Media Representation of Combating Domestic Violence in Georgia




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Media Representation of Combating Domestic Violence in Georgia

Nino Javakhishvili

Tbilisi State University

The research of Georgian print media and TV on combating domestic violence in the country

was carried out in the frames of the project “Interagency United Efforts to Combat Domestic

Violence in Georgia: Local or Western Agenda?” supported by ASCN.


According to social constructionist position, on which the present study is based, media is one of the major actors in shaping the views and activities of population; therefore, the construct of domestic violence existing with Georgian citizens to certain extent depends on how it is represented in media.
Research of 6 major Georgian newspapers and four major TV channels (years 2006-2010) showed that there is no public discourse on combating DV in Georgia. Some activity appeared in Spring-Summer 2006 on Georgian TV at the time of approving anti-violence law by the Parliament. Since then, except of sporadic articles and TV programs it has stayed quiet on the topic. At the same time, local and international non-government organizations and the state bodies responsible are working on the problem. Based on the production of national TV channels, newspapers and magazines, these organizations are very passive. Media representation of the problem and combating it in Georgia is not adequate.

ojaxSi ZaladobasTan brZolis media reprezentacia saqarTveloSi

nino javaxiSvili1

Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti


saqarTvelos presisa da televiziis kvleva Catarda ASCNN–is mxardaWeriT mimdinare proeqtis: “ojaxSi ZaladobasTan brZola saqarTveloSi. organizaciebis erToblivi Zalisxmeva: adgilobrivi, Tu dasavluri dRis wesrigi?” farglebSi.

warmodgenili kvleva eyrdnoba socialuri konstruqtivizmis principebs, romelTa mixedviT, media erT-erTi mTavari aqtoria mosaxleobis Sexedulebebis da warmodgenebis CamoyalibebaSi, Sesabamisad, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebSi arsebuli ojaxSi Zaladobis konstruqti garkveulwilad damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor aris is warmodgenili mediaSi (Holstein, 2009; Исавеев, 2004; Дъякова, Трахтенберг, 2003; Best, 1987; Braiant, Thompson, 2004).

qvemoT moyvanilia 2006 wlidan dRemde presis da televiziis ZiriTad produqciaSi warmodgenili statiebi da gadacemebi ojaxSi ZaladobasTan brZolis Temaze. teleprogramebis SerCeva ar gakeTebula, imdenad mcire raodenobiT gadacemebia miZRvnili ojaxSi Zaladobis Temas, rom yvela maTgani ganvixileT. Jurnalebis da gazeTebis SerCeva gavakeTeT2 ramdenime maxasiaTeblis mixedviT3: presa vrceldeboda mTeli qveynis masStabiT, iolad xelmisawvdomi iyo da popularuli, anu kargad iyideboda4. Tu ramdenime Jurnal/gazeTi msgavs produqcias gvawvdis da msgavsi saredaqcio politika aqvs, erT maTgans virCevdiT SemTxveviTad, rogorc reprezentaciuls, mag: Jurnali karibWe warmoadgens sapatriarqos egidiT gamocemul xuTive mas media saSualebas.

presa

3 gazeTis da 4 Jurnalis (axali Taoba, Tbiliselebi, 24 saaTi; cxeli Sokoladi, praim taimi, liberali, karibWe) 350 gamoSveba SeviswavleT 2006 wlidan dRemde, radgan 2006 wels miiRes kanoni ojaxSi Zaladobis Sesaxeb. Sesabamisad, presis TiToeuli saSualebis 50 gamoSveba ganvixileT5.

ojaxSi Zaladobis Temas sul 11 statia eZRvneba. anu, saSualod, TiTo gazeTSi an JurnalSi erTnaxevari statiaa CvenTvis saintereso Temaze. rac, Zalian cotaa da aCvenebs imas, rom sajaro diskursi am sakiTxze ar arsebobs, anu, sazogadoebas es sakiTxi naklebad aRelvebs:

gazeTi/Jurnali

statiebis raodenoba

“24 “ - gazeTi

2

“cxeli Sokoladi” - Jurnali

0

“praim taimi” - Jurnali

0

“liberali” - Jurnali

3

“Tbiliselebi “ - gazeTi

1

“axali Taoba” - gazeTi

3

“karibWe” – Jurnali

2

7 - 3 gazeTi da 4 Jurnali

11

“cxeli Sokoladi” da “praim taimi” gasarTobi tipis Jurnalebia da amdenad arcaa gasakviri, rom aq ar aris informacia ojaxSi Zaladobis Sesaxeb.

radgan statiebis raodenoba amdenad mcirea, maT ufro detalurad ganvixilav:






saTauri

Sinaarsi

“24 saaTi” gazeTi
2008

“bavSvTa mimarT Zaladobis Sesaxeb kvlevis prezentacia”.


iunisefis kvlevis prezentacia, sadac gamoiTqva mosazreba, rom sazogadoebrivi cnobiereba unda amaRldes da rom problemasTan brZolaSi iuristebi da fsiqologebi unda CavrToT.

“24 saaTi” gazeTi
2007

“Zaladobis msxverpli bavSvTa saxlSi gadaiyvanes”

saxalxo damcvelis warmomadgenlebi daexmarnen msxverpls

“liberali”

Jurnali
2010




„msxverplis da moZaladis Caketili wre,”

saubrobs ojaxSi Zaladobis Sedegebze, imaze, rom is socialurad miRebuli qecvaa; aRwers, ra mdgomareobaa qveyanaSi am problemasTan brZolis kuTxiT: kanoni, saxelmwifo strqutura, TavSesafrebi.

“liberali” Jurnali
2010

“gcems ese igi uyvarxar,”


2009 wels Catarebuli “qalTa mimarT Zaladobis sakiTxebis” erovnuli kvlevis monacemebis prezentacia. avtori xazs usvams imas, rom es monacemebi samTavrobo da saknanomdeblo organoebisaTvisaa sayuradRebo.

sakiTxiT zedapirulad dainteresebuli deputati xSirad ricxvebis iqiT verafers xedavs da aseT SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba isic Tqvas, rom fizikuri Zaladobis msxverpli -7%- umniSvnelo maCvenebelia”.



“liberali” Jurnali
2010

“qalebi televizorSi”

avtori, ninia kakabaZe saubrobs imaze, rom xSirad araprofesiulad gakeTebuli gadacema sagreblis nacvlad zians moitans. GgamoTqvams survils, rom am Temaze statiebi regularulad unda iwerebodes.

“Tbiliselebi”

Jurnali


2007

“rogor axdenen mamakacebi samsaxurSi TanamSromel qalebze seqsualur zewolas da ratom “ylapaven” amas qalebi”

arasamTavrobo organizaciis warmomadgeneli seqsualur Zaladobaze saubrobs, maTD Soris col-mqars Soris seqsualur Zaladobaze da ambobs, rom kanonmdebloba saTanadod ar aregulirebs am problemas da, rom jandacvis saministro, socialuri muSakebi da ganaTlebis saministro kompleqsurad ar muSaoben, rogor unda miewodos informacia bavSvebs am sakiTxebze.

“axali Taoba”

gazeTi
2007



“bavSvze Zaladoba dauSvebelia”

”bavSvi da garemos”, da rusTavis dRis centri sapovnelas aqtivobas eZRvneba, rogor exmarebian isini bavSvebs


“axali Taoba”

gazeTi
2010



”moZaladeebs sasamarTlom ganaCeni gamoutana ”

gogonam mimarTa Zaladobis dacvis erovnuli qselis direqtors, romelic mas daexmara.


“24 saaTi” gazeTi
2010

”ojaxuri Zaladobis Temaze Sexvedra gaimarTa”



saxalxo damcvelis aparatis bavSvisa da qalis uflebaTa centris organizebiTa da gaeros ganviTarebis programis mxardaWeriT gamarTuli Sexvedris mizani iyo ojaxuri Zaladobis fenomenis ganxilva, ojaxuri Zaladobis msxverplTa dacvis da ojaxuri Zaladobis damarcxebis strategiebis dasaxva.

“karibWe”

Jurnali


2007

“genderuli Tanasworoba pirvel qristianul sazogadoebaSi”

marTlmadideblobaSi gatarebulia qalisa da mamakacis Tanasworobis idea da Tu meuRleebi icxovreben religiurad, maT ojaxSi ver iqneba Zaladoba

calke aRniSvnis Rirsia Jurnali Lliberali, romelSic, marTalia, arc Tu ise bevri, anu sami statiaa am Temaze, magram es statiebi Sinaarsobrivad gansxvavebulia presis sxva saSualebebSi moTavsebuli produqciisagan. statiis avtori Jurnalistebi ufro seriozulad ekidebian sakiTxs. aq ama Tu im movlenis mxolod aRwera ki ar aris, aramed, sakiTxis ufro farTo ganxilva da globaluri midgoma Cans. avtorebisaTvis faqtia, rom am problemas unda vebrZoloT da fiqroben imaze, Tu rogor, ra gziT?. maT Soris, gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa Jurnalist ninia kakabaZis statia “qalebi televizorSi”, sadac ganxilulia eka xoferias mier wayvanili gadacema “auditoria” da gamoTqmulia ramdenime kritikuli mosazreba:

ojaxSi Zaladobis da genderuli Tanasworobis Temebi erTad ar unda ganixilebodes: “msxverpli qalebis istoriebis Semdeg ar unda vismendeT saubars imis Sesaxeb, Tu cnobili ojaxis romel wevrs gaaqvs nagavi saxlidan”.

bevri mosazreba iyo gamoTqmuli, romelic genderul stereotipebs mxolod amyarebda, saWiro iyo maTi dabalanseba.

aseve, calke saubris Rirsia saeklesio gamocemebis analizis Sedgeebi. am publikaciebSi gatarebuli mTavari idea isaa, rom Tu col-qmari eklesiuri cxovrebiT cxovrobs, Zaladoba ar xdeba. Mmagram araferia naTqvami imaze, rogor vebrZoloT Zaladobas.



televizia

televiziiT gadmoicema parlamentis sxdomebi, Sesabamisad, 2006 wels parlamentis is sxdomebi, romlebic ojaxSi Zaladobis kanonis proeqts ganixilavda, kvlevis miznebisaTvis sainteresoa, Tumca, uSualod kvlevis kiTxvas ar pasuxobs, radgan es ar aris Jurnalistis mier momzadebuli gadacema, an, Tundac, axali ambavi/informacia. bunebrivia, amgvar reportaJSi arc Jurnalistis damokidebuleba Cans. Tumca, maSindeli deputatebis sakiTxisadmi damokidebuleba sagangaSoa. marTalia, evrokavSirTan integraciis survilis gamo deputatebi am kanonis miRebas ar SewinaaRmdegebian, magram mravali maTganis uaryofiTi damokidebuleba aSkara iyo, gansakuTrebiT, seqsualuri Zaladobis cnebis mimarT.

es damokidebuleba gamoCnda, agreTve, am sakiTxisadmi miZRvnil specialur gadacemaSi “Tavisufali Tema”, romelic eka xoferias miyavda. Canda samTavrobo seqtoris warmomadgenlebis araseriozuli damokidebuleba problemisadmi, maT ar esmodaT seqsualuri Zaladobis arsi, ratomRac daakavSires Zaladoba homoseqsualizmTan, xolo ojaxSi ZaladobasTan brZola tradiciebis rRvevis safrTxesTan.

eka xoferiam kidev ori gadacema miuZRvna ojaxSi Zaladobis Temas 2010 wels, gaeros proeqtis farglebSi da misi dakveTiT. maTgan, erTi exeboda uSualod problemas, roca studiaSi Zaladobis msxverplebic moiwvies da ZaladobasTan mebrZoli samTavrobo da arsamTavrobo organizaciebi, xolo meore – seqsualur ganaTlebas skolaSi, saTanado eqspertebis mowveviT.

telekompania “mzes” eTerSi 2006-2008 wlebSi gadioda “Toq-Sou” tabu, romlis erT-erTi gamoSveba ojaxSi Zaladobis sakiTxs mieZRvna. arasamTavrobo organizaciebi aRwerdnen TavianT saqmianobas ojaxSi ZaladobasTan brZolis kuTxiT. aq CvenTvis sayuradRebo isaa, rom samTavrobo da arasamTavrobo organizaciebi praqtikulad ar saubroben erTmaneTTan TanamSromlobaze, gamonaklisia nato SavlayaZis gancxadeba sapatrulo policiasTan erTad muSaobis Sesaxeb.

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ganxiluli masala gvaCvenebs Semdegs: sazogadoebas es problema naklebad aRelvebs da Sesabamisad, ar ainteresebs, ra gzebiT unda vebrZoloT mas. arc media da arc eklesia am sakiTxebis gadaWraSi CarTuli ar arian. arsadaa reportaJi an raime saxis aRwera imisa, ra gaakeTa eklesiam am sakiTxTan mimarTebiT.

saxelmwifos rac Seexeba, aq ganxilul statiebSi laparakia mxolod problemebze da ara miRwevebze: TavSesafrebi jer ver aSenda, sabWo ar Seqmnila, ojaxSi Zaladobis sakiTxebze momuSave mxolod erTi samTavrobo organizacia arsebobs. amave dros, es organizacia namdvilad muSaobs da Sedegianadac, ramdenadac CvenTvis cnobilia. magram misi aqtivoba presaSi da televiziaSi asaxuli ar aris, sainteresoa, ratom? ganxiluli masalebis mixedviTYyvelaze aqtiuri am kuTxiT Cans saxalxo damcveli, mis saqmianobebs ori statia exeba, erT SemTxevaSi isini bavSvebs daexmarnen, meoreSi – zogadad problemis daZlevaze fiqroben, Tumca, am pulbikaciaSi ar Cans, ra gamovida Sedegad, anu, raime dokumenti, rogorc Cans, ar Seqmnila.

arasamTavrobo organizaciebi or statiaSia naxsenebi, erTgan, “ZaladobasTan brZolis erovnuli qseli,” romelic msxverpls daexmara, meoregan organizacia “bavSvi da garemo”, romelic bavSvebs exmareba da dRis centri aqvs, aseTive dRis centri aqvs rusTavis centr “sapovnelas”. erT statiSi Cans gaeros warmomadgeneli, joana barberisi, romelic ubralod komentars gamoTqvams.

araferia naTqvami yvela zemoTCamoTvlili organizaciis erTmaneTTan TanamSromlobaze. Sesabamisad, presis da telegadacemebis mixedviT gamodis, rom ojaxSi Zaladobis problema qveyanaSi aris, magram mxolod mcire raodenobiT arasamTavrobo organizaciebi da erTi samTavrobo organizacia muSaobs am sakiTxze, Tumca, maTi muSaoba arc Tu ise nayofieri da Sedegiania. ismis kiTxva, namdvilad asea? vfiqrobT, rom ara, da Cveni proeqtis kvleva Seecdeba amoavsos es naprali.

Tumca, ganxilul masalaSi mainc SeiZleba davinaxoT dadebiTi mxareebi: arasamTavrobo organizaciebi Tu arian warmoCenili, arian warmoCenili dadebiTad da qmedunarianad. isini, ZiriTadad, saqmes akeTeben da ara mxolod laprakoben.

mediaSi ojaxSi Zaladobis Temis gaSuqebis eqspertuli Sefasebaa warmodgenili saxalxo damcvelis ofisis mier gamocemul JurnalSi “solidaroba”, sadac Semdegi saintereso mosazrebebia gamoTqmuli:


  • Jurnalistebi ar interesdebian am TemiT, Tu cema, an kriminali ar aris

  • msxverplis Sesaxeb konfindencialuri informacia gauciaT;

  • xSirad socialuri reklamebic isea momzadebuli, rom Zneli gasagebia, risi Tqma undaT.

saqarTvelos mediis sxva mkvlevrebma msgavsi problemebi warmoaCines mediis mier bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebis ganxilvisas (qoriZe, 2008; osefaSvili, 2008).

2009 wels Catarebulma “qalTa mimarT Zaladobis sakiTxebis erovnulma kvlevam saqarTveloSi” Cveni kvlevisTvis saintereso ramdenime Sedegi aCvena, kerZod:

gamokiTxvam aCvena, rom msxverplebi daxmarebisaTvis arasamTavrobo an samTavrobo dawesebulebebs sakmaod iSviaTad mimarTaven. ra SeiZleba iyos mizezi? kvlevam aCvena, rom mosaxleobam metwilad icis, ra aris ojaxSi Zaladoba, magram, qalebis 63.4% ar pasuxobs maT mimarT ganxorcielebul Zaladobas. maT miaCniaT, rom qalma maqsimalurad unda moiTminos da iyos qmris morCili (javaxiSvili, 2010).

CarRmavebuli intervius respondentTa umravlesoba Zaladobis mizezad socialur faqtorebs asaxelebs da miiCnevs, rom umuSevroba, siRaribe, omis gamocdileba, simTvrale, narkomania rom ara, Zaladobriv qmedebas adgili ar eqneboda. faqtobrivad, respondentebs Zaladobis mizezebi gareT gaaqvT. respondentebi TiTqos cdiloben, Zaladoba maTgan damoukidebel faqtorebs, makro faqtorebs, daabralon – mag.: materialur problemebs, Tumca, kvlevebi aCvenebs, rom maRali Semosavali da uzrunvelyofili cxovreba ar aris gamosavali, aseT fenebSic aris gavrcelebuli Zaladoba. garemo pirobebi yvelasaTvis mZimea, magram yvela ar mimarTavs Zaladobas.

es yvelaferi ki niSnavs, rom Zaladoba socialurad misaRebi fenomenia – sazogadoebaSi gavrcelebulia azri, rom ojaxSi Zaladoba mxolod ojaxSi unda ganixilebodes; Zaladoba, xSirad orive meuRlis mridan normad aRiqmeba; garda amisa, msxverplebs mcire informacia aqvT TavSesafrebis da saerTod, ZaladobasTan brZolis gzebis Sesaxeb. savaraudod, radgan Zaladoba socialurad misaRebia, is arc aRiqmeba problemad sazogadoebis da Jurnalistebis mxridan da ar iRebs saTanado yuradRebas.

gamoyenebuli masala:


  1. babuaZe, T. CaCua d. (2010) “erTi qali-ori cxovreba” Jurnali „liberali“, #53, gv. 15

  2. guliaSvili, n. (2010) „msxverplis da moZaladis Caketili wre” Jurnali „liberali“, #17, gv. 50

  3. guliaSvili, n. (2010) „gcems, ese igi uyvarxar“ Jurnali „liberali“, #38, gv. 38

  4. maTeSvili, l. (2007) “qristianobaSia daculi sruli sisavsiT qalisa da kacis uflebebi. genderuli Tanasworoba pirvel qristianul sazogadoebaSi” Jurnali “karibWe” , #25, gv. 12-13

  5. namoraZe, m. (2007) “bavSvze Zaladoba dauSvebelia” gazeTi “axali Taoba” # 336, gverdi 10

  6. osefaSvili, d. (2008) “bavSvebis Tema da Jurnalisturi eTikis problemebi qarTul mediaSi” “kavkasiis macne” # 17, gv.171-177

  7. osefaSvili, d. (2009) “bavSvebisa da danaSaulis Temis gaSuqeba qarTul mediaSi” - “inteleqtuali”, #8, gv. 83-90.

  8. qoriZe, z. (2008) Jurnalistebi bavSvebisa da eTikis Sesaxeb. saqarTvelos situaciis analizi, UNICEF. Tbilisi

  9. CaCua, d. (2010 ) “mSvidobiT siyvarulo!” Jurnali „liberali“, #52, gv. 34

  10. CxartiSvili, l. (2008) “ras gulisxmobs qorwninebisas dadebuli aRTqma?”Jurnali “karibWe”, #2, gv. 14-15

  11. xaCiZe, n. (2007) “rogor axdenen mamakacebi samsaxurSi TanamSromel qalebze seqsualur zewolas da ratom ylapaven amas qalebi” Jurnali “Tbiliselebi”, #17, gv. 18-19

  12. javaxiSvili, n. (2010) “qalTa mimarT Zaladobis gavrceleba” qalTa mimarT ojaxSi Zaladobis sakiTxebis erovnuli kvleva saqarTveloSi. saboloo angariSi, Tbilisi, Tavi IV, gv.39-49

  13. “Zaladobis msxverpli bavSvTa saxlSi gadaiyvanes” (2007) gazeTi ” 24 saaTi”, #168-a4.

  14. “bavSvTa mimarT Zaladobis Sesaxeb kvlevis prezentacia” (2009) gazeTi ” 24 saaTi” #61, gv. 20

  15. “300 dolarad gayiduli coli” (2007) gazeTi “24 saaTi”, #33

  16. sasamarTlos qronikebi (2010) “moZaladeebs sasamarTlom ganaCeni gamoutana”, gazeTi ”axali Taoba” # 40, gv. 7

  17. interpresniusi (2010) “ojaxuri Zaladobis Temaze Sexvedra gaimarTa” gazeTi ”axali Taoba”#172 , gv 16,

  18. telegadacemebis Canawerebi:

tele-gadacema “Tavisufali Tema”

tele-gadacema “tabu”

tele-gadacema “Cai da Tavisufleba”

parlamentis sxdomebis Canawerebi ojaxSi Zaladobis winaaRmdeg kanonis miRebis Taobaze, 2006 w.



  1. Дъякова, И. Трахтенберг, А. (2003) Массовая коммуникация и проблема конструирования реальности: анализ основных теоретических подходов.
  2. Исавеев, И. (2004) конструкционисткий пoдход к социалным проблемам Казанский государственный университет


  3. Best, J. (1987) “Rhetoric in Claims-Making: Constructing the Missing Children Problem.”In: Social Problems, vol.34, No.2, pp. 101-121

  4. Braiant, J., Thompson, S. (2004) Fundamentals of Media Effects. McGraw Hill

  5. Holstein J. (2009) “Defining Deviance: John Kitsuse’s Modest Agenda.” American Sociologist”, No 40, pp.51-60
  6. Osepashvili, D. (2010) Georgian Media Coverage of Children and Crime. Proceedings of the Emotion, Media and Crime conference. Denmark, Aarhus University




1 monacemebi Seagroves proeqtis monawile studentebma: nana Wabukianma, magda javaxiSvilma, ida baxturiZem, dariko baxturiZem da gvanca jiblaZem.

2 lia wulaZe, Tamar sabedaSvili da nino javaxiSvili

3 tiraJi maxasiaTeblad ver gamoviyeneT, radgan xSirad am informaciis mopoveba SeuZlebeli xdeboda

4 proeqtis monawile studentebma uSualod gazeTebis da Jurnalebis redaqciebSi gaarkvies, ramdenad kargd iyideboda esa Tu is media saSualeba

5 Seswavlis procesis dros Jurnal “liberalis” 50 nomeri iyo gamosuli, amitom, aTvlis wertilad es raodenoba aviReT.


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