|31 4 (Key Question) What are the components of the M1 money supply? What is the largest component? Which of the components of M1 is legal tender? Why is the face value of a coin greater than its intrinsic value? What near monies are included in M2 money supply?
M1 = currency (in circulation) + checkable deposits. The largest component of M1 is currency (54 percent), and it is the only part that is legal tender. If the face value of a coin were not greater than its intrinsic (metallic) value, people would remove coins from circulation and sell them for their metallic content. M2 = M1 + noncheckable savings deposits + money market deposit accounts + small time deposits + money market mutual fund balances.
31-6 (Key Question) Suppose the price level and value of the dollar in year 1 are 1.0 and $1.00, respectively. If the price level rises to 1.25 in year 2, what is the new value of the dollar? If instead the price level had fallen to .50, what would have been the value of the dollar? What generalization can you draw from your answer?
In the first case, the value of the dollar (in year 2, relative to year 1) is $.80 (= 1/1.25); in the second case the value is $2 (= 1/.50). Generalization: The price level and the value of the dollar are inversely related.
31-8 (Key Question) What is meant when economists say that the Federal Reserve Banks are central banks, quasi-public banks, and bankers’ banks? What are the seven basic functions of the Federal Reserve System?
The 12 Federal Reserve Banks are “central” banks whose policies are coordinated by the Board of Governors. They are quasi-public banks, meaning that they are a blend of private ownership and public control. They are also bankers’ banks in that they perform essentially the same functions for banks and thrifts as those institutions perform for the public.
The Federal Reserve performs 7 basic functions:
1. The Fed issues Federal Reserve Notes, the paper currency used in the U.S. monetary system.
2. The Fed sets reserve requirements and holds the mandated reserves that are not held as vault cash.
3. The Fed lends money to banks and thrifts.
4. The Fed provides for check collection.
5. The Fed acts as fiscal agent for the Federal government.
6. The Fed supervises the operation of banks.
7. Finally, and most importantly, the Fed has responsibility for regulating the supply of money, and this in turn enables it to affect interest rates.