Latin Name: Angelica archangelica (Europe), Angelica officinalis (Asia) Common Names

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Family Name: Parsley

Family Name: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)

Latin Name: Angelica archangelica (Europe), Angelica officinalis (Asia)
Common Names: Angelica, Angerika, Ch'Ien Tu, Engelwurz, Garden Angelica, Great Angelica, Grote Engelwortel, Melekotu, Norwegian Angelica, Wild Parsnip (4).
Related Species: A. arguta (Sharptooth Angelica), A. genuflexa (Kneeling Angelica), A. lucida (Sea-watch) (5:218)

Body System Affiliations: Digestive, Circulatory, Respiratory

Botanical Description:

Habit: Biennial herb (5).

Size: Up to 1 ½ m by ¾ m (5).

Branching: Thick, hollow stem shoots up from basal leaves. (1:186)

Leaves: Divided, toothed, light yellow (1:186)

Flowers: Umbel of greenish-yellow flowers, made of semiglobular umbellets (1:186)

Fruit: Elliptic-oblong, dorsally compressed (2:320)

Underground Parts: Taproot (1:186)


Habitat: Moist, rich soil, shade
Range: Europe, China, Germany, Spain, Turkey (5)
Native Where: Northern Europe and Western Asia (1:186)

Western (European-American) Uses/Relationships:

Food: Leaves have been added to salad, leafstalks have been cooked like asparagus, leafstalks and flower stems have been candied and used to decorate pastries. Seeds have been used to flavor alcohol (1:186).

Part Used: Root, leaves.

Medicinal Actions: Antispasmodic, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant, stomachic, tonic (5).

Indications: Used for respiratory problems like cough and bronchitis, especially if accompanied by fever. Also eases colic and helps with excessive flatulence (3:60).

Body System Associations: Digestive system, Respiratory system, Circulatory system

Constituents: Phellandrene, Pinene, Angelica acid, Coumarin compounds, Tannin, Bitter principle (3:60).

Harvest: Roots in fall and arial parts in early summer (3:60).

Storage: Dry root and leaves.

Preparation: Decoction or tincture of root.

Applications: Drink tea or take tincture 3 times daily (3:60)

Essential Oil Information:

Essential Oils: Phellandrene, pinine

Indications: Used for rheumatism (5).

Aromatherapy: Musky smell sometimes used in perfume (5).

Other: Used as food, liqueur flavoring.

Other Notes of Interest: Genus name comes from Latin angelus, angel, referring to medicinal value of some species (2:320).


Plant Part: Leaves, leafstalks, flower stalks

Season of Harvest: Early summer
Plant Part: Roots

Season of Harvest: Fall


Technique: Sow in moist, rich soil (2:186).

Present in “Gifts of the First People” Project: Yes, in Digestive System Bed.

References Cited:
1. Brenzel, Kathleen Norris, et al. Western Garden Book. Menlo Park, California: Sunset Publishing Corporation, 2001.
2. Hitchcock, C. Leo, and Arthur Cronquist. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1973.
3. Hoffman, David. The Holistic Herbal. London: Element Books Limited, 1996
4. Morris, Rick. Plants for a Future Database. [Site visited 8-13-2003]
5. Pojar, Jim, and Andy MacKinnon. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Vancouver, British Columbia: Ministry of Forests and Lone Pine Publishing, 1994.


Erin Degenstein

Plants as Food and Medicine

Summer 2003

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