|NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS CURRICULUM SUPPORT
Art and Design
Advice and Guidance for Practitioners
This advice and guidance has been produced to support the profession with the delivery of courses which are either new or which have aspects of significant change within the new national qualifications (NQ) framework.
The advice and guidance provides suggestions on approaches to learning and teaching. Practitioners are encouraged to draw on the materials for their own part of their continuing professional development in introducing new national qualifications in ways that match the needs of learners.
Practitioners should also refer to the course and unit specifications and support notes which have been issued by the Scottish Qualifications Authority.
The publisher gratefully acknowledges permission to use the following sources: Black Swan poster © La Boca; Fionnar poster, image of bottles of water, Fionnar image of Still Spring Water from the mountains about Loch Ness all © 2009 Fionnar Springs Ltd; Rockness poster © Rockness; Irn-Bru logo © AG Barr plc; images and text ‘About Colours’ from The Usborne Book of Art Ideas by Fiona Watt, reproduced from ‘The Usborne Book of Art Ideas’ by permission of Usborne Publishing, © 2008 Usborne Publishing Ltd;
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Developing the graphic design unit 7
Design considerations 10
Setting a design brief 15
The design brief 17
Possible themes/styles/subject matter 20
Developing ideas 22
Understanding the factors influencing designers and design practice 25
Design analysis of posters 26
List of suggested movements and designers 30
This document aims to support practitioners in planning learning and teaching in line with Scotland’s new national qualifications. The suggestions are based on graphic design, looking specifically at designing a poster for the Art and Design: Design Activity. There is also some general information on the discipline of graphic design, as well as suggestions on how to integrate the critical element of the course into learners’ practical work.
The information provided is presented around a brief to design a poster, but could be modified for another graphic design product. The material is adaptable to suit learners with different abilities from National 4 through to Higher.
The previous qualifications for Art and Design assessed the critical element of the course as a separate unit. The new national qualifications require a more integral approach and so new approaches to the delivery of the critical element have been developed.
The world of graphic design offers ample opportunity to explore an area of art and design that is current, immediate and highly relevant to learners in today’s information-rich society. The topic offers learners the chance to explore the influences on current and historical graphic design practice, the role of advertising, branding, and marketing, and the role of the media and how this is changing. Analysis of these factors throughout the design process, along with the development of learners’ ideas, should provide many opportunities to incorporate critical analysis in practical work. Practitioners should introduce learners to a variety of designers from a range of backgrounds: historical, contemporary, cultural and social. These examples also inform the learner about aesthetics, styles and working methods.
The resource is both practical and experiential. Learners are encouraged to exercise imagination and creativity, developing important skills, attitudes and attributes. Practitioners may wish to explore the theme of creativity by visiting the extremely useful Education Scotland website ‘Marks on the Landscape’ (http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/marksonthelandscape/creativity/inspiringcreativity.asp).
The resource includes:
guidance on setting a design brief
suggestions on how to research and investigate a theme within a brief
suggestions for developing ideas within the design process
references to various websites and designers
suggestions on ways to incorporate critical analysis within practical work.
These resources should act as a source of inspiration rather than as a benchmark for attainment.
National unit specification: Art and Design: Design Activity
The information provided in this document focuses on a design brief to design a poster and on how critical work can be used as a starting point and learning tool for practical activities. It recognises that there is an increased expectation with every increased level, which practitioners must take into account when planning a unit of work. For example, with regard to critical work at National 4, learners are required to ‘understand and describe’ factors which influence two designers. Yet, at National 5 learners must ‘analyse and offer informed opinions and simple justifications’ on the factors influencing two designers.
Development of skills for learning, skills for life and skills for work
It is expected that learners will develop broad, generic skills. These skills are based on the SQA’s Skills Framework: Skills for Learning, Skills for Life and Skills for Work and are drawn from the main skills areas listed below. These must be built into the Design Activity unit where there are appropriate opportunities.
1.3 Listening and talking
3 Health and wellbeing
3.1 Personal learning
5 Thinking skills
5.4 Analysing and evaluating
Amplification of these skills is given in the SQA’s Skills Framework: Skills for Learning, Skills for Life and Skills for Work. The level of these skills should be at the same SCQF level as the unit and be consistent with the SCQF level descriptor. Further information on building skills for learning, skills for life and skills for work is given in the Unit Support Notes.
Developing the graphic design unit
Why study graphic design?
Graphic design is an area of design which learners have direct experience of, providing them with a familiar context. It is an area of study where fundamental graphic design principles remain the same, yet the means by which designers communicate with us have changed and are constantly changing. The materials in this resource will hopefully provide practitioners with some ideas on how to approach this varied genre of design. By learning through graphic design learners will have opportunities to do the following:
Plan, research and develop a creative design proposal: Learners are actively involved in planning and identifying a brief. Discussions with their practitioner on a proposed structure and method of recording ideas give learners ownership of their portfolio.
Understand and analyse designers’ work and practice, as well as the things that influence them: Learners should be encouraged to reflect on the work of others to inform their own ideas. Similar products or materials/working methods and techniques can be an excellent starting point for a brief. This would also provide an ideal opportunity for the introduction of critical analysis.
Develop creativity, problem-solving and critical-thinking skills: Learners should be encouraged to explore colour, layout, typography, scale, style, layering etc. This could be linked to their analysis and research of a designer. Learners should be encouraged to consider how and where their graphic product will communicate with their targeted audience.
Experiment with media, materials and techniques in relation to their chosen brief/proposal: Again, links could be made with the work of others when learners are experimenting with materials and techniques. Learners are to be encouraged to consider a variety of methods of production, aesthetics and styling which fulfil their brief.
Develop and refine their design ideas, taking into account their brief’s design issues and constraints: There will be ample opportunities for learners to gain insights and be inspired by their successes and ‘failures’. This practice of self-reflection should be encouraged at various stages of the design process. It allows learners to review their work and consider new ways to problem solve their brief successfully.
When should critical activity be included?
The work of professional designers should be used and referred to at all stages in the design process. A general introduction to a unit can be made using a variety of work from different designers and from different time periods to provide learners with an overview of their area of study. When a brief has been agreed on, it would then be of benefit for the learner to research, investigate and analyse the work of a designer whose work can specifically inform their own working practices. This is something which should be reviewed throughout the whole design process, with new and relevant work by different designers being introduced as appropriate, to encourage individual learners in their work.
Analysis of the work of designers could take the form of class discussion, mind mapping or group presentations to the class as well as written notes and annotated drawings interspersed throughout their practical work. Practitioners may wish to devise a list of questions to prompt learners in their analysis of a piece of design, as well as providing a word bank. There are also opportunities on Glow for learners to take part in online discussions and upload videos.
Summary of learning activities
The following summary acts as guidance only. As practitioners of a subject which centres on the nurturing of an individual style, it is to hoped and expected that this unit of work will be taken and expanded upon to suit the individual needs of learners, centres and practitioners. However, the following summary gives some structure for how the unit could be delivered.
Setting a design brief
Discussions on the following:
What is graphic design? Discussion on target markets, advertising, marketing, branding, communication methods etc.
What is a design brief?
Individual discussion and negotiation on a theme/product. Practitioners may decide to offer the same theme and product to small groups but should also encourage individual personalisation and choice for creative thinking.
Research and investigation
Activities based around the following:
Gathering information on relevant designers and their work. Investigations could be carried out in small groups with presentations made to the class, individual research using books and/or the internet and written notes to provide links with the critical element of the course.
Selecting appropriate imagery to inform their chosen theme. Visual information can be gathered from books, magazines, photographs and the internet as well as learners’ own drawings. If appropriate to the choice of product being designed, real materials could be used within the investigations, eg if packaging were chosen, actual pieces of packaging could be used. These could prove useful starting points for a piece of critical analysis.
Where appropriate, visits to galleries, museums and exhibitions provide learners with a valuable opportunity to gather information first hand.
A visit from a practising designer, if possible, can provide learners with experience of art and design in a real-life context.
Activities based around the following:
Developing a variety of different compositions/layouts, paying attention to the relationship between text and image. Investigation into typography styles, scale and colour would also be an important development.
Considering the importance of colour and colour schemes in graphic design.
Experimenting with different materials, techniques and technologies. Learners should be encouraged to combine different materials and processes.
These developments should be linked to the work of relevant designers, to enhance both critical and practical learning opportunities.
What are some of the factors which influence designers and design practice? These should be discussed with learners to help inform them when analysing the work of others. An understanding of these factors will also help with learners’ own problem-solving skills when tackling their own design briefs. The following material may give learners ideas for what and where their design could be used, eg a billboard, signage for a vehicle or a poster for a bus stop. This would have to be factored into their brief and subsequent plans and developments.
Corporate Identity and Marketing
Corporate Identity can take many forms, including a symbol, a name, slogan or colour combination.
Successful graphic design is crucial to the creation of effective corporate identity.
Even very simple colour combinations or the shape of a logo can become associated with particular products or brands.
For example, blue and orange is often associated with Irn Bru and the use of a tick symbol would suggest the brand Nike.
Colour has very powerful associations, and many popular products are successful because of their use of colour.
Colours create different feelings, and this is used to a great extent in food and drink products.
There is another very famous brand that uses these two contrasting colours (blue and orange) on their tins.
The reason these contrasting or complementary colours are used is because when the tin is opened, the blue in the label makes the orange colour of the product stand out even more.
See these products at: http://www.heinz.co.uk/ourfood/beans.
Fionnar, a natural spring water supplier in the North of Scotland, supplies water coolers and Fionnar natural spring water to offices, homes, schools, hospitals and work sites. They have made best use of their location near Loch Ness to create a strong corporate identity and market their product. Here are two examples of how they have used graphic design to appeal to two different target audiences.
The graphic designer has cleverly used ‘Nessie’ to tempt younger children to drink water. Which other market is the design aimed at? Think about the locality.
Communicating with the Target Audience
Sometimes an organisation will use a variety of different methods of communicating with their target audience.
There are many different places and ways to advertise. For example, this is a template for advertising on the side of a bus:
In the background of the photograph below, you can see an example of a billboard campaign:
Here are some other examples of posters from the same campaign.
Homework Task for Design Considerations
Take note of the variety of examples of graphic design we encounter in everyday life. For example, packaging design, posters, advertising campaigns, CD covers, Book jackets etc.
Collect some good examples of graphic design related to the area you have chosen for your design brief.
Choose one of your examples and analyse the following:
Method of production
Use of Colour
Use of Shape
Use of Typography
Give your opinion of how successful you think your chosen piece of graphic design is.
Where did you spot this design? Was it in a suitable location to attract the attention of its target audience?
Setting a design brief
To begin the unit learners should be given an overview of what graphic design is. The materials in this resource centre mainly on posters and provide a snapshot of information which the practitioner can build on and investigate as appropriate for their own learners. You may decide to ask learners to investigate the genre of graphic design and its historical development as a starting point/introduction to their portfolio. Equally, this can be done with a specific designer or style if that is your intended theme for your learners.
What is graphic design?
Graphic design is a method of visual communication, usually incorporating combination of image and text to convey a message, advertise or sell a product. I piece of graphic design can be created by a variety of means, such as photography, illustration, photomontage and computer aided design.
Graphic Design was traditionally known as ‘Design for print’ and referred to posters, packaging, brochures etc. Advances in technology means that graphic design also encompasses a broad range of electronic media such as web design and interactive media.
Historical graphic design: posters
Whilst ‘old–fashioned’ poster designs may not appear to have much relevance to today’s multimedia world, it is important to know about the background and history of poster design. An informative website on the history of the poster is http://www.designhistory.org/posters.html.
Shown below are examples of contemporary posters for the movie ‘Black Swan’, which take inspiration from work produced during the Art Deco period. There are a number of websites providing information on Art Deco, including http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/a/art-deco/.
The Black Swan posters were designed by the design company La Boca (http://www.laboca.co.uk/LB3site/portfolio_BlackSwan.html). This company’s portfolio is well worth looking at for potential avenues of development ranging from posters, CD covers and book jackets to magazine illustrations.
Contemporary graphic design
Today graphic designers use technology and media to work with businesses, providing them with corporate identities using various branding, advertising and marketing tools.
Useful websites for contemporary graphic designers as well as information on graphic design practice and its historical development are: http://www.designishistory.com/
The design brief
The following information can be as a starting point for you to develop your own information sheet for your learners. You may already have some examples of a good, clear, concise brief that for your learners to model their own brief on.
What is a design brief?
It is a statement of intent.
What do you intend to design?
Think about the following questions:
Look at existing products within your chosen area of graphic design. (eg. Packaging, posters, CD Cover, Book jacket etc)
Look at examples of good practice from selected designers working in this area.
Search the internet, look at books, magazines and your surrounding environment for good examples of your area of graphic design..
Brainstorm your ideas, and use diagrams or images to record your thoughts visually.
Write down key words or phrases.
The design brief should be clearly outlined and the main points arising from the brief should be highlighted.
Working through this process will help you refine and construct your design brief.
Consideration will have to be given to the following points:
Awareness of the group to be targeted by the design solution will influence consideration of the process and solution. A description should be provided, eg 16–25-year-old females with an interest in dance music. During investigation and development, consideration may also be given to where, when and how the target audience will interact with the design.
Use a spider diagram to consider the following issues:
Graphic Design Product
GENDER AGE GROUP
The essential requirements should be identified from the brief and specified in order of importance. These will derive from the intended function and purpose of the anticipated solution. They will form the keystone of future design evaluation.
Any limitations or constraints outlined in the brief should be specified. These may include limitations of materials, simulated development costs, process(es), formats etc. Inclusion of constraints mirrors genuine design situations.
In other words the type of design you are doing will dictate your constraints. Don’t have too many constraints as this will limit the number of ideas you can produce. On the other hand, don’t have too few as this will make the researching process more difficult.
Possible themes/styles/subject matter
1. Design a poster for a music festival/event
Explore existing examples of festival/music-related posters.
Investigate historical styles, eg psychedelia.
2. Design a dust cover for a book of your choice
Explore existing book cover designs.
Investigate visual characteristics associated with different genres of book.
3. Design packaging for a product of your choice
Explore existing packaging designs.
Consider real packaging examples as a starting point.
There are many other possibilities for a theme and the information set out above could be used as a starting point for a class discussion in order to generate other ideas. Thinking of past, current or upcoming events, such as the London 2012 Olympics or The 2014 World Cup, can be great starting points for learners as they are topical and relevant.
Here is a link to past examples of FIFA World Cup poster campaigns.
The following methodology is a suggestion only and provides stimulus for individual development, as there are many ways to tackle a design brief. Learners should be encouraged to plan ahead and consider what issues pertaining to their individual brief need to be addressed. A clear sense of their brief and its constraints is needed at the development stage. Practitioners should ensure learners are aware of their audience, where the design is to be used and what format it is to take. The following information provides a broad, general overview of how to develop ideas.
The consideration of layout will be ongoing throughout the development stage. When thinking about layout, encourage learners to explore viewpoint, scale, background, use of perspective and the interaction of the image with any text. Layering images, and using backgrounds and texture can add depth to a design. The opportunity should be taken to look at use of layout in the work of various graphic designers.
Links to existing graphic designs would be a good starting point to use for learners to explore colour combinations. This would also enable some critical analysis to be incorporated with the work. Use of complementary colours and harmonious colour schemes as well as experimenting with black and white imagery can be useful beginnings for the development of colour.
Materials and techniques
Practitioners are only bound by their own imagination, and of course resources, when considering the development of ideas through materials and techniques. Again, reference to relevant and appropriate designers and styles offers critical links, which also inform learners in their practical work. Use of Photoshop, photomontage, collage, printing, photography, drawing and painting can all be explored and experimented with.
There are a vast number of font styles available and learners should analyse how text is used in existing pieces of graphic design to aid them in their development of this. Using different styles and sizes of text to communicate and engage with the target audience is vital. Practitioners should refer learners back to their brief to ensure they are clear about the purpose of their piece of design.
The following is a useful website for fonts:
It is important to build in time to reflect on ideas to allow learners to consider them and if indeed they meet the requirements of the design brief. Practitioners should ensure that learners do not move too far forward in the design process before a period of evaluation and reflection has taken place. There should be evidence of refinement within the development of ideas.
Consideration should be given to the use of sketchbooks when researching and developing ideas.
Sketchbooks come in all different forms and are central to any artist’s or designer’s work. Sketchbooks are a collection, a workbook and a visual diary of ideas, thoughts, inspiration and designs. They can be quite elaborate or very basic. What matters is that artists and designers can plan and keep track of ideas. Sketchbooks are informative, personal and a privilege to look at. They allow learners to see the progress they are making, whether in expressive work or design work.
Some useful sites are:
Here are some examples of a sketchbook belonging to a senior learner.
Understanding the factors influencing designers and design practice
Reference has been made throughout this document to designers’ work and how to integrate it with learner’s practical work. The value of this critical work and how it can support, inform and deepen youngsters understanding and appreciation of designer’s working practices is not to be underestimated.
Learners should be encouraged to reflect on how others approach their design work and develop their ideas. Considering and analysing different examples of design with some shared similarities would help learners develop their thinking skills. These shared similarities could be, for example, where the designers have used the same media or materials in different ways…
It would also be beneficial to look at examples of designers who have taken a similar theme or subject matter, but handled it in very different ways.
Learners should be reminded that designers have many external influences, including political and social factors, prevailing fashions, developing movements and technological advances.
The support notes advise that:
Practitioners could use this as an opportunity to contextualise and help learners understand how contemporary factors are influencing and may influence designers in the future.
The final section of this document provides information on how to tackle the critical analysis of a piece of design. These approaches are by no means exhaustive and learners should be encouraged to think of their own questions and methods of analysis.
Design analysis of posters
Cassandre’s Nord Express is used as an example for design analysis.
Title of poster:
Describe the movement/style of this poster.
What particular influences can be seen in this design?
Describe the subject of this poster.
Comment on the layout of this poster.
What is the purpose of the poster?
How does the style of this poster contribute to its success?
Research the style of fonts used in this poster.
How well do the fonts complement / integrate into the overall design?
Analyse the visual elements used in this poster.
Who do you think the target audience is for the poster?
How does the poster illustrate the typical characteristics of this designer?
What creative processes were used to produce this poster?
Where might you expect to find this poster displayed?
How successful do you think this poster is?
Justify your answer.
Another way of analysing a poster, which is particularly good for revision purposes, is to sketch your chosen poster and look for ten points that you can make about the design.
Use arrows on the poster to help you visualise the image.
Here is an example. This is a contemporary poster designed for the movie ‘Black Swan’. It has been designed by a design agency called LaBoca.
Title of poster:
Movement or Influences:
This poster is one of a series:
Learners could look for 2 contemporary graphic designes as a home learning exercise.They can source these in any way they wish to. These can then be used to inform their work at this stage
A useful method of analysing similarities and differences between designers work can be to use a diagram like this one to note your observations:
Similarities between the two designers’ work
Analysis of first designer’s work
Analysis of second designer’s work
List of suggested movements and designers
The following are examples of movements and designers that learners can use to investigate styles and techniques.
Mucha spent most of his working life in Paris. Initially interested in becoming a painter, a chance encounter led him to design a poster for the famous actress of the time Sarah Bernhardt. The poster and Mucha’s particular ornate style became an instant success and his career was destined to take a different path. His style was so distinctive and original that it was called the ‘Mucha style’. Later, however, it became known as simply Art Nouveau.
William H Bradley
The graphic designer William H. Bradley was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He is also regarded as an accomplished illustrator and typographer. He is associated with the Art Nouveau movement as his work displays many of the characteristics of the style while borrowing elements from the Arts and Crafts movement as well as Japanese block printing.
Henri de Toulouse Lautrec
The artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec known for capturing scenes around the Montmartre area of Paris also worked as an illustrator and printmaker. This led to a commission to design a series of posters for the famous Moulin Rouge nightclub and other venues. His skill as an artist and draughtsman enabled Lautrec to successfully capture the characters, atmosphere and excitement surrounding the clubs in his graphic work, resulting in powerful posters that caught the imagination of the public.
A M Cassandre
Adolphe Mouron Cassandre was a highly influential commercial poster designer. Influences in his work are wide ranging including; Cubism, Futurism and Surrealism. His distinctive style and rich, sophisticated imagery earned him an international reputation and wide client base.
Edward McKnight Kauffer
Edward McKnight Kauffer was an influential American designer. He studied in Paris before moving to London at the beginning of World War I. He is best remembered for the 140 posters he produced for the London Underground which demonstrated a wide range of influences and styles including: Futurism, Cubism and Vorticism which resulted in often abstract imagery.
The British designer Tom Purvis is primarily associated with the work he completed for the LNER railway. Strong bold, flat blocks of colour characterise his work. He frequently eliminated all detail in favour of strong-silhouetted shapes and carefully balanced compositions.
In 1918 Heartfield began working in the Berlin Dada scene and for the Communist Party of Germany. A meeting with the playwright Bertolt Brecht, had a profound influence on his work, Heartfield developed photomontage into a form of political and artistic representation using it to successfully subvert Nazi symbolism.
Herbert Matter was born in 1907 in the Swiss mountain village of Engelberg. He is as a photographer and graphic designer known for his pioneering use of photomontage in commercial art. The designer’s experimental work helped shape the vocabulary of 20th-century graphic design. He also worked alongside A. M. Cassandre learning the subtleties of typography. His travel
posters for the Swiss Tourist Board won instant international acclaim for his use of photomontage in combination with bold typography. Matter also won acclaim for his technical skill as a photographer. Manipulating a negative, retouching, cropping, enlarging and light drawing are some of the techniques he used to achieve the fresh, enigmatic design style he was associated with.
Zwart was a Dutch photographer and designer regarded as one of the pioneers of modern typography. As a member of the de Stijl group he strove for an ultimate simplicity, harmony and order in his work. His work can be recognised by its use primary colors, geometrical shapes, repeated word patterns and an early use of photomontage.
The Stenberg Brothers
Georgii and Vladimir Stenberg were born in Russia and began their career as sculptors. It is for their graphic work, however, that they are best remembered, in particular their movie posters. Using images that had been created by others, the brothers assembled graphic works from photographs and preprinted paper. They became known for there distorted perspectives, exaggerated scaling and photo-montaged assembled images. Their posters displayed a sense of movement and combined with strong dynamic typography they produced very powerful image.
Rodchenko was one of the most versatile of the Constructivist artists to emerge after the Russian Revolution combining photomontage and photography. He often shot his subjects from odd angles—usually high above or below—in order to challenge the viewer. His posters eliminated unnecessary detail, and emphasised dynamic diagonal compositions.
Games’ career spanned over six decades and can be read as a social history of Britain throughout the period. Some of Britain’s most iconic images were designed by Games, from propaganda posters to his work for large corporations like Shell and British Airways. He had a talent for conveying complex ideas and messages through clever, witty and deceptively simple means. His interest in Surrealism and gentle humour can be seen in many of his poster designs.
Wilson’s interest in Eastern religion and philosophy can been seen in his psychedelic designs from the 1960s. Self-taught as a designer his work was adopted by the emerging counter culture of the era. Most of his designs are for the American west coast music scene and frequently use the female figure with a heavy influence of Art Nouveau.
Victor Moscoso was born in Spain but grew up in New York. Colour theory was important to Moscoso and his experimentation and innovative optical effects gave his psychedelic posters a unique ‘vibrative’ quality. Alternating saturated primary colours with distorted typography created the illusion of movement and visually captured the essence of the era.
Punk and New Wave
Jamie Reid was born in England and is responsible for the cut-and-pasted aesthetic of the Punk movement of the 1970’s and in particular the band the Sex Pistols. His work, featuring letters cut from newspaper headlines in the style of a ransom note, mixed with photomontaged found images. His work broke many of the rules and epitomised the D.I.Y punk ethic with his work often regarded by many in the industry as anti-design.
Garrett was born in England and studied typography at the University of Reading. He is mainly associated with record sleeve design in the 1980s for artists such as Duran Duran and Peter Gabriel. He became one of the first to convert to digital design in the early 1990s, embracing the opportunities and control that technology offered.
Saville was born and studied in Manchester and became part of the ‘Factory Record’ scene in the 1980s, designing for artists such as Joy Division and New Order. Inspired by his contemporary Malcolm Garrett and the work of Jan Tschichold, one of the most important typographers of the 20th century. Although he still designs for the music industry, his portfolio expanded as the generation that grew up with Factory Records opened up other markets.
The British designer Neville Brody was heavily influenced by the Punk movement of the 1970s as well other historical movements including: Russian Constructivism, the Psychedelic period and Pop art. He began his career in the music business and style magazines of the 80s constantly pushing the boundaries of what could be achieved through emerging technologies.
Jonathan Barnbrook is a graphic designer and typographer interested in exploring the relationship between typeface design and language. Barnbrook’s work is heavily political and uses his design as a weapon for social change.
Oliver is most noted for his work with graphic design studios ‘23 Envelope’ and ‘v23’. His work is mainly connected with the music industry in Britain. His impact on the post-punk music industry was enormous mixing collage and photography with delicate, elegant typefaces. His work is characterised by dense textural surfaces, built up by the superimposition of individual images.
April Greiman is a contemporary designer, born 1948 in the New York. She is recognized as one of the first designers to embrace computer technology as a design tool, which she started in 1984. Using an Apple Macintosh computer, she exploited pixelisation and digital errors and integrated them into the design aesthetic. Considered the queen of techno-color, she combines every visual and electronic medium and is one of the most daring and meaningfully experimental graphic designers in the world.
The Texan designer David Carson is regarded as the ‘father of grunge’. He developed his own signature style using ‘dirty type’ and non-mainstream photography. Carson came to worldwide attention as art director of the style magazine Ray Gun. His layouts were frequently composed of fractured images and distorted type, which rendered it almost illegible.