Habitat: Moist, rich soil, shade
Range: Europe, China, Germany, Spain, Turkey (5)
Native Where: Northern Europe and Western Asia (1:186)
Western (European-American) Uses/Relationships:
Food: Leaves have been added to salad, leafstalks have been cooked like asparagus, leafstalks and flower stems have been candied and used to decorate pastries. Seeds have been used to flavor alcohol (1:186).
Present in “Gifts of the First People” Project: Yes, in Digestive System Bed.
References Cited: 1. Brenzel, Kathleen Norris, et al. Western Garden Book. Menlo Park, California: Sunset Publishing Corporation, 2001.
2. Hitchcock, C. Leo, and Arthur Cronquist. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1973.
3. Hoffman, David. The Holistic Herbal. London: Element Books Limited, 1996
4. Morris, Rick. Plants for a Future Database. http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/database/latinA.html [Site visited 8-13-2003]
5. Pojar, Jim, and Andy MacKinnon. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Vancouver, British Columbia: Ministry of Forests and Lone Pine Publishing, 1994.