Item mo-901 seeding description 901 1




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ITEM MO-901 SEEDING
DESCRIPTION
901-1.1 This work shall consist of soil preparation, application of agricultural lime and commercial fertilizer, and furnishing and sowing seed on the areas shown on the plans or as directed by the engineer. All disturbed areas shall be seeded except for sodded areas, surfaced areas, solid rock and slopes consisting primarily of broken rock. Disturbed areas outside of authorized construction limits shall be seeded at the contractor’s expense.

MATERIALS





      1. SEED. The seed shall be grown and processed in the United States or Canada and comply with the requirements of the Missouri Seed Law. Certain lots of seed may be desirable for the advancement of a local ecotype when specified, and will be the only seed permitted.

Seed shall be furnished separately or in mixtures in standard containers with the seed name, lot number, net weight, percentages of purity and germination and hard seed, and percentage of maximum weed seed content clearly marked for each kind of seed. The contractor shall furnish the engineer duplicate signed copies of a statement by the vendor certifying that each lot of seed has been tested by a recognized laboratory for seed testing within 6 months of date of delivery. This statement shall include: name and address of laboratory, date of test, lot number for each kind of seed, and the results of tests as to name, percentages of purity and of germination, and percentage of weed content for each kind of seed furnished, and, in case of a mixture, the proportions of each kind of seed.


The seed species and application rate(s) shall be as follows and comply with the seed table below:

Seed Species

Rate of Application


lb./acre


























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Seeding species and rates must be specified that are compatible with local climate and soil conditions. Due consideration must be given to longevity of plants, resistance to traffic and erosion, and attraction of birds or large animals. Local offices of the USDA Soil Conservation Service and the State University Agricultural Extension Service (County Agent or equivalent) shall be consulted for assistance and recommendations. These agencies shall also be consulted for liming and fertilizer recommendations.

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The following percentages for purity and germination or pure live seed will be the minimum requirements in the acceptance of seed, unless otherwise permitted by the engineer.

SEED REQUIREMENTS


Non-native Grasses

Scientific Name

Purity

Germination*

Pure Live Seed


Bermuda Grass

Cynodon dactylon

95

80




Smooth Bromegrass

Bromus inermis

85

80




Kentucky Bluegrass

Poa pratensis

85

80




Orchardgrass

Dactylis glomerata

85

80




Perennial Ryegrass

Lolium perenne

98

85




Tall Fescue

Festuca arundinacea

97

85




Red Fescue

Festuca rubra

97

85




Timothy

Phleum pratense

98

85




Cereal or Cover Crop

Scientific Name

Purity


Germination

Pure Live Seed

Annual Ryegrass

Lolium multiflorum

98

85




Redtop

Agrostis alba

92

85




Oat Grain

Avena sativia

98

85




Rye Grain

Secale cereale

98

80




Wheat Grain

Triticum aestivum

97

85




Wildrye, Virginia

Elymus virginicus







60

Wildrye, Canada

Elymus canadensis







60

Legumes


Scientific Name

Purity

Germination

Pure Live Seed

Korean Lespedeza

Lespedeza stipulacea

98

85




Alsike Clover

Trifolium hybridum

98

85




Red Clover

Trifolium pratense

98

85




White Clover

Trifolium repens

98

85




Hairy Vetch

Vicia villosa

97

80




Partridge Pea

Chamaecrista fasciculate

98

80




Native Grasses

Scientific Name

Purity

Variety(s)

Pure Live Seed

Big Bluestem

Andropgon gerardii




Mo. Ecotype Roundtree Kaw

40

Blue Grama

Bouteloua gracilis







40

Buffalograss

Buchloe dactyloides




Mo. Ecotype Sharp’s Improved Texoka

65

Indiangrass

Sorghastrum nutans




Mo. Ecotype Rumsey Cheyenne

50

Little Bluestem

Schizachyrium scoparium




Mo. Ecotype Aldous Cimmaron

40

Eastern Gamagrass

Tripsacum dactyloides




Mo. Ecotype




Sideoats Grama

Bouteloua curtipendula




Mo. Ecotype El Reno Trailway

40

Switchgrass

Panicum virgatum




Mo. Ecotype Trailblazer Cave-in-Rock

80

Wildrye, Virginia

Elymus virginicus







60

Wildrye, Canada

Elymus canadensis







60

Cluster Fescue

Festuca paradoxa




Mo. Ecotype




Rough Dropseed

Sporobolus compositus




Mo. Ecotype




Prairie Dropseed

Sporobolus heterolopus










Prairie Cordgrass

Spartina pectinata









* Will not apply if unhulled or unscarified seed is specified.


If the specified quantity is in pounds of seed, no reduction will be permitted in the specified quantity of seed if the purity or germination, or both, are higher than the minimum required by the specifications. If the specified quantity is in pounds of pure live seed, the pure live seed quantity shall be determined from the actual percentage shown by the supplier for native grasses or by multiplying the actual percentages of purity times the actual percentage of germination including hard seed for other seed.
All leguminous seed shall be inoculated or treated with the proper quantity of cultures approved for the particular legume to be sown. Leguminous seed include alsike clover, Korean lespedeza, red clover, white clover, hairy vetch, partride pea and slender bush clover. The inoculant for treating leguminous seed shall be a nitrogen-fixing bacteria culture. The inoculant containers shall be plainly marked with the expiration date for use. The manufacturer’s recommendations for inoculating seed shall be followed.
901-2.2 LIME. Material used for soil neutralization, unless otherwise specified, shall be agricultural lime with not less than 90 percent passing the No. 8 sieve and containing not less than 65 percent calcium carbonate equivalent.
The rate of application of lime shall be that required to provide at least the quantity of effective neutralizing material (E.N.M.) of [ ] pounds per acre. Agricultural lime shall be furnished from a source that has been tested and certified in accordance with the Missouri Agricultural Liming Materials Act. The quantity of material required to provide the specified pounds of E.N.M. per acre shall be determined from the producer or distributor’s certification of analysis furnished by the Director of the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station, Columbia, Missouri in accordance with the Missouri Agricultural Liming Materials Act. The contractor shall provide a copy of this certification to the engineer prior to application. If agricultural lime is furnished as a commercially bagged product, pelletized or otherwise, with a guaranteed product analysis shown on the bag listing the elemental properties and gradation, the E.N.M. shall be calculated as specified below. Material may be accepted on the basis of bag label analysis.
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The engineer shall specify the application rate in pounds per acre

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901-2.3 FERTILIZER. Fertilizer shall be a standard commercial product which, when applied at the proper rate, will supply the quantity of total nitrogen (N), available phosphoric acid (P2O5) and soluble potash (K2O) as specified below. Material may be accepted on the basis of bag label analysis or supplier’s certification, and shall be in accordance with all applicable Missouri fertilizer laws.

Fertilizer


lbs/acre

Nitrogen (N)




Phosphoric Acid (P2O5)




Potash (K2O)





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The engineer shall specify the application rate in pounds per acre. Paragraphs 2.2 and 2.3 shall be deleted if not applicable.

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901-2.4 SOILS FOR REPAIRS. The soil for fill and topsoiling of areas to be repaired shall be at least of equal quality to that which exists in areas adjacent to the area to be repaired. The soil shall be relatively free from large stones, roots, stumps, or other materials that will interfere with subsequent sowing of seed, compacting, and establishing turf, and shall be approved by the engineer before being placed.

CONSTRUCTION METHODS



901-3.1 ADVANCE PREPARATION AND CLEANUP. After grading of areas has been completed and before applying fertilizer and ground limestone, areas to be seeded shall be raked or otherwise cleared of stones larger than 2 inches in any diameter, sticks, stumps, and other debris that might interfere with sowing of seed, growth of grasses, or subsequent maintenance of grass-covered areas. If any damage by erosion or other causes has occurred after the completion of grading and before beginning the application of fertilizer and ground limestone, the Contractor shall repair such damage. This may include filling gullies, smoothing irregularities, and repairing other incidental damage.
An area to be seeded shall be considered a satisfactory seedbed without additional treatment if it has recently been thoroughly loosened and worked to a depth of not less than 5 inches as a result of grading operations and, if immediately prior to seeding, the top 3 inches of soil is loose, friable, reasonably free from large clods, rocks, large roots, or other undesirable matter, and if shaped to the required grade.
However, when the area to be seeded is sparsely sodded, weedy, barren and unworked, or packed and hard, any grass and weeds shall first be cut or otherwise satisfactorily disposed of, and the soil then scarified or otherwise loosened to a depth not less than 5 inches. Clods shall be broken and the top 3 inches of soil shall be worked into a satisfactory seedbed by discing, or by use of cultipackers, rollers, drags, harrows, or other appropriate means.
901-3.2 DRY APPLICATION METHOD.
a. Liming. Lime shall be applied separately and prior to the application of any fertilizer or seed and only on seedbeds that have previously been prepared as described above. The lime shall then be worked into the top 3 inches of soil after which the seedbed shall again be properly graded and dressed to a smooth finish.
b. Fertilizing. Following advance preparations and cleanup fertilizer shall be uniformly spread at the rate that will provide not less than the minimum quantity stated in paragraph 901-2.3.
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Delete paragraphs a. and b. if not applicable.

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c. Seeding. Grass seed shall be sown at the rate specified in paragraph 901-2.1 immediately after fertilizing, and the fertilizer and seed shall be raked within the depth range stated in the special provisions. Seeds of legumes, either alone or in mixtures, shall be inoculated before mixing or sowing, in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer of the inoculant. When seeding is required at other than the seasons shown on the plans or in the special provisions, a cover crop shall be sown by the same methods required for grass and legume seeding.
d. Rolling. After the seed has been properly covered, the seedbed shall be immediately compacted by means of an approved lawnroller, weighing 40 to 65 pounds per foot of width for clay soil (or any soil having a tendency to pack), and weighing 150 to 200 pounds per foot of width for sandy or light soils.
901-3.3 WET APPLICATION METHOD.
a. General. The Contractor may elect to apply seed and fertilizer (and lime, if required) by spraying them on the previously prepared seedbed in the form of an aqueous mixture and by using the methods and equipment described herein. The rates of application shall be as specified in the special provisions.
b. Spraying Equipment. The spraying equipment shall have a container or water tank equipped with a liquid level gauge calibrated to read in increments not larger than 50 gallons over the entire range of the tank capacity, mounted so as to be visible to the nozzle operator. The container or tank shall also be equipped with a mechanical power-driven agitator capable of keeping all the solids in the mixture in complete suspension at all times until used.
The unit shall also be equipped with a pressure pump capable of delivering 100 gallons per minute at a pressure of 100 pounds per square inch. The pump shall be mounted in a line that will recirculate the mixture through the tank whenever it is not being sprayed from the nozzle. All pump passages and pipe lines shall be capable of providing clearance for 5/8 inch solids. The power unit for the pump and agitator shall have controls mounted so as to be accessible to the nozzle operator. There shall be an indicating pressure gauge connected and mounted immediately at the back of the nozzle.
The nozzle pipe shall be mounted on an elevated supporting stand in such a manner that it can be rotated through 360 degrees horizontally and inclined vertically from at least 20 degrees below to at least 60 degrees above the horizontal. There shall be a quick-acting, three-way control valve connecting the recirculating line to the nozzle pipe and mounted so that the nozzle operator can control and regulate the amount of flow of mixture delivered to the nozzle. At least three different types of nozzles shall be supplied so that mixtures may be properly sprayed over distance varying from 20 to 100 feet. One shall be a close-range ribbon nozzle, one a medium-range ribbon nozzle, and one a long-range jet nozzle. For case of removal and cleaning, all nozzles shall be connected to the nozzle pipe by means of quick-release couplings.
In order to reach areas inaccessible to the regular equipment, an extension hose at least 50 feet in length shall be provided to which the nozzles may be connected.
c. Mixtures. Lime, if required, shall be applied separately, in the quantity specified, prior to the fertilizing and seeding operations. Not more than 220 pounds of lime shall be added to and mixed with each 100 gallons of water. Seed and fertilizer shall be mixed together in the relative proportions specified, but not more than a total of 220 pounds of these combined solids shall be added to and mixed with each 100 gallons of water.
All water used shall be obtained from fresh water sources and shall be free from injurious chemicals and other toxic substances harmful to plant life. Brackish water shall not be used at any time. The Contractor shall identify to the Engineer all sources of water at least 2 weeks prior to use. The Engineer may take samples of the water at the source or from the tank at any time and have a laboratory test the samples for chemical and saline content. The Contractor shall not use any water from any source that is disapproved by the Engineer following such tests.
All mixtures shall be constantly agitated from the time they are mixed until they are finally applied to the seedbed. All such mixtures shall be used within 2 hours from the time they were mixed or they shall be wasted and disposed of at locations acceptable to the Engineer.
d. Spraying. Lime, if required, shall be sprayed only upon previously prepared seedbeds. After the applied lime mixture has dried, the lime shall be worked into the top 3 inches, after which the seedbed shall again be properly graded and dressed to a smooth finish.
Mixtures of seed and fertilizer shall only be sprayed upon previously prepared seedbeds on which the lime, if required, shall already have been worked in. The mixtures shall be applied by means of a high-pressure spray that shall always be directed upward into the air so that the mixtures will fall to the ground like rain in a uniform spray. Nozzles or sprays shall never be directed toward the ground in such a manner as might produce erosion or runoff.
Particular care shall be exercised to insure that the application is made uniformly and at the prescribed rate and to guard against misses and overlapped areas. Proper predetermined quantities of the mixture in accordance with specifications shall be used to cover specified sections of known area. Checks on the rate and uniformity of application may be made by observing the degree of wetting of the ground or by distributing test sheets of paper or pans over the area at intervals and observing the quantity of material deposited thereon.
On surfaces that are to be mulched as indicated by the plans or designated by the Engineer, seed and fertilizer applied by the spray method need not be raked into the soil or rolled. However, on surfaces on which mulch is not to be used, the raking and rolling operations will be required after the soil has dried.
901-3.4 MAINTENANCE OF SEEDED AREAS. The Contractor shall protect seeded areas against traffic or other use by warning signs or barricades, as approved by the Engineer. Surfaces gullied or otherwise damaged following seeding shall be repaired by regrading and reseeding as directed. The Contractor shall mow, water as directed, and otherwise maintain seeded areas in a satisfactory condition until final inspection and acceptance of the work.
901-3.5 ACCEPTANCE. The performance standard shall be met before acceptance of the work. It will be required that the Contractor establish a good stand of grass of uniform color and density to the satisfaction of the Engineer. A grass stand shall be considered adequate when bare spots are one square foot or less, randomly dispersed, and do not exceed 3% of the area seeded. Inspection for acceptance will be made within 60 days after seeding, excluding seeding dates that fall between September 30 and March 1. Seeding dates that fall between September 30 and March 1 will be evaluated no earlier than May 1. Payment for the unaccepted portions of the areas seeded out of season will be withheld until such time as the requirements specified herein have been satisfied.
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NOTE TO SPECIFIER: For projects involving runway safety areas, supplement this section to include provisions for the contractor to immediately (e.g. 48 hour response time) address erosion, washout and surface irregularities within the runway safety area once the runway is re-opened for aircraft operations. The runway safety area grading must be met at all times the runway is open to aircraft operations.


Designers are encouraged to investigate installation of 18” sod strip or excelsior blanket next to the runway pavement edge to limit the erosion due to sheet flow off the pavement edge.”

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METHOD OF MEASUREMENT



901-4.1 Measurement will be made of the area seeded to the nearest 1/10 acre.

BASIS OF PAYMENT



901-5.1 Payment shall be made at the contract unit price per acre or fraction thereof, for the accepted quantity of seeding. The price shall be full compensation for furnishing and placing all material and for all labor, equipment, tools, and incidentals necessary to complete the work prescribed in this item. No direct payment will be made for liming, fertilizing or seedbed preparation.
Payment will be made under:
Item MO 901 5.1 Airport Seeding--per acre

Rev. 08/01/07


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