Los Angeles City College Library apa (5th ed.)
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REFERENCE CITATIONS IN TEXT
Reference citations in text (or parenthetical notes) - a short notes embedded in text of your paper in which you acknowledge the source of quotations or paraphrases of someone else's words. Some common formats of APA style parenthetical notes are shown below:
I.One Work by One Author
Rogers (1994) compared reaction times . . .
In a recent study of reaction times (Rogers, 1994) . . .
II.One Work by Two Authors
Always cite both names every time the reference occurs in text.
III.One Work by Three, Four, or Five Authors
Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (with a period after “al”).
Wasserstein, Zappulla, Rosen, Gerstman, and Rock (1994) found [first citation in text]
Wasserstein et al. (1994) [subsequent first citation per paragraph thereafter]
IV.One Work by Six or More Authors
Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (with a period after “al”). and the year for the first and subsequent citations. In the reference list, however, provide the initials and surnames of the first six authors and shorten any remaining authors to et al.
Kosslyn et al. (1992)
When quoting, always provide the author's last name, year, and specific page citation.
V.Quotation less than 40 words within text:
He contended, "For the man who is extremely and dangerously hungry, no other interests exist but food" (Maslow, 1943, p.348).
VI.Quotation of 40 or more words (indent five spaces from the left margin):
Miele (1993) found the following:
The “placebo effect,” which had been verified in previous studies,
disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore,
the behaviors were never exhibited again [emphasis added], even when
reel [sic] drugs were administered. Earlier studies were clearly
premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p. 276)
Revised September 2012 by B. Vasquez. and A. Mezynski
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