Ministry for natural resources and the environment directorate general for environment




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MINISTRY FOR NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT

DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR ENVIRONMENT

NATIONAL REPORT ON THE STATUS OF BIODIVERSITY

IN S.TOMÉ AND PRÍNCIPE

souimanga géant,souimanga de sao tomé

dsc00499dsc01346

September 2007



ABBREVIATIONS 3

executive summary 4

CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION 6

1. General introduction 6

2. Materials and methods 7

3.Synopsis of Information on São Tomé and Príncipe 8

3.1 Geographical context 9

3.2 Origin 9

3.3 Land forms 9

3.4 Climate 9

3.5 Vulnerable soil 9

CHAPTER II – GENERAL DESCRIPTION 11

2. DESCRIPTION OF BIODIVERSITY IN THE COUNTRY 11

2.1. Groups of Organisms in São Tomé and Príncipe — number of non-endemic and endemic species 12

2.2 Flora 12

2.3 Brief history 13

2.4 BIODIVERSITY ON LAND 14

2.5 Main ecosystems and habitats in the country 14

2.6 Forest ecosystem 15

2.7 Forest regions in São Tomé and Príncipe 15

2.7.1 Low altitude forest, 0-800m 15

2.7.2 Mountain forest, 800-1400m 15

2.7.2 Mist forest, 1400-2024m 16

2.7.4 Medium altitude forest > 1000 and < 1800m 16

2.7.4 Altitude forest between 1800 and 2000m. 16

2.7.6 North-northeast savannas 17

2.7.7 Shade forest 18

2.7.8 Secondary forest (capoeira) 18

2.7.9 Dry forest 18

2.7.10 Mangrove 19

2.7.11 Biodiversity of land flora, indigenous and introduced species 19

2.7.12 Agro-ecological units and plant communities 21

2.8 Biodiversity of land fauna 21

2.9 Coastal, marine and oceanic biodiversity 24

26

2.9.1 Coastal biodiversity - Flora 27

2.9.2 Coastal biodiversity - fauna 27

2.9.3 Transitional coastal areas 28

2.10 Marine and oceanic biodiversity - flora 28

2.11 Marine and oceanic biodiversity - fauna 29

2.11.1 Marine ichthyofauna 29

2.11.2 Marine reptiles 30

2.11.3. Sea mammals 31

2.11.4 Marine Invertebrates 31

Gasteropods 32



2.12 Oceanic ecosystems 33

2.13 Benthic ecosystems 33

2.14 Biodiversity of inland waters 33

2.15 Agropastoral biodiversity 34

2.15.1. Main species and breeds raised for commercial exploitation 35

2.15.2. Plant species employed in forestry 35

3. Use of Biodiversity 37

3.1. Forest wood products 37

3.2. Traditional medicine 38

3.3. Handicrafts 38

3.4. Apiculture, dye and extraction industries 38

3.5. Nutrition and Cuisine 39

3.6. Eco-tourism 40

There is a wealth of land and marine fauna to attract tourists. Sports fishing can be exploited by the private sector. 40



3.7. Ethnocultural and magic use 40

3.8. Ornamental use 41

CHAPTER III – CURRENT STATE OF BIODIVERSITY 41

4.1 Main dangers to diversity of fauna in São Tomé and Príncipe 42

4.2 Main causes underlying major threats to the ecosystems: 43

4.3 MOST VULNERABLE FOREST ECOSYSTEMS 47

4.4 National programs and activities 49

4.4.1 On-site preservation 49

4.4.2 Off-site preservation 50

4.4.3 Information, Education, Awareness and Dissemination Campaigns 50

4.4.4 Preparation of a National Strategy and a Plan of Action 51

4.4.5 Implementation of the Management Plan for Obô Park 51

4.4.5 Environment-related policy and legislation 51

Several dissertations and reports; 60



CHAPTER IV – Conclusion and recommendations on the assessment of current biodiversity in STP 60

5.1 REGARDING FLORA 60

5.2 REGARDING FAuna 63

5.3 FINAL CONCLUSION 66

VI. Bibliography 68

VI I - ANNEXES – figures and tables 71

Asplenium eurysorum 80

Pseudophegopteris henriquensii 80

Sphaerostephanos elatus 80

Homalium henriquensii 81

Mammea africana 81

Part utilized 83

Otus hartlaubi 95

Columba thomensis 97

Sarkidiornis melanotos 97

Butorides striatus 97

Ardea cinerea 97

Mycteria ibis 97

Clamator jacobinus 97



Balaenoptera edeni 103





ABBREVIATIONS





African Bank for Development

ABD

Arab Bank for African Development

ABAD

World Bank

WB

Center for Agricultural and Technological Research

CIAT 

Ministerial Commission on Central African Forests

COMIFAC

Program for the Preservation and Use of Ecosystems

ECOFAC

Vegetable Oil Company

EMOLVE

European Union

EU

United Nations Organization for Food and Agriculture

FAO

World Environment Fund

FEM

International Fund for Agricultural Development

FIDA

Government of the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe

GDRSTP

German Cooperation Agency

GTZ

Ministry for agriculture, rural development and fishing

MADRP

Ministry for Commerce, Industry and Tourism

MCIT

Ministry for Defense and Internal Order

MDOI

Ministry for Social Facilities and the Environment

MESA

Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation

MNEC

Ministry for Public works, Infra-structures and Zoning

MOPIOT

Ministry for Planning and Finance

MPF

Ministry for Natural Resources and the Environment

MRNMA

New Partnerships for African Development

NEPAD

Partnership for the Forests of the Congo Basin

PFBC

Gross Domestic Product

GDP

National Plan for Durable Development

PNADD

United Nations Program for the Environment

UNPE

United Nations Program for Development

UNDP

Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe

DRSTP

Protected Area Network of Central Africa

RAPAC

International Union for the Conservation of Nature

UICN

United Nations Organization for Science, Education and Culture

UNESCO

World Wildlife Fund

WWF
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