des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts/Dutch Double Reed Instruments of the 17th and 18th Centuries (Laaber, 1997)

M. Finkelman: ‘Die Oboeninstrumente in tieferer Stimmlage’, Tibia, xxiii (1998); xxv (2000)

B. Haynes: ‘Versuch der Rekonstruktion eines spielbaren Oboenrohres nach dem Massangaben von James Talbot’, Tibia, xxiii (1998), 191–6

C. Adkins: ‘Proportions and Architectural Motives in the Design of the Eighteenth-Century Oboe’, JAMIS, xxv (1999), 95–132

M.C.J. Bouterse: ‘The Deutsche Schalmeien of Richard Haka’, JAMIS, xxv (1999), 61–94

S.E. Thompson: ‘Deutsche Schalmei: a Question of Terminology’, JAMIS, xxv (1999), 31–60

G. Burgess and B. Haynes: The Oboe in History (London, forthcoming)

For further bibliography see Band, Instrumentation and Orchestration, and articles on individual makers and performers.

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