May 20, 2006
Packet # 10
1. This event is described in a poem by Timotheus of Miletus of which only fragments survive. It was precipitated by a slave named Sicinnus, who misled one of the commanders about a putative retreat. In its aftermath, the island of Psyttaleia was recaptured, leading to the massacre of the elite guard of the losing side. The commanders on the winning side included Adeimantus and Eurybiades, while the losing side featured Artemisia of Halicarnassus. Named for an island in the Saronic Gulf, FTP, name this battle of 480 BC, a victory for the Greeks and Themistocles over Xerxes and his Persian forces.
ANSWER: the Battle of Salamis
2. The ratio between two material-dependent quantities named for this man is given by the Weiss coefficient. This man and his older brother discovered a phenomenon exhibited by 20 of the 21 point groups which lack a center of inversion. That linear phenomenon is similar to a universal quadratic phenomenon representing the failure of Hooke’s law in describing the changes in interionic distances with applied field, an effect known as electrostriction. His law gives an inverse relationship between temperature and magnetization for paramagnetic materials. Ferromagnetic materials become paramagnetic above a temperature known as his point. FTP, name this man who discovered radium and polonium with his wife.
ANSWER: Pierre Curie
3. This man’s poems include an ode which asserts that the “spacious firmament on high” and the “blue ethereal sky” proclaim that they were created by an “Almighty Hand.” He wishes that he could “Raphael’s godlike art rehearse” in a poem which notes that the Boin was an “inglorious” stream until “Nassau’s sword” and the verse of Lord Halifax made its “billows through the world resound.” In addition to “A Letter from Italy,” he wrote a play about a man whose sons Porcius and Marcus are in love with Lucia, while his daughter Marcia is loved by Juba. In addition to that play about a man who killed himself at Utica, Cato, he wrote The Campaign and a number of essays with his chief collaborator. FTP, name this co-founder of The Spectator who liked to hang out with Richard Steele.
ANSWER: Joseph Addison
4. In Micronesian myth, the great conger eel Riiki assisted in this task. In Mayan myth, this task was accomplished by the sons of Itzamna and Ixchel known as the Bacabs. This job was given to the slumbering giant Upelluri in Hittite myth, and in Norse myth the job was given to four dwarves named Austri, Vestri, Suthri, and Northri. In Greek myth, this task was given to the oldest son of Iapetus, and in Egyptian myth it was accomplished by Shu, who supported his daughter Nut. In Greek myth, the Titan who was given this job earned a brief respite when he helped retrieve some golden apples, but Hercules tricked him into resuming his burden. FTP name this heavy labor carried out by Atlas.
ANSWER: holding up the sky or carrying the heavens or equivalents
5. The 15th chapter of this book considers the income, business, precautionary, and speculative motives, which appear in a discussion of the “psychological and business incentives to liquidity.” That chapter appears in Book Four, “The Inducement to Invest,” which follows a book that looks at the objective and subjective factors behind the “propensity to consume.” The first book discusses two postulates which define the “wage” and the “utility of the wage” which the author regards as fundamental to the “classical” school of thought, and which the author things are applicable only to a special case and not to his own economic society. FTP, name this 1936 book which follows up on the Treatise on Money, the major work of John Maynard Keynes.
ANSWER: The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money
6. Jerome Glanville and James Harris escaped injury, but William Sherman wasn’t so lucky. Earlier, William and Drury Doyle had died along with their father James, while Allen Wilkinson was killed by Theodore Weiner and Henry Thompson. After the instigators failed to locate Dutch Henry, they returned to an encampment on the Ottawa Creek. It began on the night of May 24, and was a response to the sacking of Lawrence. FTP, name this massacre of 1856 in Franklin County, Kansas, which was led by John Brown.
ANSWER: the Pottawatomie Massacre (accept equivalents)
7. Loss of epithelial foot processes in this structure results in minimal change disease, while Goodpasture syndrome results from the deposition of antibodies directed against the basement membranes of lung alveoli and it. Cells surrounding the arteriole that feeds (*) it synthesize a hormone that activates angiotensin, known as renin. When it is intact, it excludes the passage of cells and proteins such as albumin, which might otherwise be excreted. Surrounded by Bowman's capsule, FTP identify this bundle of capillaries that filters blood at the beginning of a nephron.
ANSWER: glomerulus (somewhat reluctantly prompt on "kidney" before (*))
8. This work notes that a character created by Henri Monnier, Monsieur Prudhomme, was “born with Christ,” after which philosophers are informed that the “world has no age” and that while they are “in the Occident” they are “free to live” in their Orient. Its final section, “Farewell,” begins by noting that it is autumn already and includes the notorious claim that “one must be absolutely modern.” It also includes sections on “the foolish virgin” and the “alchemy of the word,” which appear in “Delirium.” At the end of the opening section, the author offers a few “hideous pages” to Satan from his “notebook of one of the damned.” FTP, name this work in prose and verse finished after the author was shot by Paul Verlaine, a book by Arthur Rimbaud.
ANSWER: A Season in Hell or Une Saison en Enfer
9. He showed two figures looking on behind the titular female figure while a man reaches down to the head of the sleeping titular male figure in his Samson and Delilah. He showed a fat old man being supported by a man and a woman in his Silenus Drunk, while a bearded man in red has his hand on a woman’s head in his snake-stuffed canvas Moses and the Serpent. More famously, Raphael Racius, Nicholas Lanier, George Digby, and Henrietta Maria are among those whose portraits he painted. FTP, name this artist who in the 1630s painted numerous portraits of King Charles I.
ANSWER: Sir Anthony van Dyck
10. His albums include 1990’s Perspective and the children’s record SynthAnimals. He collaborated with his wife on the allegedly humorous The Bald Book and 187 Men to Avoid, but is better known for fictional works. In one of his novels, the titular virus is created by Ensei Tankado and has to be stopped by Susan Fletcher, while another of his novels features a mysterious meteorite found in a glacier. He wrote about an attempt to use antimatter to destroy the Vatican in a novel which introduced Robert Langdon. FTP, name this author of Digital Fortress, Deception Point, Angels and Demons, and of course The Da Vinci Code.
ANSWER: Dan Brown
11. After this man’s death his second wife, Joan, was prosecuted for witchcraft by his son. He almost fought a duel with Thomas Mowbray after denouncing the latter as a traitor, but instead both men were banished. His friend Thomas Arundel joined him in exile, and later Arundel would serve as his chancellor. He put down a rebellion led by Richard Scrope, the archbishop of York, and defeated another rebellion at Shrewsbury, where Henry Percy was killed. FTP, name this man who was also bothered by Owen Glendower, the first English monarch of the House of Lancaster who succeeded Richard II in 1399.
ANSWER: Henry IV (accept Henry Bolingbroke)
12. In the second act, the title character’s husband sings the aria “Bannis la crainte et les alarmes” to soothe her, and after she is left alone with her people she sings that in spite of herself, her feeble heart shares their tender tears. The first act features several “Pantomime” tunes which are heard in a temple, after which the title character sings “No, it is not a sacrifice.” The most famous aria, “Divinités du Styx,” is sung in defiance of the gods of the underworld at the end of the first act, after which Evander congratulates the king on his recovery. Featuring a scene at the gates of hell, it ends with Hercules retrieving the title character. FTP, name this opera, a 1767 work about the husband of Admetus which was based on a Euripides play and composed by Christoph Gluck.
ANSWER: Alceste or Alcestis
13. One of this author’s last novels centers on a man who goes to a cemetery with an interior designer he has always loved to help her disinter her dead husband. Another of his novels focuses on a journalist turned academic who goes to Eastern Europe when his mother-in-law is dying. A novel this man published in 1959 centers on a man who leaves the country after his family’s cook dies in their kitchen, after which he goes to Africa and falls in with the Wariri tribe. In addition to The Actual, The Dean’s December, and Henderson the Rain King, he has written Seize the Day and Humboldt’s Gift. FTP, name this Nobel Prize winning American novelist of Herzog.
ANSWER: Saul Bellow
14. Observations of this star provided the first evidence of stellar winds from a type A star. The paper in which Hanbury-Brown and Twiss first discussed the photon bunching effect reported a high-resolution angular diameter measurement of this star using intensity interferometry. Alvan Clark optically identified its companion 18 years after its companion’s existence was inferred from its wobbling movement by Bessel, and its companion was the first white dwarf to be identified as such. It forms an asterism with Betelgeuse and Procyon, and has an apparent magnitude of about -1.45. FTP, name this brightest star in the night sky, known as the Dog Star.
ANSWER: Sirius A or Alpha Canis Majoris A or Canicula or Aeschere (accept Dog Star before the end of the question)
15. It was divided into two branches centered at Iwakura and Kiyosu. One member of this family fought two battles at Azukizaka against the Imagawa and Matsudaira clans. That man’s son renamed one of the family’s castles Gifu and built a grander castle at Azuchi. Another was married to the daughter of Akechi Mitsuhide, who would betray the man who won the battle of Nagashino by using guns. That victor also united the province of Owari, and destroyed the monastery at Hiei after deposing the shogun Yoshiaki in 1573. FTP identify this family, which featured a member who deposed the last Ashikaga shogun, whose death was revenged by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and who was known as Nobunaga.
ANSWER: Oda clan or family
16. This book concludes with a section of “notes and drafts” which includes discussions of “the theory of ghosts” and “the genesis of stupidity.” The previous section discusses “elements of anti-Semitism” as “limits” of the title concept, while the opening chapter which is devoted to that concept is followed by two excurses, which consider the figures of Odysseus and Juliette. This book, which was dedicated to Friedrich Pollock, also includes a famous discussion of the title concept as “mass deception” in a chapter on the “culture industry.” FTP, name this book published in 1944 by two members of the Frankfurt School, Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno.
ANSWER: Dialectic of Enlightenment or Dialektik der Aufklärung
17. This name identifies the title story of a collection of tales about Mark Berman which is the first book by David Bezmozgis. It is also the name of a girl who falls in love with Vaska in Maxim Gorky’s The Lower Depths. A woman of this name marries Andrey Prozorov in The Three Sisters, while a “dance” of a better-known character by this name inspired the title of a book on Russian culture by Orlando Figes. That character has a dalliance with Anatole Kuragin which ruins her relationship with Andrey Bolkonski, though she ends up marrying Pierre Bezukhov. FTP, give this name of a character surnamed Rostova in War and Peace, which is also the name of a spy often seen with Boris Badenov in Rocky and Bullwinkle.
18. One branch of Taoism uses ensigillation to accomplish it, while Vietnamese Taoists often invoke Chen Xingdao when practicing it. In Shintoism, it is often performed at a place known as a haraijo. It is in violation of the rehat maryada, so Sikhs are forbidden to perform it, while the zar is an Islamic ceremony for it. In Catholicism, a form of it is performed prior to baptism, while in Judaism it involves getting rid of a dybbuk. FTP, name this ritual of casting out a demon which has possessed a person.
19. It suffered a major defeat at the battle of Cortenuova about 13 years before it ended. It was formally created about a decade after the Diet of Roncaglia made it necessary, and it achieved many of its goals at the Peace of Constance, which was reached seven years after its victory at the battle of Legnano. Its first incarnation, which was supported by Pope Alexander III, consisted of 16 cities, including Lodi, Vicenza, and Brescia. Formed in 1167 to resist Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, FTP, name this alliance of northern Italian cities named for a region whose modern capital is Milan.
ANSWER: the Lombard League (do not accept Lombardy)
20. In the Bouveault reaction, two moles of it are added to disubstituted formamides to produce an aldehyde and a tertiary amine. In solution, it exists in a Schlenk equilibrium with a complex whose formation is favored by the addition of dioxane. With the addition of a copper catalyst, it can add to alpha-beta unsaturated aldehydes in a 1,4-fashion, though it generally adds in a 1,2- fashion, in agreement with its hardness. In an alternative to the Barbier reaction, this type of molecule can produce tertiary alcohols from ketones in a nucleophilic reaction. It also reacts with oxygen to produce an alcohol and with water to give the corresponding alkane. FTP identify this group of compounds that is stabilized in ether and that is formed by the reaction of an alkyl halide and magnesium.
ANSWER: Grignard reagents
John Stuart Mill Bicentennial Open
May 20, 2006
Packet # 10
1. It is divided into the fibrillar center, dense fibrillar component, and granular component. FTPE:
 Identify this cellular structure, the site of ribosome assembly.
 The dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus is the site of this process that results in the production of 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNAs from a larger rRNA by the removal of introns.
ANSWER: splicing (accept alternate word forms)
 The nucleolus is found near these nuclear structures formerly known as nucleolar accessory bodies. They are named for the Spanish histologist who won a Nobel Prize with Golgi for his idea that the nervous system is made of neurons.
ANSWER: Cajal bodies or coiled bodies
2. Identify these 19th century French novels, FTPE:
 The Countess of Rudolstadt was the sequel to this 1842 George Sand novel about a gypsy girl who is discovered by Porporo and becomes a great opera singer.
 Frédéric Moreau undergoes the titular process in this Flaubert novel, part of which is set during the 1848 revolution.
ANSWER: Sentimental Education or L’Education sentimentale
 Characters such as the charming goat Djali and the sinister archdeacon Claude Frollo appear in this Victor Hugo novel.
ANSWER: The Hunchback of Notre Dame or Notre-Dame de Paris
3. Name these great pianists of the 20th century, FTPE:
 This Polish-born virtuoso wrote some of the most technically challenging pieces ever composed for the piano, including a set of 53 studies on the etudes of Chopin.
ANSWER: Leopold Godowsky
 This Russian-born pianist performed the world premiere of Samuel Barber’s piano sonata in 1949, four years before he took a twelve-year hiatus from the stage.
ANSWER: Vladimir Horowitz
 This eccentric Canadian quit giving stage performances in 1964, devoting himself instead to projects like a second recording of the Goldberg Variations.
ANSWER: Glenn Gould
4. After becoming chancellor in 1932, he tried to unify the state behind his “Fatherland Front,” but his attempt to ally his nation to Italy proved unsuccessful. FTPE:
 Name this politician, who was assassinated in the summer of 1934.
ANSWER: Engelbert Dollfuss
 The assassination of Engelbert Dollfuss was one of the first steps toward this union of Germany and Austria, which was formalized through a dubious plebiscite held in April 1938.
ANSWER: the Anschluss
 Upon the Anschluss, this Nazi replaced Kurt Schuschnigg as chancellor of Austria; he was later made commissioner of the Netherlands.
ANSWER: Arthur Seyss-Inquart
5. If there’s one thing we all learned from TRASHionals 2006, it’s that pornography is never funny. Answer these questions about a pornographic film that is in no way comical, FTPE:
 This 1979 film was directed by Tinto Brass, and much of the dialogue was written by Roberto Rosselini’s nephew Franco. Sadly, it features the talents of Helen Mirren and John Gielgud.
 This actor slummed as Tiberius in Caligula. You might have also enjoyed his work as Priam in 2004’s dreadful Troy or as Zaltar in Supergirl.
ANSWER: Peter O’Toole
 Caligula was produced by this noted cinéaste, whose other accomplishments include founding the science fiction magazine Omni and the music magazine Spin.
ANSWER: Bob Guccione, Jr.
6. The title character decapitates his wife, after which he disembowels himself before being executed. FTPE:
 Name this so-called “true history” about a man from Coromantien, which was published in 1688.
ANSWER: Oroonoko, or the Royal Slave
 This author, the first Englishwoman to work as a professional writer, wrote Oroonoko.
ANSWER: Aphra Behn
 This is the wife of Oroonoko, whom he kills so that he can be free to revenge himself, not that he succeeds in doing so.
7. It is given by the momentum crossed with the angular momentum, minus the mass times the unit radial vector times a parameter describing the strength of the central potential. FTPE:
 Name this vector quantity, defined for certain types of motion, which is conserved in those motions.
ANSWER: Laplace-Runge-Lenz or Laplace or Runge-Lenz vector
 The Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector is defined for this type of central force, which gives rise to elliptic closed orbits. Examples include gravity and electrostatic forces.
ANSWER: inverse square or one over r squared
 The magnitude of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector is proportional to this quantity, which characterizes the shape of an orbit. For a parabola, it is 1; for a circle, it is 0.
8. It includes chapters on “the height of the times” and “the barbarism of specialisation.” FTPE:
 Name this philosophical work first published in 1930, which describes the titular group as commonplace minds which have the assurance to proclaim the rights of the commonplace.
ANSWER: The Revolt of the Masses or La Rebelion de las Masas
 This Spanish thinker of Man and Crisis and Meditations on Quixote wrote The Revolt of the Masses.
ANSWER: José Ortega y Gasset
 In chapter 4, Ortega notes that this man’s investigations on the intelligence of chimpanzees have shown that it costs more to dissociate ideas than to associate them. Those investigations are discussed in this thinker’s The Mentality of Apes.
ANSWER: Wolfgang Köhler
9. Answer the following about bestiality in myth, FTPE.
 This Canaanite god copulated with a heifer a whole bunch of times as preparation for a throwdown with Mot. Sadly, it wasn’t enough.
 This nephew of Math spent three years in the forms of a deer, a pig and a wolf, mating with his brother Gilfaethwy.
 Daedalus constructed a hollow cow-mobile with strategically-placed holes so that this queen could satisfy her lust for the Cretan Bull. As a result, she gave birth to the Minotaur.
10. This city was known as Palmerston before being renamed for a nearby harbor in 1911. FTPE:
 Name this city on the Timor Sea, which was levelled by a cyclone in 1974.
 Darwin is the capital of this self-governing portion of Australia.
ANSWER: Northern Territory
 This is the other major settlement of the Northern Territory. It was named for the wife of Charles Todd, and used to rake in tourist dollars from visitors to the relatively nearby Ayers Rock.
ANSWER: Alice Springs
11. He presided over the Supreme Court under Ignacio Comonfort. FTPE:
 Name this man whose presidency saw the invasion of French troops under Maximilian.
ANSWER: Benito Pablo Juárez
 Juárez was a member of this indigenous group found primarily in Oaxaca. Many of their pre-Colombian centers, including Mitla, were taken over by the Mixtecs.
 The “Danzantes” are among the oldest carved stones of this important pre-Colombian Zapotec city, built on an artificially-flattened hilltop. Its Spanish name means “White Mountain.”
ANSWER: Monte Albán
12. This term coined by Michael Turner applies to any component with equation of state parameter less than -1/3. FTPE:
 This stuff provides a positive acceleration to the Universe and currently makes up about 73% of the density. Candidates include quintessence.
ANSWER: dark energy
 This simple model of dark energy with equation of state parameter -1 is associated with vacuum energy. It was introduced by Einstein as a fudge factor allowing a static Universe, and he later repudiated it as his greatest blunder.
ANSWER: cosmological constant
 The first evidence for cosmic acceleration came from observations of these standard candles. They are thought to result from white dwarves in binary systems pushed over the Chandrasekhar limit by mass transfer.
ANSWER: type Ia supernova (“one a”; prompt on supernova)
13. Name these 20th century English poets, FTPE:
 This author of Mercian Hymns, which juxtaposes passages about King Offa and scenes of modern English life, and The Mystery of the Charity of Charles Péguy is considered the foremost living English poet.
ANSWER: Geoffrey Hill
 His slender output includes the volumes The Whitsun Weddings and High Windows, while in his “This Be The Verse” he noted “They fuck you up, your mum and dad.”
ANSWER: Philip Larkin
 This author of Wodwo and Hawk in the Rain succeeded John Betjeman as Poet Laureate in 1984.
ANSWER: Ted Hughes
14. Artists associated with the movement include Robert van’t Hoff and Georges Vantongerloo. FTPE:
 Name this group of 20th-century artists, who eliminated representation in the interests of pure abstraction.
ANSWER: De Stijl or The Style
 This leading painter of De Stijl is best known for Broadway Boogie Woogie.
ANSWER: Piet Mondrian
 This member of De Stijl was a furniture maker and architect best known for the buildings he produced in Utrecht, such as the Schroder House.
ANSWER: Gerrit Rietveld
15. It was captured by Napoleon in 1798 after Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolstein was forced to surrender. FTPE:
 Name this island in the Mediterranean.
 Malta was returned to the Knights of Malta through this 1802 peace treaty, in which Great Britain promised to return Egypt to the Ottoman Empire.
ANSWER: Treaty of Amiens
 After Napoleon tossed the Knights of Malta off their island, they ousted the inept Ferdinand von Hompesch and made this Russian tsar their new Grand Master.
ANSWER: Paul I
16. Its third chapter discusses “animism, magic, and the omnipotence of thoughts” and argues that animism is the most primitive system of thought. FTPE:
 Name this book which first appeared in 1913, though its chapters had earlier appeared as essays under the title “On Some Points of Agreement between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics.”
ANSWER: Totem and Taboo (or Totem und Tabu)
 This author of Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of his Childhood and Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety wrote Totem and Taboo.
ANSWER: Sigmund Freud
 The opening chapter of Totem and Taboo deals with the “horror” of this practice. In support of his views on the subject, Freud cites a 1912 book by Otto Rank which dealt with this “motif” in poetry and myth.
17. Answer the following about that vital element, yttrium, FTPE:
 Yttrium was first isolated from yttrium chloride by this man who may be better known for his synthesis of urea.
ANSWER: Friedrich Wohler
 The high-temperature superconductor yttrium barium copper oxide has this type of crystal structure named for a mineral of calcium titanium oxide. It is often adopted by compounds with the general formula A-B-X3 and contains 12-coordinate A atoms and 6-coordinate B atoms.
 Yttrium can form a synthetic garnet with this element that can be produced by the Hall-Heroult process.
ANSWER: aluminum or Al
18. He last appeared in 1953’s The Face of Time, having earlier been featured in No Star Is Lost and My Days of Anger. FTPE:
 Name this hero of a series of novels by an American author, a Catholic youth who, like Seth Teitler, attends the University of Chicago on his way up from lower-class life.
ANSWER: Danny O’Neill
 Name the author of A World I Never Made and four other novels about Danny O’Neill.
ANSWER: James Farrell
 Danny O’Neill also makes an appearance in James Farrell’s trilogy about this other Irish-Catholic youth from Chicago, which ends with Judgment Day.
ANSWER: Studs Lonigan
19. Those involved generally landed at Skagway before ascending the treacherous Chilkoot Pass to arrive at their destination. FTPE:
 Name this hopeful migration, which began after a discovery was made by a member of the Carmack family in 1896.
ANSWER: the Klondike Gold Rush (accept equivalents)
 This city owed its existence to the Klondike Gold Rush, becoming the first capital of the Yukon territory in 1898. It shrank dramatically after Whitehorse displaced it as the territorial capital.
ANSWER: Dawson City
 The Klondike Gold Rush began when gold was discovered in this creek, whose name was changed to reflect the auspicious event.
ANSWER: Bonanza Creek (accept Rabbit Creek)
20. The rules associated with it include name changing, or alpha conversion, and function application, or beta reduction. FTPE:
 Name this formal system which was used in a 1936 paper to prove a negative answer to the Entscheidungsproblem.
ANSWER: lambda calculus
 This man developed the lambda calculus. He also developed a thesis named for himself and Turing.
ANSWER: Alonzo Church
 Turing also wrote a 1936 paper on the Enscheidungsproblem, in which he proved that this problem is undecidable on Turing machines. It asks whether there is an algorithm that can determine if a given program operating on a given input will complete.
ANSWER: halting problem