Lf and mf transmitting antennas characteristics and diagrams




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Rec. ITU-R BS.1386

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R BS.1386*

LF AND MF TRANSMITTING ANTENNAS CHARACTERISTICS AND DIAGRAMS**

(Question ITU-R 201/10)

(1998)

Rec. ITU-R BS.1386

The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,



considering

a) that Recommendations ITU-R BS.705 and ITU-R BS.1195 are defining respectively HF and VHF, UHF broadcasting antenna diagrams together with other relevant information;

b) that the diagrams published in this Recommendation should be easy to be understood and used by the planning and designing engineers, while retaining all necessary useful information;

c) the experience gained with the previous editions of Recommendations on antennas;

d) that the characteristics of the LF and MF antennas as contained in Annex 1 to this Recommendation have a wide application,

recommends

1 that the formulae as illustrated by sample diagrams and contained in Annex 1 to this Recommendation together with the corresponding computer programs should be used to evaluate the performance of LF and MF transmitting antennas; particularly for planning purposes.

NOTE – Part 1 of Annex 1 gives comprehensive and detailed information on the theoretical characteristics of LF and MF transmitting antennas.

Computer programs have been developed from the theory to calculate the radiation patterns and gain for the various included antenna types.

The real performance of antennas encountered in practice will deviate to a certain extent from its analytically calculated characteristics. To this purpose Part 2 gives advice about this deviation on the basis of the results of a comprehensive set of measurements carried out by various administrations with modern techniques.

ANNEX 1

CONTENTS


PART 1 – LF AND MF TRANSMITTING ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS AND DIAGRAMS

1 Introduction

2 Radiation patterns and gain calculation

2.1 General considerations

2.2 Radiation patterns

2.2.1 Graphical representation

2.2.2 Tabular representation

2.3 Directivity and gain

2.4 Effect of the ground

2.4.1 Wave reflection on imperfect ground

2.5 Antenna designation

3 LF-MF antenna systems

3.1 General considerations

3.2 Radiating element cross-section

3.3 Frequency of operation

3.4 Earth system and ground characteristics

3.5 Omnidirectional antenna types

3.5.1 Vertical monopoles

3.5.2 Types of vertical monopoles

3.6 Directional antennas

3.6.1 Arrays of active vertical elements

3.6.2 Arrays of passive vertical elements

3.7 Other types of antennas

3.7.1 T-antennas

3.7.2 Umbrella antennas

4 Calculation of radiation patterns and gain

4.1 General considerations

4.2 Currently available analytical approaches

Annex 1 – The calculation procedure

1 Main objectives

2 Main constraints

3 Comparative analysis of available approaches

4 The numerical method

5 The calculation algorithm

6 Basic assumptions

References

Bibliography

PART 2 – PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF LF AND MF TRANSMITTING ANTENNAS

1 Introduction

2 Measurements of antenna radiation patterns

2.1 Methods of measurement

2.1.1 Ground-based measurement of horizontal radiation pattern

2.1.2 Helicopter-based measurement of radiation pattern

2.2 Measurement equipment

2.3 Measurement procedures

2.3.1 Ground

2.3.2 Helicopter

2.4 Processing the measured data

2.4.1 Ground

2.4.2 Helicopter

3 Comparison of theoretical and measured radiation patterns

3.1 Far field

3.2 Variations in practical antenna performance

3.2.1 Influence of surrounding environment on radiation patterns

3.2.1.1 Ground conductivity

3.2.1.2 Ground topography and other site structures

3.2.2 Feeding arrangements and guy wires

PART 1 – LF AND MF TRANSMITTING ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS AND DIAGRAMS


1 Introduction


Efficient spectrum utilization at LF and MF demands for both omnidirectional and directional antennas whose characteristics and performance should be known as accurately as possible. Therefore, a unified approach to evaluate the antenna gain and radiation pattern should be made available to the engineer both for national planning and for international coordination. In the past the former CCIR responded to such a requirement by preparing Manuals of Antenna Diagrams (ed. 1963, 1978 and 1984), which included graphical representations of the radiation patterns of some of the most commonly used antenna types at MF and HF. For the sake of simplicity, the patterns were calculated assuming a sinusoidal current distribution and using computer facilities as available at that time. Today modern antenna theories and powerful computing means allow the planning engineer to determine the antenna characteristics with far better accuracy and perform the relevant calculation on low cost computers.

The application of digital techniques to sound broadcasting at LF and MF is envisaged in the near future and relevant studies are already being carried out by the ITU-R. The advantages of such techniques combined with the propagation characteristics at LF and MF in comparison to broadcasting at VHF (such as larger coverage areas and more stable reception in mobile conditions, etc.) will make the new services not only more spectrum efficient but also more attractive from the economical point of view. However, the introduction of digital techniques to broadcasting at LF and MF, will put an emphasis on the use of advanced planning tools, such as the calculation of the antenna patterns, to be made available to future planning Conferences as well as to assess more precisely the performance of existing transmitting systems. This Recommendation has been developed to respond timely to such requirements providing, as in the case of the companion Recommendations ITU R BS.705 and ITU-R BS.1195, that the associated computer program to be used to perform the relevant calculations.


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