PYONGYANG, DPR Korea
Status of biodiversity in DPR Korea 14
1.1 Outline 14
1.1.1 Ecosystem Diversity 14
1.1.2 Species diversity 19
1.1.3 Genetic diversity 21
1.2 Features of biodiversity in DPR Korea 24
1.2.1 Ecological and evolutionary features of biodiversity 24
1.2.2 Diversity of economic species 25
1.2.3 Threatened species 27
1.3 Main factors of threats to biodiversity in DPR Korea 29
1.3.1 Excessive use of natural resources 29
1.3.2 Deforestation and loss of habitats 30
1.3.3 Environmental deterioration 30
1.4 The necessity and urgency of biodiversity conservation 31
1.4.1 Necessity 31
1.4.2 Urgency 31
Chapter 2 Assessment of Conservation of Biodiversity and Its Sustainable Use in DPR Korea 33
2.1 In-situ Conservation 33
2.1.1 Protected Areas 33
2.1.2 Management of the Protected Areas 38
2.1.3 National Legislations 39
2.1.4 Scientific Research 39
2.1.5 Alien Species 40
2.2 Ex-situ Conservation 42
2.2.1 Ex-situ Conservation of Wildlife with Priority to Threatened Species 42
2.2.2 Conservation of Genetic Resources 43
2.3 Sustainable Use of Biological Resources 44
2.3.1 Forestry 44
2.3.2 Agriculture 46
2.3.3 Fishery 49
2.3.4 Public Health (Traditional Korean medicines) 52
2.3.5 Rest, recreation and tourism 54
2.3.6 Bio-engineering by using of genetic resources 55
2.4 Identification and monitoring of components of biological diversity 55
2.4.1 Identification and monitoring 55
2.4.2 Identification and monitoring of the activities affecting biodiversity 58
2.4.3 Environmental impact assessment (EIA) 59
Chapter 3 Cross-cutting measures for the conservation of
biodiversity in DPR Korea 60
3.1 Legislations 60
3.2 Administrative institutions 62
3.3 Science and technology 63
3.4 Education and communication 66
3.4.1 Education 66
3.4.2 Dissemination and communication 67
3.5 Training 68
3.6 Model creation 68
3.6.1 Development of Models of Nature Reserves 68
3.6.2 Development of Models of the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity 69
3.6.3 Application of Ecosystem Approach to Model Development 69
3.7 Incentive Measures 70
3.8 International Cooperation 70
3.8.1 Cooperation with International Organizations 70
3.8.2 Bilateral Cooperation 71
3.8.3 International Joint Research 71
3.8.4 Others 72
3.8.5 Promotion of International Cooperation 72
National Strategy of DPR Korea for Biodiversity Conservation 73
4.1 Strategic goals 73
4.2 Specific goals and targets 74
National Biodiversity Action Plan of DPR Korea 81
5.1 Principles of Biodiversity Action Plan 81
5.2 Action plan 81
5.2.1 Actions for conservation 81
5.2.2 Actions for sustainable use 84
5.2.3 Benefit sharing 89
5.2.4 Cross-cutting measures 91
5.3 Priority actions for biodiversity conservation 94
5.3.1 Priority actions for ecosystem conservation 94
5.3.2 Priority for the conservation of species diversity 96
5.3.3 Priorities for gene diversity conservation 100
5.4 Priority projects 100
There have elapsed as long years as 15 since the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) at ‘Rio Summit’ on environment and development, and as a decade since the preparation of the first “National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan” (NBSAP) of DPRK, a party to the CBD, in accordance with the provisions of Article 6 of the CBD, which are related to the preparation of national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
Biological diversity, biodiversity, is the term referring to the entire biological world on earth, including genes, species, populations, communities and ecosystems, and all the components, of which it is composed, constitute the life-sustaining system on earth and lay a foundation for the sustainable development of the economy.
It has been formed through as long history as 4 billion years since the birth of living things on earth.
The increase in population, rapid development of economy and extensive consumption of natural resources have seriously damaged the biodiversity which forms the foundation of the survival of mankind and the economic development.
It was the urgency of the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and its components for the present and future generations that led to the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity at Rio Summit in 1992.
During the last decade of the 20th century since its adoption and even at the dawn of the new millennium, the biodiversity has been, however, still menaced seriously with the destruction of ecosystems, environmental deterioration, loss of wild animals and plants as well as their habitats due to regional disputes, poverty and unsustainable consumption of natural resources in developed countries, despite the active efforts of international community for conserving biodiversity.
In order to meet its own commitment as a party to the CBD, the DPR Korea made two rounds of increases in number and acreage of nature protected areas according to Article 8 of the Convention since the Rio Summit.
At present, the acreage of nature protected areas reaches 7.27% of the territory of DPRK.
While integrating biodiversity conservation into the Master plan for Land Development, the DPR Korea set the General Mobilization Period for Land Development for each month in spring and autumn since 1996, and has pushed forward it as an all-people campaign.
Biodiversity in DPR Korea suffered serious damages due to the massive exploitation of natural resources during the Japanese colonial rule protracted for about half a century and the indiscriminate bombing during the Fatherland Liberation War (1950-1953).
Since then, the rehabilitation of the land and natural environment has been promoted according to several national measures, resulting in the considerable recovery of destructed land and nature.
However, the intensified economic sanction and severe natural disasters continued for several years led to the over-exploitation of forest resources for firewood, the deforestation of not a few mountains and hills due to the burnt-field farming for food, and the considerable destruction of inland water ecosystem caused by the accumulation of mud and pebbles on rivers.
With full understanding of the actual situation, the great leader Comrade Kim Jong Il gave, on March 6, 2002, a vital teaching to make the whole country as beautiful as a golden tapestry in the Workers’ Party era by strongly promoting the forest and water conservation, so as to take national measures to mobilize the entire party, the whole country and all the people to its implementation.
At present, the Government of DPRK is closely combining the biodiversity conservation with the afforestation and gardening of the whole country at country level, to promote the rehabilitation of degraded forests and the transformation of the whole territory into a golden tapestry in the Workers’ Party era in conformity with the requirements of the new century.
In this context, there was a need of updating the strategies and action plans on biodiversity in DPR Korea, as required by developing situations.
In accordance with Article 6 of the Convention, the first “National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan” was prepared in 1998, with its focus on followings:
Establishing the protected area network system involving areas of key importance in the biodiversity conservation and improving its management;
Recovering ecosystems damaged by natural disasters and implementing the biodiversity conservation plan in close combination with the land use plan;
Increasing actively bio-resources and establish the system for their sustainable use;
Reinforcing laws and regulations on biodiversity conservation;
Intensifying the scientific research on biodiversity conservation;
Promoting the training for experts and officials on biodiversity, etc.
Based on the review and assessment of national progresses in the implementation of the convention for the last decade, the updated NBSAP mentions the issues to be conducted in accordance with the requirements of the convention in the field of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use within the coming decade at least, in consideration of the decisions adopted at the meetings (4th ~8th) of the Conference of Parties (COP) to the CBD.
It also keeps some issues, though not achieved in the last decade, for new possible progresses likely to be made through its further promotion.
Chapter 1 of the updated NBSAP gives an outline of the status of biodiversity in DPR Korea in all aspects of ecosystem, species and genetic diversity and describes the features of biodiversity in the country, the threats to biodiversity and their reasons, and the needs and urgencies of biodiversity conservation.
Chapter 2 evaluates the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in DPR Korea from the aspects of in-situ and ex-situ conservation, sustainable use of biodiversity components and their identification and monitoring.
Chapter 3 includes the detailed description of cross-cutting measures including legislation, institution, scientific research, communication, education and incentives, and also does the creation of models based on the ecosystem approach and the international cooperation.
Chapter 4 provides the strategy for biodiversity conservation in DPR Korea in the aspects of conservation, sustainable use, benefit-sharing and cross-cutting measures, while taking the original one into account.
Chapter 5 includes priority projects and action plans in biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.
The updated version of the NBSAP reflects the urgent need to further develop the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in DPRK to meet the new century’s demands.
It will be a milestone for further successful implementation of the CBD in DPR Korea, making an active contribution, via its implementation, to the conservation of biodiversity at country, regional and global levels.