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Türk. entomol. bült., 2011, 1 (2): ??-??

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Orijinal araştırma (Original article)

The Grapevine aphid, Aphis illinoisensis Shimer, 1866 (Hemiptera: Aphididae): An invasive pest in Isparta Province (Turkey)


Shalva Barjadze1* İsmail Karaca2 BülentYaşar2

Summary

Apterous and alate viviparous females of Aphis illinoisensis Shimer, 1866 (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were collected on grape, Vitis vinifera L. in Isparta city at September, 2010. This is a new record for aphid fauna of Isparta Province. A key to the apterous females of aphid species known to infest grape in Turkey is provided.



Key words:Grapevine aphid, Aphis illinoisensis, grape, Isparta

Anahtar sözcükler:Bağ siyah yaprakbiti, Aphis illinoisensis, bağ, Isparta

Introduction

The grape is one of the most important fruits that are widely grown in Turkey, where the vineyards comprise approximately 407,214 ha and produce a total of 3,448,157 tons of fruit per annum (Anonymous, 2008). Until our investigation Aphis illinoisensis Shimer, 1866 (Hemiptera: Aphididae) was recorded as an insect pest of grape in Adana, Hatay, İzmir, Kilis and Mersin provinces (Remaudière et al., 2003; Öztürk, 2007; Eser et al., 2008).

The grapevine aphid-Aphis illinoisensisis widespread in USA, Central and South America (Blackman & Eastop, 2006). It was accidentally introduced to Turkey, Greece, Tunisia, Algeria, Montenegro and Israel (Remaudière et al., 2003; Tsitsipis et al., 2005; Kamel-Ben Halima & Mdellel, 2010; Laamari & Coeur d' Acier, 2010; Petrović-Obradović et al., 2010; Barjadze & Ben-Dov, 2010). In North America this aphid is a heteroecious holocyclic species, species that migrates from the primary host - Viburnum prunifolium L. to the secondary hosts (species of several genera of Vitaceae including Ampelocissus, Cissus, Parthenocissus, Vitis (Baker, 1917; Blackman & Eastop, 2006), while in warmer climates and greenhouses it is probably anholocyclic (Blackman & Eastop, 2006). The grapevine aphid is a vector of Watermelon mosaic virus-2 (Webb et al., 1994).

Material and Methods

Apterous and alate viviparous females were found on shoots and underside of leaves of Vitis vinifera L. in Isparta city, 21 September 2010, coll. Sh. Barjadze; det. Sh. Barjadze. The aphids cleared and individually mounted in Canada balsam on microscope slides using J. Martin’s technique (Martin, 1983). The specimens were studied using a Hirox microscope and each morphological character was measured by using special program software.

For aphid identification following literatures were used: Baker and Blackman and Eastop (Baker, 1917; Blackman & Eastop, 2006). Aphids slides are deposited at the Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey.

Results

Our collected aphids were determined as Aphis illinoisensis. This is a new record from Isparta Province. This aphid can cause serious loss of the yield of the grape by mechanical injury, honeydew production and viral diseases transmission in Isparta Province in the future.

In addition, four aphid species, namely, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis solanella Theobald and Viteus vitifoliae (Fitch) was recorded as grape pest from Turkey (Bodenheimer & Swirski, 1957; Çanakçioglu, 1975; Özdemir, 2004).

The apterous females of aphid species which infest grape in Turkey can be distinguished from each other according to the following key:



1. Aphids live within leaf galls or on root; body pyriform or broadest anteriorly; antenna 3-segmented. Siphunculi absent……………………………………………………………………………Viteus vitifoliae (Fitch)

-. Aphids live on shoots, leaves and sometimes on fruit clusters; body not broadest anteriorly; antenna 6-segmented. Siphunculi present…………………………………………………………………………….………2

2. Hind tibia entirely black………………………………………………………..Aphis illinoisensis Shimer,1866

-. Hind tibia pale on more than half its length…………………………………………….……...……………….3



3.Dorsal abdomen without dark markings anterior to siphunculi and without dark bands on ABD TERG VII-VIII. Cauda with 4-8 hairs………………………………………………………………Aphis gossypii Glover

-. Dorsal abdomen with dark markings anterior to siphunculi and with dark bands on ABD TERG VII-VIII.Caudawith 11-24 hairs………………………………………………………………………………………….4

4.Siphunculi 2.4-5.4 x longest marginal hairs on abdomenaltergite I-III, 2.8-5.1 x their diameter at midlength and 0.8-1.6 cauda…………………………………………………………………Aphis fabae Scopoli

-. Siphunculi 5.4-17 x longest marginal hairs on abdomenaltergite I-III, 3.5-7.5 x their diameter at midlength and 1.3-1.9 cauda………………………………………………………...…Aphis solanella Theobald

Özet

Bağ siyah yaprakbiti, Aphis illinoisensis Shimer, 1866 (Hemiptera: Aphididae):

Isparta (Türkiye) İli’nde önemli bir zararlı

Aphis illinoisensis Shimer, 1866 (Hemiptera: Aphididae)’in kanatlı ve kanatsız vivipar dişileri 2010 yılı Eylül ayında Isparta ilindeki bağ (Vitis vinifera L.) alanlarından toplanmıştır. Bu tür Isparta ili için yeni kayıt niteliğindedir. Bu çalışmada ayrıca Türkiye bağ alanlarında bulunan yaprakbiti türlerinin kanatsız dişilerine ait teşhis anahtarı verilmiştir.

Acknowledgements

The designated project has been fulfilled by the financial support of Research Fellowships for Foreign Citizens program (Code-2216) of TUBITAK.

The authors are grateful to Dr. V.F. EASTOP (The Natural History Museum, London) who helped us during the preparation of this paper and giving valuable comments on this manuscript.

References

Anonymous, 2008. The summary of agricultural statistics. http://tuik.gov.tr (26 September 2010).

Baker, A.C., 1917.Life history of Macrosiphum illinoisensis, the grapevine aphis. Journal of Agricultural Research, 11: 85-90.

Barjadze, S. & Ben-Dov,Y., 2011. The grapevine aphid, Aphis illinoisensis Shimer (Hemiptera: Aphididae): An invasive pest in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 39 (1): 55-57 DOI 10.1007/s12600-010-0129-1.

Blackman, R. & V. Eastop, 2006. Aphids on the World’s Herbaceous Plants and Shrubs. John Wiley & Sons, London, UK, 1439 p.

Bodenheimer, F. S. & E. Swirski, 1957. The Aphidoidea of the Middle East. Weizmann Science Press of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel, 378 p.

Çanakçioglu, H., 1975.The Aphidoidea of Turkey. İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Yayınları, İstanbul, Turkey, 309 p.

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Kamel-Ben Halima, M. & L. Mdellel, 2010. First record of the grapevine aphid, Aphis illinoisensis Shimer, in Tunisia. EPPO Bulletin, 40: 191-192.

Laamari, M. & A. Coeur d' Acier, 2010. Le puceron de la vigne Aphis illinoisensis arrive en Algérie. EPPO Bulletin, 40: 167-168.

Martin, J., 1983. The identification of common aphid pests of tropical agriculture. Tropical Pest Management, 29: 395-411.

Özdemir,I., 2004.Ankara Ilinde Otsu Bitkilerde Aphidoidea Türleri Üzerinde Taksonomik Araştırmalar [Determination of Aphidoidea (Homoptera) Species on Wild Plants in Ankara Province]. PhD thesis, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Bitki Koruma Anabilim Dalı, Ankara Üniversitesi, Ankara, 208 p.

Öztürk, N., 2007. Türkiye bağlarına son yıllarda bulaşan Bağ siyah yaprakbiti [Aphis illinoisensis (Shimer) (Homoptera: Aphididae] üzerine bazi notlar. Alatarım, 6 (2): 30-34.

Petrović-Obradović, O., Ž. Tomanović, L. Poljaković-Pajnik, S. Hrnčić, A. Vučetić & S. Radonjić, 2010. New invasive species of aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Serbia and Montenegro. Archives of biological sciences, 62 (3): 777-782.

Remaudière, G., E. Sertkaya & I.Özdemir, 2003. Alerte ! Découverte en Turquie du puceron américain Aphis illinoisensis nuisible à la vigne. Revue Française d’ Entomologie (NS), 25: 170.

Tsitsipis, J. A., E. Angelakis, J. T. Margaritopoulos, K. Tsamandali & K. D. Zarpas, 2005. First record of the grapevine aphid Aphis illinoisensis in the island Kriti, Greece. OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 35: 541-542.

Webb, S. E., M. L. KokYokomi, D. J. Gray & C. M. Benton, 1994. In vitro rearing of grapevine aphid on micro propagated shoot cultures of bunch grape and muscadine plants. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87: 879-885.


1Illia State University, Entomology and Biocontrol Research Centre, Chavchavadze av. 31, 0179, Tbilisi, Georgia

2Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, 32260, Isparta, Turkey

* Sorumlu yazar (Corresponding author) e-mail: shalva1980@yahoo.com



Alınış (Received): 27.10.2010 Kabul ediliş (Accepted): 05.05.2011



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