Institutional abbreviations bmnh

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SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION AND FIGURES FOR SMITH ET AL. 2008 “A Megaraptor-like theropod (Dinosauria: Tetanurae) in Australia; support for faunal exchange across eastern and western Gondwana in the mid-Cretaceous”.


BMNH, British Museum of Natural History, London, UK; FMNH, The Field Museum of Natural History; MB, Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt Universität, Berlin, Germany; MCF-PVPH, Museo Carmen Funes, Paleontología Vertebrados, Plaza Huincul, Argentina; MNN, Musée National du Niger, Niamey, Niger; MUCPv, Museo de la Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Neuquén, Argentina; NMV, Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Australia; PVL, Fundacíon Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, Argentina; UCMP, University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, USA; UCRC, University of Chicago Research Collection, Chicago, USA; UNPSJB-PV, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina; YPM, Yale Peabody Museum, New Haven, USA.

Figure S2. Location of Dinosaur Cove, and outcrop of the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous Otway Group (dark shaded area) in southeastern Australia.

Figure S3. Left theropod ulnae in proximal aspect. (a) Liliensternus liliensterni, MB R. 2175); (b) Poekilopleuron bucklandii, YPM 4839, cast of holotype destroyed during World War II; (c) Allosaurus fragilis, YPM 4944; (d) Suchomimus tenerensis, MNN GAD 500; (e), cf. Megaraptor, NMV P186076; (f) Megaraptor namunhuaiquii, MCF-PVPH 79, right ulna reversed for comparison; (g) Megaraptor namunhuaiquii, MUCPv 341, right ulna reversed for comparison. Anatomical abbreviations: proc ol, olecranon process, tub lat, lateral tuberosity. Specimens shown are not to scale.

Figure S4. Right theropod ulnae in lateral aspect. (a) Suchomimus tenerensis, MNN GAD 500; (b) Allosaurus fragilis, YPM 4944, left ulna reversed for comparison; (c) Megaraptor namunhuaiquii, MUCPv 341; (d), cf. Megaraptor, NMV P186076, left ulna reversed for comparison; (e) Megaraptor namunhuaiquii, MCF-PVPH 79; (f) Megaraptor namunhuaiquii, interpretive drawing of MCF-PVPH 79. Anatomical abbreviations: cr caud, caudal crest; cr lat, lateral crest; fac art hu, humeral articular facet; fac art rad dist, distal radial articular surface; proc corn, coronoid process; proc ol, olecranon process, tub lat, lateral tuberosity. Scale bars equal 50 mm.

Figure S5. Left theropod ulnae in distal aspect. (a) Liliensternus liliensterni, MB R. 2175; (b), Piatnitzkysaurus floresi, PVL 4073; (c) Poekilopleuron bucklandii, YPM 4839, cast of holotype destroyed during World War II; (d) Suchomimus tenerensis, MNN GAD 500, right ulna reversed for comparison; (e) Allosaurus fragilis, YPM 4944; (f) cf. Megaraptor, NMV P186076; (g) Megaraptor namunhuaiquii, MUCPv 341; (h) Megaraptor namunhuaiquii, MCF-PVPH 79, right ulna reversed for comparison. Cranial is to the top of the page, medial is to the left. Anatomical abbreviations: med, medial expansion of distal ulna. Specimens shown are not to scale.


(a) Systematic Palaeontology

Dinosauria (Owen 1842)

Theropoda (Marsh 1881)

Tetanurae (Gauthier 1986)

Megaraptor (Novas 1998)

(b) Type Species and Holotype

Megaraptor namunhuaiquii Novas 1998, MCF-PVPH 79, right ulna, left manual phalanx I-1, ungual phalanx of manual digit I, distal half of right metatarsal III (Novas 1998).

(c) Referred Material

Megaraptor namunhuaiquii–MUCPv 341, a fragmentary postcranial skeleton (Calvo et al. 2004). Megaraptor namunhuaiquii–MUCPv 412, the distal portion of a right ulna (Porfiri et al. 2007). Megaraptor namunhuaiquii–MUCPv 413, the proximal portion of a right manual phalanx I-1 (Porfiri et al. 2007). Megaraptor sp.–UNPSJB-PV 944, a fragmentary postcranial skeleton (Lamanna 2004). Megaraptor sp.–UNPSJB-PV 958, a fragmentary postcranial skeleton (Lamanna 2004). Cf. Megaraptor–NMV P186076, an isolated left ulna (this paper).

(d) Locality and Horizon

MCF-PVPH 79–Sierra del Portezuelo, Neuquén Province, Argentina, Portezuelo Formation (Late Turonian–Early Coniacian), of the Nequén Group (Albian–Campanian). MUCPv 341, 412, 413–Los Barreales lake, Neuquén Province, Argentina, Portezuelo Formation (fate Turonian–early Coniacian), of the Nequén Group (Albian–Campanian). UNPSJB-PV 944, 958–Estancia Viento Fuerte, south central Chubut Province, Argentina, Upper section of the Lower Member of the Bajo Barreal Formation (middle Cenomanian–Turonian) (Lamanna 2004). NMV P186076– First Cross Tunnel at the ‘Slippery Rock’ site (see Rich & Vickers-Rich 2000: figure 44), Dinosaur Cove, near Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia (38º 46’ 53+1” S, 143º 24’ 14+1” E, World Geodetic Standard 1984; figure S2), Eumeralla Formation (late Aptian–early Albian; Wagstaff & McEwen-Mason 1989), of the Otway Group of Victoria (Rich & Vickers-Rich 2003).

(e) Diagnosis

Megaraptor namunhuaiquii Novas 1998 can be diagnosed by the following autapomorphies: 1) the presence of a mediolaterally compressed, proximocaudally expanded, blade-like olecranon process on the proximal ulna that extends distally as a caudal olecranon crest; 2) the presence of a hypertrophied lateral tuberosity that extends distally as a blade-like crest; 3) a metacarpal II with a transversely expanded and fan-shaped ventral surface at its proximal end; 4) a manual phalanx I-1 which is sub-quandrangular in proximal aspect, with the dorsal border transversely wider than ventral border; 5) a metatarsal III with a deep and wide extensor ligament pit; and 6) a metatarsal IV with a distal extremity that is transversely narrower than its shaft. Characters 1 and 2 may have a broader distribution, depending upon the exact phylogenetic affinities of NMV P186076.

S6. List of characters, character-states, and codings used in phylogenetic analysis. Original citations and/or modifications are provided in parantheses. The abbreviation ‘TwiG’ is used to denote characters derived or modified from the Theropod Working Group Matrix. Characters 348–353 represent new additions to the character list utilized in Smith et al. (2007).
1. Orbit round in lateral or dorsolateral view (0); or dorsoventrally elongate (1) (TWiG).
2. Skull length relative to femur length: > 0.5 (0); < 0.5 (1) (Benton et al., 2000).
3. Tooth row: extends posteriorly to approximately half the length of the orbit (0); ends at the anterior rim of the orbit (1); completely antorbital, tooth row ends anterior to the vertical strut of the lacrimal (2) (Gauthier, 1986).
4. Infratemporal fenestra: smaller than or subequal in size to orbit (0); strongly enlarged, more than 1.5 times the size of the orbit (1) (Bonaparte, 1991).
5. Height:length ratio of premaxilla below external naris: 0.5-1.25 (0), < 0.5 (1), or > 1.25 (2) (modified from Carrano et al.,2002 and Rauhut, 2003)
6. Premaxillary body in front of external nares: shorter than body below the nares and angle between anterior margin and alveolar margin more than 75 degrees (0); longer than body below the nares and angle less than 70 degrees (1) (Rauhut, 2003).
7. Ventral process at the posterior end of premaxillary body: absent (0); present (1) (Rauhut, 2003).
8. Number of premaxillary teeth: three (0); four (1); five (2); more than five (3); premaxillary teeth absent (4) (Rauhut, 2003).
9. Premaxillary tooth row ends: ventral (0); anterior (1) to naris (Sereno, 1999).
10. Subnarial process of the premaxilla: wide; plate-like, broadly contacting the nasals and excluding the maxilla from the external nares (0); strongly reduced in width, but still contacting the nasals (1); strongly reduced process does not contact the nasals, and the maxilla forms part of the posteroventral border of the external nares (2) (modified from Gauthier, 1986; Rauhut, 2003).
11. Maxillary/palatal process of premaxilla: large flange (0); blunt triangle (1) (Sampson et al., 1998).
12. Foramen on the medial side of the premaxillary body, below the narial margin: absent (0); present (1) (modified from Sereno et al., 2004; Yates, 2005).
13. Slot-shaped foramen on the lateral face of the premaxilla, located at the base of the nasal process: absent (0); present (1) (Yates, 2005).
14. Length of the nasal process of the premaxilla: posterior tip level with the posterior tip of the posterolateral premaxillary process (0); posterior tip extends posterior to the posterior tip of the posterolateral premaxillary process (1) (Yates, 2005).
15. Premaxillary posterodorsal process contributes to a blade-like nasal crest: no (0); yes (1).
16. Premaxilla-nasal suture on internarial bar: V-shaped (0); W-shaped (1) (Sereno et al., 2004).
17. Serrations on premaxillary teeth: present (0); absent (1) (Rauhut, 2003).
18. Premaxillary teeth cross-sections: elliptical (0); subcircular (1); D-shaped in cross-section (modified from Carrano et al., 2002; TWiG; Tykoski & Rowe, 2004; Yates, 2005).
19. Labiolingual symmetery of premaxillary teeth: symmetrical (0); asymmetrical (1); (Bakker et al., 1988).
20. Rostroventral narial fossa: absent or shallow (0); expanded, well-developed fossa on the premaxilla in the rostroventral corner of the naris (1) (modified from Sereno, 1999; Langer & Benton, 2006).
21. Constriction between articulated premaxillae and maxillae: absent (0); present (1). (Rauhut, 2003).
22. Premaxilla and maxilla in contact at alveolar magins (0), or alveolar margins do not contact (1) (Tykoski, 2005).
23. Orientation of the maxillae towards each other in dorsal view: acutely angled (0); subparallel (1) (Harris, 1998).
24. Ascending process of the maxilla: confluent with anterior rim of maxillary body and gently sloping posterodorsally (0); offset from anterior rim of maxillary body, with anterior projection of maxillary body shorter than high (1); offset from anterior rim of maxillary body, with anterior projection of maxillary body as long as high or longer (2) (Sereno et al., 1996).
25. Maxillary antorbital fossa: deep, and with sharp margins (0); shallow, margins formed by low ridges, a sharp rim may be present only in front of the promaxillary foramen (1) (Sues, 1997).
26. Maxillary antorbital fossa in front of the internal antorbital fenestra: 25 percent or less of the length of the external antorbital fenestra (0); more than 40 percent of the length of the external antorbital fenestra (1) (Sereno et al., 1996).
27. Depth of the ventral antorbital fossa: less than or subequal to the depth of the maxilla below the ventral margin of the antorbital fossa (0); or much greater than the depth of the maxilla below the ventral margin of the antorbital fossa (1) (Yates, 2005).
28. Horizontal ridge on the maxilla: absent (0); present (1) (Rowe & Gauthier, 1990).
29. Maxillary fenestra: absent (0); present (1) (Gauthier, 1986).
30. Maxillary fenestra situated at rostral border of antorbital fossa (0); or situated posterior to rostral border of fossa (1) (TWiG).
31. Pneumatic excavation/antrum in maxillary anterior ramus: absent (0); present (1) (Sereno et al., 1994).
32. Promaxillary fenestra: absent (0); present (1) (Carpenter, 1992).
33. Palatal process of maxilla: ridged flange (0); reduced, simple process (1); long, and plate-shaped (2) (modified from Sereno et al., 1998; Carrano et al., 2002).
34. Secondary palate formed by premaxilla only (0); or by premaxilla, maxilla, and vomer (1) (TWiG).
35. Maxillary tooth count: 12-18 (0); > 20 (1); < 12 (2) (modified from Carrano et al., 2002; Tykoski, 2005).
36. Maxillary and dentary teeth: serrated (0); some or all without serrations (1) (modified from Chiappe et al., 1996; Rauhut, 2003; TWiG).
37. Medial surface of paradental plates: smooth (0); striated (1) (Sampson et al., 1998).
38. Pneumatic foramen in the nasals: absent (0); present (1) (Rauhut, 2003).
39. Dorsal extent of antorbital fossa: dorsal rim of antorbital fossa below nasal suture, or formed by this suture (0); antorbital fossa extending onto the lateroventral side of the nasals (1) (Sereno et al., 1994).
40. Nasals: unfused (0); partially or fully fused (1) in adults (Sereno, 1999).
41. Lateral surface of anterior end of nasal along the posterior margin of the external naris: flat (0); concave fossa (1); laterall convex hood covering posterior part of external naris (2) (modified from Tykoski, 1998, 2005; Carrano et al., 2002).
42. Nasals: flat or gently convex, lacking crest (0); expanded into sagittal or parasagittal crests (1).
43. Nasal crest (when present): midline sagittal crest (0); parasagittal crests (1).
44. Construction of nasal crest: formed from the nasals only (0); lacrimal contributes to posterior margin of crest (1).
45. Caudolateral process on the nasal that envelops part of the rostral ramus of the lacrimal: no (0); yes (1) (modified from Yates, 2003b; Langer & Benton, 2006).
46. Sublacrimal part of the jugal: tapering (0); triradiate anterior end (1); strongly expanded anteriorly, overlapping most of the ventral portion of the lacrimal (2) (Rauhut, 2003).
47. Pneumatization of the jugal: absent (0); jugal pneumatized by a foramen in the posterior rim of the jugal antorbital fossa (1) (Sereno et al., 1996).
48. Medial jugal foramen present on medial surface ventral to postorbital bar: absent (0) or present (1) (TWiG).
49. Lateral ridge longitudinally traversing the rostral and caudal processes of the jugal: present (0), absent (1) (modified from Sereno & Novas 1993; Tykoski 1998).
50. Anterior end of jugal participates in internal antorbital fenestra: yes (0); no (1) (modified from Holtz, 1994; Rauhut, 2003).
51. Lacrimal fenestra: absent (0); present (1) (Molnar et al., 1990).
52. Lacrimal ‘horn’: absent (0); dorsal crest above orbit (1) (Russell & Dong, 1993).
53. Posterior dorsal process of lacrimal: absent (0); present, lacrimal ‘T’-shaped in lateral view (1) (Currie, 1995).
54. Configuration of lacrimal and frontal: lacrimal separated from frontal by prefrontal (0); lacrimal contacts frontal (1) (Rauhut, 2003).
55. Contact between lacrimal and postorbital: absent (0); present (1) (Sampson et al., 1998).
56. Lacrimal anterior ramus length: > 65% ventral ramus length (0), < 65% ventral ramus length (1); lacrimal anterior ramus stongly reduced and almost non-existent (2); (Sereno et al., 1998).
57. Suborbital process of lacrimal: absent (0); present (1) (Sampson et al., 1998).
58. Lateral blade (sensu Britt, 1991) of lacrimal overhangs antorbital fenestra: yes (0); no (1) (modified from Britt, 1991; Allain, 2002).
59. Ventral ramus of lacrimal: broadly triangular, articular end nearly twice as wide anteroposteriorly as lacrimal body at juncture between anterior and ventral ramus (0); bar- or strut-like, roughly same width anteroposteriorly throughout ventral ramus (1).
60. Orientation of the long axis of the lacrimal ventral process: strongly sloping anterodorsally (0); erect or nearly vertical (1); strongly sloping posterodorsally (2) (Yates, 2006).
61. Prefrontal: exposed dorsally on the anterior rim of the orbit in lateral view and with a slender ventral process along the medioposterior rim of the lacrimal (0); excluded from the anterior rim of the orbit in lateral view, being displaced posteriorly and/or medially; ventral process absent, but dorsal exposure similar to that of lacrimal (1); excluded from the anterior rim of the orbit in lateral view, being displaced posteriorly and/or medially; ventral process absent, and greatly reduced in size (2); absent (3) (modified from Rauhut, 2003; TWiG).
62. Anterior edge of associated frontals: rectangular anteriorly (0); triangular wedge-shaped anteriorly (1) (Holtz, 1994).
63. Relative length of associated frontals: longer than wide (0); as wide as long, or wider (1) (Allain, 2002).
64. Frontal contribution to midline nasal crest: no (0); yes (1).
65. Frontals and parietals: separate (0); fused (1) in adults (Forster, 1999).
66. Median fossa in saddle—shaped depression overlapping frontal-parietal contact: absent (0); present (1) (Sampson et al., 1998).
67. Supratemporal fossa: extends onto posterodorsal surface of frontal (0); restricted by overhanging frontoparietal shelf (1) (Coria & Currie, 2002).
68. Supratemporal fenestrae: face dorsally (0); face anterodorsally (1) (Coria & Currie, 2002).
69. Distinct anterior spur indicating the lower delimitation of the eyeball present on jugal process of the postorbital: no (0); yes (1) (Rauhut, 2003).
70. Postorbital in lateral view with straight anterior (frontal) process (0); or frontal process curves anterodorsally and dorsal border of temporal bar is dorsally concave (1) (TWiG).
71. Cross-section of the ventral process of the postorbital: triangular (0); U-shaped (1) (Sereno et al., 1994, 1996).
72. Ventral extent of postorbital substantially above ventral margin of orbit: yes (0); no (1); no and postorbital process of jugal reduced or absent (2) (Allain, 2002).
73. Long axis of postorbital: dorsal-ventral (0); anteroventral-posterodorsal (1) (Novas, 1989).
74. Stepped-down ventrolateral fossa on postorbital: absent (0); present (1) (Sampson et al., 1998).
75. Supratemporal fenestrae: separated by a horizontal plate formed by the parietals (0); contact each other posteriorly, but separated anteriorly by an anteriorly widening triangular plate formed by the parietals (1); confluent over the parietals; parietals form a sagittal crest (2) (Molnar et al., 1990).
76. Nuchal wedge and parietal alae: small (0); hypertrophied and elevated (1) (Forster, 1999).
77. Tounge-like process of parietals overlapping the supraoccipital knob: absent (0); present (1) (Coria & Currie, 2002).
78. Squamosal contribution to broad, arching nuchal crest: absent (0); present (1) (modified from Novas, 1989; Sampson et al., 1998).
79. Supratemporal fenestra bounded laterally and posteriorly by the squamosal (0); or supratemporal fenestra extended as a fossa on to the dorsal surface of the squamosal (1) (TWiG).
80. Posterolateral shelf on squamosal overhanging quadrate head: absent (0); present (1) (TWiG).
81. Quadratojugal process of the squamosal: tapering (0); broad, and somewhat expanded (1) (Rauhut, 2003).
82. Squamosal-quadratojugal contact: at tips (0); absent (1); broad (2) (modified from Carrano et al., 2002, 2005; Rauhut, 2003).
83. Anteroposterior breadth of quadratojugal dorsal process: narrow (0); broad (1).
84. Quadratojugal: hook-shaped, without posterior process (0); with broad, short posterior process that wraps around the lateroventral edge of the quadrate (1) (Rauhut, 2003).
85. Quadratojugal fused to quadrate in adults: no (0); yes (1) (Holtz, 1994, 2000).
86. Quadratojugal-Quadrate suture, exposed laterally and with a sharp lateral flange running anterodorsally on the quadratojugal: no (0); yes (1).
87. Pneumatization of the quadrate: absent (0); present (1) (Rauhut, 2003).
88. Lateral border of quadrate shaft straight (0); or with lateral tab that touches squamosal and quadratojugal above an enlarged quadrate foramen (1) (TWiG).
89. Quadrate foramen: developed as a distinct opening between the quadrate and quadratojugal (0); almost entirely enclosed in the quadrate (1); absent (2) (modified from Carrano et al., 2002; Rauhut, 2003; Tykoski, 2005).
90. Paroccipital processes: directed laterally, or slightly ventrolaterally (0); directed strongly ventrolaterally, with distal end entirely below the level of the foramen magnum (1); (modified from Rauhut, 1997; Rauhut, 2003; TWiG).
91. Ventral rim of the basis of the paroccipital processes: above or level with the dorsal border of the occipital condyle (0); situated at mid-height of occipital condyle or lower (1) (Rauhut, 2003).
92. Paroccipital process elongate and slender, with dorsal and ventral edges nearly parallel (0); or process short, deep with convex distal end (1) (TWiG).
93. Paroccipital process with straight dorsal edge (0); or with dorsal edge twisted rostrolaterally at distal end (1) (Currie 1995).
94. Caudal (posterior) tympanic recess: absent (0); present as opening on anterior surface of paroccipital process (1); or extends into opisthotic posterodorsal to fenestra ovalis, confluent with this fenestra (2) (TWiG).
95. Depth of median supraoccipital ridge: < (0); > (1) depth of occipital condyle (Carrano et al., 2002).
96. Participation of the supraoccipital in the dorsal margin of the foramen magnum: large (0); reduced or absent (1) (Allain, 2002).

97. Width of dorsal expansion of supraoccipital: less than twice the width (0); or more than twice the width (1) of the foramen magnum (Coria & Currie, 2002).
98. Neck of occipital condyle invaded by ventrolateral pair of pneumatic cavities that join medially: no (0); yes (1) (Coria & Currie, 2002).
99. Angle between occipital condyle and basal tubera: perpendicular or almost perpendicular (0); acute (1) (Coria & Currie, 2002).
100. Basal tubera: equally formed by basioccipital and basisphenoid and not subdivided (0); subdivided by a lateral longitudinal groove into a medial part entirely formed by the basioccipital, and a lateral part, entirely formed by the basisphenoid (1) (Rauhut, 2003).
101. Basioccipital participates in basal tubera: yes (0); no (1) (modified from Currie & Carpenter, 2000; Allain, 2002).
102. Basal tubera width: > (0); < (1) occipital condyle width (Holtz, 2000).
103. Basisphenoid between basal tubera and basipterygoid processes: approximately as wide as long, or wider (0); significantly elongated, at least 1.5 times longer than wide (1) (Rauhut, 2003).
104. Basisphenoid recess: absent or poorly developed (0); present between basispenoid and basioccipital (1); present entirely within basisphenoid (2) (modified from Rauhut, 2003; TWiG).
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