Madagascar Significant Trade – Plants Report for cites secretariat




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PC13 Inf. 8
(English only/Únicamente en inglés/Seulement en anglais)
Madagascar Significant Trade – Plants

Report for CITES Secretariat

RBG Kew (July 2003)


Andrew Newman

Introduction

The objective of this project was two fold:




  • To carry out an analysis of trade in plant species from Madagascar in order to assist the CITES Management and Scientific authorities of Madagascar.

  • To provide recommendations on the sustainable trade in wild-collected plants and on the commercial propagation of species with horticultural interest or those used for their derivatives.

This project was carried out on the basis of an overview of trends in trade of Appendix II plant species from Madagascar, previous actions of the CITES authorities of Madagascar, recommendations of the Plants and Standing Committees, current concerns about compliance with the provisions of Article IV paragraphs 2a) and 3, institutional and administrative arrangements related to implementation of Article IV for exports of Appendix II species, and the close effectiveness of relevant national legislation and its implementation.




The role of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Complete a desktop survey to:




  • Review the trade data available in the CITES database held at the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC-UNEP), regarding species occurring in Madagascar and on the trade to and from Madagascar.

  • Collect information on cultivation.

  • Assess conservation status.

  • Identify key species.

A database was built to hold data from the desktop survey, on taxa recorded in the CITES trade data (held by UNEP-WCMC) reported as exported or imported from Madagascar. Taxa not found in the CITES trade data but considered to be in trade according to an expert panel have also been included.


The following information on each taxon has been gathered and added to the database:


  • Taxonomy including traded names, synonyms, author, publication)

  • CITES trade data

  • Madagascar and global distribution

  • Habitat

  • IUCN conservation status

  • Previous recommendations of the plants committee

  • Availability on the Internet

  • Whether recorded CITES trade data is a true reflection of trade

  • Whether trade affects conservation status

  • Current conservation status

  • Declines in conservation status

  • Information on illegal trade

  • Whether the taxa is cultivated in Madagascar / internationally

  • Whether the taxa is artificially propagated in Madagascar / internationally

  • Ease of propagation

  • Availability in catalogues / nurseries

  • Any additional relevant information


Summary report

This report is a summary of the desktop survey carried above and was the basis of a presentation by Andrew Newman at the Madagascar Significant Trade Stakeholders Workshop 26-28 May 2003 held in the Madagascar Hilton in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

Part 1 – CITES trade database Trade Analysis

[Please note: the following analysis does not include Prunus africna]



Figure 1 Number of individual species traded from Madagascar per year 1992-2001




Figure 2 Total volume of plant species traded from Madagascar 1992-2001





Figure 3 Total volume of plant species traded: Orchids, Palm and Succulents 1992-2001






Ten highest traded genera for Orchids, Palm and Succulents 1992-2001.





Orchids

Volume




Palms

Volume




Succulents

Volume

Aerangis

27,404




Dypsis

2,657




Euphorbia

75,8294

Angraecum

22,214













Alluaudia

8,451

Gastrorchis

6,315













Pachypodium

4,947

Aeranthes

6,293













Aloe

3,444

Jumellea

4,297













Didierea

1,460

Neobathiea

3,900













Cycas

842

Calanthe

2,455













Alluaudiopsis

100

Sobennikoffia

1,600













Nepenthes

31

Cymbidiella

1,593













Ceropegia

26

Grammangis

1,318













Cyathea

16


Figure 4 Total trade from Madagascar, reported by Madagascar and Importing countries 1992-2001.


Figure 5 Recorded taxonomic level of trade from Madagascar, reported by Madagascar and Importing countries 1992-2001.


Figure 6 Source of Plants traded from Madagascar, reported by Madagascar and Importing countries 1992-2001.

5 highest traded plants by volume (reported by Madagascar) reported as ‘Artificially Propagated’:


  • Euphorbia lophogona (356,805)

  • Euphorbia geroldii (29,000)

  • Euphorbia spp. (27,363)

  • Euphorbia viguieri (18,750)

  • Euphorbia millotii (16,250)


5 highest traded plants by volume (reported by Madagascar) reported as ‘Wild’:


  • Euphorbia lophogona (76,083)

  • Euphorbia spp. (41,782)

  • Euphorbia millotii (11,290)

  • Euphorbia viguieri (10,240)

  • Euphorbia milii (6,706)


5 highest traded plants by volume (reported by Madagascar) reported as ‘Undisclosed’:


  • Cymbidium spp. (6)

  • Dendrobium spp. (4)

  • Cattleya spp. (1)

  • Vanda spp. (1)


5 highest traded plants by volume (reported by Madagascar) reported as ‘[blank]’:


  • Euphorbia lophogona (102,017)

  • Euphorbia spp. (13,668)

  • Euphorbia millotii (8,440)

  • Euphorbia viguieri (3,508)

  • Aerangis citrata (1,366)

  • Angraecum scottianum (403)


Figure 7 10 highest countries trading with Madagascar according to volume of trade reported by Madagascar

Quotas.
There have been no quotas applied to Malagasy plants.


The changes in trade patterns in response to previous recommendations pursuant to Resolution Conf 8.9.
There have been no recommendations in pursuant to Resolution Conf 8.9.

Prunus africana Volume of trade 1992-2001




Net exports of Prunus africna 1992 - 2001





TERM

UNIT

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

bark




0

0

0

0

0

16020

0

0

0

0

bark

g

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

20

bark

kg

0

0

0

0

122000

168426

95011

233484

224260

144180

chips

g

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

250

dried plants

kg

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

0

extract

g

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

700

0

0

extract

kg

0

0

0

2269

4581

51176

82619

18034

195319

2200

leaves

g

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

170

roots

kg

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

specimens

g

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

650

timber

g

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

400



Part 2 – Cultivation

Nurseries within Madagascar.
According to an expert panel:



Nurseries outside Madagascar.
According to an expert panel:

  • 153 Malagasy taxa are cultivated.

  • 69 Malagasy taxa are be artificially propagated.



Part 3 – Conservation status




  1. IUCN Conservation status

Summary:



  • Of the taxa identified in trade in Parts 1 and 2, 33 taxa were listed in the 1997 Plant Red List.


Table 9 IUCN Conservation status of Malagasy taxa (1997 Plant Red List).


taxon

Family

IUCN country ratings 1997

Conservation status (according to expert panel)

Aerangis decaryana

Orchidaceae

Endangered

Endangered

Aloe bellatula

Aloaceae

Endangered

Critically Endangered

Aloe calcairophila

Aloaceae

Endangered

Critically Endangered

Aloe compressa

Aloaceae

Endangered

Critically Endangered

Aloe compressa var. schistophila

Aloaceae

Endangered

Critically Endangered

Aloe cremersii

Aloaceae

Endangered

Data Deficient

Aloe descoingsii

Aloaceae

Endangered

Critically Endangered

Aloe helenae

Aloaceae

Endangered

Endangered

Aloe parallelifolia

Aloaceae

Endangered

Critically Endangered

Aloe parvula

Aloaceae

Endangered

Endangered

Aloe suzannae

Aloaceae

Endangered

Critically Endangered

Ceropegia armandii

Asclepiadaceae

Endangered

Critically Endangered

Ceropegia bosseri

Asclepiadaceae

Endangered

Critically Endangered

Ceropegia razafindratsirana

Asclepiadaceae

Endangered

Critically Endangered

Cyathea borbonica

Cyatheaceae

Intermediate

?

Cyathea decrescens

Cyatheaceae

Intermediate

?

Dypsis decipiens

Palmae

Endangered

Endangered

Euphorbia ambovombensis

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

Endangered

Euphorbia ankarensis

Euphorbiaceae

Intermediate

Least concern

Euphorbia capsaintemariensis

Euphorbiaceae

Intermediate

Endangered

Euphorbia cylindrifolia

Euphorbiaceae

Intermediate

Endangered

Euphorbia decaryi

Euphorbiaceae

Intermediate

Endangered

Euphorbia didiereoides

Euphorbiaceae

Intermediate

Least concern

Euphorbia millotii

Euphorbiaceae

Intermediate

Endangered

Euphorbia pachypodioides

Euphorbiaceae

Intermediate

Vulnerable

Euphorbia perrieri var. elongata

Euphorbiaceae

Intermediate

Data Deficient

Euphorbia primulifolia

Euphorbiaceae

Intermediate

Least concern

Pachypodium ambongense

Apocynaceae

Endangered

Endangered

Pachypodium decaryi

Apocynaceae

Endangered

Endangered / Vulnerable

Aeranthes arachnites

Orchidaceae

Endangered

NOT NATIVE TO MADGASCAR

Aloe squarrosa

Aloaceae

Endangered

NOT NATIVE TO MADGASCAR

Eulophia obtusa

Orchidaceae

Intermediate

NOT NATIVE TO MADGASCAR

Euphorbia cussonioides

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

NOT NATIVE TO MADGASCAR

Euphorbia jansenvillensis

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

NOT NATIVE TO MADGASCAR



  1. Preliminary conservation status



F
igure 14 Conservation status of Malagasy plants in trade (according to expert panel).


Table 10 Conservation status of Malagasy plant taxa (according to expert panel).


Conservation status


Number of taxa

Critically Endangered

6

Endangered

13

Endangered / Data Deficient

1

Endangered / Vulnerable

1

Vulnerable

50

Vulnerable / Data Deficient

2

Near threatened

48

Near threatened / Data deficient

1

Near threatened / Least concern

78

Least concern

62

Data Deficient [13]

79

Unknown

2

Not native

58


Table 11 Taxa that are Critically Endangered or Endangered (according to expert panel).


taxon

Family

Expert conservation status

Does trade affect conservation status

Is this a true reflection of trade

Total trade data 1989-1999

Aerangis decaryana

Orchidaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

1525

Aerangis spiculata

Orchidaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

242

Aeranthes henrici

Orchidaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

4208

Aloe albiflora

Aloaceae

Critically Endangered

?

?




Aloe bakeri

Aloaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes

42

Aloe bellatula

Aloaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes

18

Aloe calcairophila

Aloaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes

237

Aloe compressa

Aloaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

No, more

80

Aloe compressa var. rugosquamosa

Aloaceae

Critically Endangered

?

?




Aloe compressa var. schistophila

Aloaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

No, more

35

Aloe descoingsii

Aloaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes

309

Aloe descoingsii ssp. augustina

Aloaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes




Aloe fragilis

Aloaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

No

47

Aloe haworthioides

Aloaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

46

Aloe helenae

Aloaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

6

Aloe isaloensis

Aloaceae

Endangered / Data Deficient

No

Yes

129

Aloe parallelifolia

Aloaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes

70

Aloe parvula

Aloaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

92

Aloe rauhii

Aloaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes

55

Aloe suzannae

Aloaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes

215

Angraecum bicallosum

Orchidaceae

Endangered / Vulnerable

?

?

994

Angraecum eburneum ssp. superbum var. longicalcar

Orchidaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes

195

Angraecum leonis

Orchidaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

1819

Angraecum magdalenae

Orchidaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

2343

Angraecum praestans

Orchidaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

681

Angraecum protensum

Orchidaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

1363

Ceropegia armandii

Asclepiadaceae

Critically Endangered

No

Yes

6

Ceropegia bosseri

Asclepiadaceae

Critically Endangered

No

Yes

1

Ceropegia dimorpha

Asclepiadaceae

Critically Endangered

No

Yes

161

Ceropegia razafindratsirana

Asclepiadaceae

Critically Endangered

No

?

5

Cryptopus dissectus

Orchidaceae

Endangered










Cymbidiella pardalina

Orchidaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes

1108

Dypsis decipiens

Palmae

Endangered

?

?

5

Eulophia palmicola

Orchidaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes

17

Eulophia pulchra

Orchidaceae

Endangered

Yes

No

19

Eulophiella elisabethae

Orchidaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

410

Eulophiella roempleriana

Orchidaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes

335

Euphorbia ambovombensis

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

6

Euphorbia bulbispina

Euphorbiaceae

Critically Endangered

?

?

52

Euphorbia capmanambatoensis

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

No

Yes

2017

Euphorbia capsaintemariensis

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

237

Euphorbia cremersii

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered / Vulnerable

Yes

Yes

881

Euphorbia cylindrifolia

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

52

Euphorbia decaryi

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

2568

Euphorbia decaryi var. ampanihyensis

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

?

?

0

Euphorbia decaryi var. robinsonii

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

?

?

0

Euphorbia decaryi var. spirosticha

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

?

?

0

Euphorbia enterophora

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

No

Yes

23

Euphorbia enterophora ssp. crassa

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

No

Yes




Euphorbia francoisii

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

382

Euphorbia guillauminiana

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

No

Yes

2258

Euphorbia herman-schwartzii

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

7

Euphorbia millotii

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

39645

Euphorbia parvicyathophora

Euphorbiaceae

Critically endangered / Possibly extinct in the wild

Yes

Yes

2

Euphorbia quartziticola

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered / Vulnerable

Yes

Yes

538

Euphorbia tulearensis

Euphorbiaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

36

Gastrorchis pulchra

Orchidaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

56

Gastrorchis pulchra var. perrieri

Orchidaceae

Endangered










Gastrorchis tuberculosus

Orchidaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

813

Grammangis ellisii

Orchidaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes

1529

Grammangis spectabilis

Orchidaceae

Critically Endangered

Yes

Yes

62

Oeonia madagascariensis

Orchidaceae

Endangered / Data Deficient

Yes

No

2

Pachypodium ambongense

Apocynaceae

Endangered

Yes

Yes

524

Pachypodium baronii var. windsorii

Apocynaceae

Endangered

?

?




Pachypodium decaryi

Apocynaceae

Endangered / Vulnerable

Yes

Yes

581

Pachypodium rosulatum var. eburneum

Apocynaceae

Endangered










Pachypodium rosulatum var. inopinatum

Apocynaceae

Endangered












PC13 Inf. 8 – p.


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