Noyabr 3-5, 2009 Bakı Azərbaycan TƏŞKİlat komiTƏSİ




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Introduction.

Although the Republic of Azerbaijan itself has no nuclear installations or materials and its nuclear activities are limited to typical uses in oil industry, medicine, agriculture and scientific researches, most of the countries Thus this strategic geographical location within the Caucasus makes it a possible transit corridor for both legal and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. However, Azerbaijan has special geographical location in terms of land and sea borders with countries having nuclear technology, nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors and nuclear materials. It means that nuclear related technology; equipment and materials can be transported both illegally and legally through Azerbaijan’s borders. In the face of emerging nuclear terrorism threats, the development and enforcement of effective national system on the detection, categorization and response to the cases of illicit trafficking and criminal use of radioactive, nuclear and nuclear related materials, equipment are important issues for developing-transit countries like Azerbaijan with underdeveloped radiation control system. In the current political climate of an emerging nuclear terrorist threat, the development of a national plan for the detection, categorization and response to incidents of illicit trafficking and criminal use of nuclear and radioactive materials is vitally important.

The current controls in place are considered to be underdeveloped. The best and most effective way for improving and strengthening these controls is via international co-operation programmes.

Main points.

The improvement of control system for the detection, categorization and response measures to the cases involving radioactive and nuclear materials has mainly possible via international cooperation programmes. Azerbaijan Government considers this way as more effective route. Taking into account this fact, Azerbaijan’s Government enhances a system for the detection of radioactive materials at border checkpoints. As a result of the governmental efforts using international cooperation and Technical Cooperation projects (2003–2006) between Azerbaijan and IAEA, the automated stationary radiation control systems at several customs checkpoint were established.



The Azerbaijan Government and the IAEA entered into an international co-operation where the first phase (2003-2004) established automated stationary radiation control systems at the Astara automobile cargo border checkpoint and the Bara seaport cargo customs checkpoint. The second phase of this co-operation (2005-2006) aimed to further increase efficiency and control over both legal and illicit transports of radioactive and nuclear materials. To do this, automated stationary radiation control systems have been established at two further checkpoints, Mazimchay (Balakan Custom House) and Sinig Korpu (Tovuz Custom House). A co-operation between State Border Guard Service and the Second Line of Defence (SLD) programme at the Department of Energy (DoE) has been established. As a result of the implementation of the first stage of this programme the fixed and hand-held equipment, related communications tools, and training for personnel to enhance sustainability in equipment use and interdiction procedures at borders and crossing points have been carried out. Enforcement of control and transit requirements pertaining to the radioactive and nuclear related items and prevention of smuggling require the awareness and specialized knowledge on the part of customs and border guard officials and other related enforcement structures. In such a case a role of scientific institutions is extremely important. Taking into account IAEA recommendations of main six nuclear seccurity objectives, we can say that scientific institutions can provide assistance and work in three areas as Human Resources, Detection and Response. The scientific institutions can provide for example training and retraining to front-line inspectors in using radiation detection equipment. Such kind of training and retraining has to be conducted using international experience and skills on a permanent basis and therefore, in order to have sustainability it is necessary to have experienced local specialists on these issues. These specialists have to be trained and retrained - “train-trainers”. In addition, an effective enforcement approach concerning combating illicit trafficking in radioactive and nuclear materials should promote awareness and assure access to technical expertise. It is necessary to note that this activity is in line with core objectives of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) Statement of Principles. It is known that one of core objectives is to improve the ability to detect nuclear and other radioactive materials and another one is to improve capabilities to investigate, analyze, and respond to an incident involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. Obviously that the actions have implemented and to be implemented in the Republic of Azerbaijan are in line with these two core objectives of GICNT. In this connection it is need to note also that the Agency on Nuclear and Radiological Safety and Security has been established recently in Azerbaijan. The main field of activity for this agency will be to develop and improve accounting, control, and physical protection of nuclear and other radioactive materials as well as to strengthen national legal and regulatory frameworks against nuclear terrorism. In Azerbaijan radioactive and nuclear expertise exists in the environment of a scientific research institute. The institute with the relevant expertise is the Institute of Radiation Problems of Azerbaijan National Academy of Science. They have already worked in the field of non-proliferation and have technical skills and experience on the issue of illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials. Since 2003 Institute’s specialists have conducted a number of training courses for front-line officers from the State Border Guard Service and the State Custom Committee. One of the main objectives of these training were the detection of nuclear and other radioactive materials. Institute’s specialists together with experts from the US Department of Energy have conducted a number of commodity identification training courses for Custom, Border Guard and Ministry of National Security officers where detection of radioactive and nuclear material were also part of the training. Similar training was also done in collaboration with specialists from the IAEA. Last training was conducted in November 2008. It is expeted that such kind activity to be continued and expanded within the framework of EU TACIS Multicountry Project. This project has been entered into force just in April 2009. The Beneficiary of this project is the National Academy of Science. The Institute of Radiation Problems is the end-user of project.A specialized Nuclear Security and Radioactive Safety Centre have been established at the Institute to enhance the efforts of providing technical support to enforcement agencies on combating illicit trafficking. The main purpose of this centre will be to provide information, education and technical support to the regulatory and enforcement agencies on the reliable detection of nuclear and radioactive materials that could be seized at the national border or within the state. This centre is involved directly when responding to incidents of illicit trafficking or criminal use of nuclear and radioactive materials. Strengthening non-proliferation regime and counteraction against the nuclear and radiation terrorism threat is a global purpose. It is necessary to note that all instituions taking part at the achievement of this purpose should to combine their efforts. Scinetific institutions can provide technical support, training and deep analysis expertise. The training events have to be conducted on permanent basis. Another area for involving scientific institutions could be calibration, maintenance and repairing both fixed radiation detection portals and hand-held equipment. It is very important issue especially from sustainability view-point. Presently, Institute has been appointed by the Cabinet of Ministers as only organization responsible for preventative maintenance, calibration and testing fixed and and hand-held radiation detection equipment for State Border Guard Service. These equipment have been installed within DoE (Department of Energy) second line defence programme in several border cross check-points. Special technical support team has been created at the Institute. This team has been trained by US experts. The process of radiation detection equipment installationis being continued. At the end one last but not least issue, namely struggle against nuclear and radiological terrorism can not reach good results without joint and coordinated actions between regulatory bodies, law eforcement structures and scientifical-technical institutions. This approach could be considered for all countires involving in non-proliferation activities.

ABŞERON RAYONU VƏ BAKI ƏTRAFI ZONADA RADON PROBLEMİ

A.A.Qəribov, C.Ə.Nağıyev, Q.S.Əhmədov, N.A.Novruzov, D. R.Abbasova,

İ.Ə.Hüseynova
AMEA Radiasiya Problemləri İnstitutu,

calalnaghiyev@mail.ru
80-cı illərdən başlayaraq radonun əhaliyə radioekoloji təsirinin öyrənilməsinə maraq artmışdır. İlk tədqiqatlar göstərdi ki, yaşayış yerlərində xüsusən birmərtəbəli evlərdə radonun havada konsentrasiyası yüksək olub, hətda yol verilən konsentrasiyanı da aşa bilir. Yaşayış yerlərinin zirzəmilərində isə bəzən radonun havada konsentrasiyası uran şaxtalarında işləyən personal üçün yol verilən həddən belə artıq olur.

Britaniya Radiasiyadan Müdafiə Bürosunun hesabatına görə, təbii radioaktiv qaz olan radonun havada konsentrasiyasının yüksəlməsi hesabına Böyük Britaniyada hər il 2500 insan ağciyər xərçəngindən dünyasını dəyişir. ABŞ Ətraf Mühit Agentliyinin 2005-ci ildə ki yekun hesabatına görə ABŞ-da hər il 20000 insan radon və onun parçalanma məhsullarının aşırı konsentrasiyası hesabına ankoloji xəstəliklərə tutulurlar. Analoji problemlə bir çox avropa ölkələri Avstriya, İsveç, İsveçrə, Finlandiya əhalisi də rastlaşmaqdadır. Şəkil 2-də bəzi avropa ölkələrində illik effektiv doza yükü göstərilmişdir.

İnsanın ömrü boyu orta şüalanma doza yükündə radonun payını hesabladıqda gözlənilməz nəticə verir. Onun təbii şüalanmanın doza yükündə payı təxminən 72% təşkil edir. İnsanın təbii mənbələrdən şüalanmaya məruz qaldığı ümumi doza yükündə kosmik şüalanmanın payı 14%-ə qədərdir. Bütöv doza yükündə daxili və xarici təbii qamma şüalarının hər birinin payı isə təxminən 16% təşkil edir. Radon isə doza yükündə ən böyük paya malik olub 54% təşkil edir.

Şəkil 1. Yaşayış yerlərində radon problemi.






Şəkil 2.. Əhalinin ümumi doza yükü.

Bütün şüalanma mənbələri hesabına


  1. Təbii mənbələr

  2. Təbii prosedurlar

  3. Atmosferdə baş verən nüvə sınaqları zamanı yağan radioaktiv yağıntılar

  4. Atom Energetikası

Şəkil 3. Əhalinin ümumi doza yükü.

Yalnız təbii şüalanma mənbələri hesabına

  1. Kosmik şüalanma hesabına

  2. Xarici qamma, beta şüalanma hesabına

  3. Daxili qamma, beta şüalanma hesabına

  4. Radon

  5. Digər faktorlar

Buna görə də son illər radioekologiyada insan həyatı boyu ağciyər vasitəsi ilə qəbul etdiyi radon və onun parçalanma məhsullarının verdiyi doza yükündə payının qiymətləndirilməsi sahəsində aparılan elmi tədqiqat işləri aktuallıq kəsb edir. Bunu aktuallığı nəzərə alaraq AMEA Radiasiya Problemləri İnstitutu 2002-ci ildən etibarən Abşeron yarmadasında və habelə Respublikamızın ərazisində faliyyət göstərən neft-qaz çıxarma idarələri (NQÇİ) ərazisində Radon problemini araşdırmışıq. Bu məqsədlə, NQÇİ ərazilərindən və habelə onlara yaxın ərazilərdə əhali məskunlaşmış yaşayış məntəqələrində havada radonun həcmi aktivliyi PPA-01M-01 “Alfarad” (ЭкпертЦентр, Rusiya) radon radiometri vasitəsilə müəyyənləşdirilmişdir. Həmçinin bu ərazilərdən süxur nümunələri götürülüb, radionuklid tərkibi müəyyənləşdirilmiş, bu süxurların radonu havaya və suya emanasiya etmə əmsalı təyin edilmişdir. Nəticələr aşağıdakı cədvəldə göstərilmişdir.


Cədvəl 1. Abşeron yarmadası ərazisində ölçmə nöqtələrinin coğrafi koordinatları, və bu nöqtələrdə ekspozisiya dozasının gücü və radonun həcmi aktivliyi




Koordinatlar

Ekspozisiya dozasının gücü, R/saat

Radonun həcmi aktivliyi, Bk/m3

N1

Şm 40 24' 29.3"

Şq 50 01' 46.5"



523

156 ± 35

N2

Şm 40º 26' 11,5''
Şq 50º 02' 39,7''

30

36 ± 7

N3

Şm 40 23' 46.8"
Şq 50 00' 23.2"

107

126 ± 10

N4

Şm 40º 26' 14,5''
Şq 50º 02' 46,4''

5

MDA=20

N5

Şm 40 24' 52,9"

Şq 50 00' 48,9"



230

120 ± 25

N6

Şm 40º 26' 12,8''
Şq 50º 02' 45,5''

87

175 ± 48
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