Industrial ecology (nre 557 & cee 586) Winter Term 2004




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INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY (NRE 557 & CEE 586)

Winter Term 2004

SYLLABUS



Time 1:00 – 2:30 pm Monday and Wednesday

Location 2024 Dana (School of Natural Resources & Environment)
Instructor Gregory A. Keoleian

Associate Professor

Co-Director, Center for Sustainable Systems

Office 3504 Dana Bldg.

School of Natural Resources and Environment



Phone 764-3194

E-mail gregak@umich.edu

Office Hrs to be announced
Graduate Richard Chandler

Student Instructor rfchandl@umich.edu

Office to be announced

Office Hrs.

COURSE BACKGROUND

This course was first offered in the winter term 1994 as part of an education/research project, entitled “Interdisciplinary Education and Research on Industrial Ecology.” Support for developing and teaching the course was provided through the AT&T Foundation’s Industrial Ecology Faculty Fellowship Program.



COURSE DESCRIPTION

Industrial ecology is the systematic analysis of global, regional and local material and energy flows and uses that are associated with products, processes, industrial sectors, and economies. Energy consumption, non-renewable and renewable materials consumption, air pollutant emissions, waterborne pollutant effluents and solid waste generation associated with human activities are tracked. These analyses are the foundation of industrial ecology, which seeks to design and manage products and services that meet human needs in a sustainable manner.


This course is designed as an interdisciplinary course. Industrial designers, process engineers, natural resource managers and policy makers, business managers, environmental health professionals, regulators, and consumers each play a critical role in shaping the environmental profile of products. A framework is presented for analyzing multi-stakeholder interests and the consequences of their decisions and actions. Ecological, economic, social, political, and technological factors that influence the life cycle of a product system will be considered. This life cycle encompasses raw materials acquisition and processing, manufacturing, use, resource recovery, and the ultimate disposition and fate of residuals.
The course will provide you with analytical tools and methods for implementing principles of industrial ecology. The practical applications covered in the course will be based largely on current research in the area of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle design. Life cycle assessment is a comprehensive tool for identifying and evaluating the full environmental burdens associated with a product system from production through retirement. This methodology is used for comparative analyses of alternatives including materials (biobased vs petroleum based), energy systems (renewable and fossil fuels), consumer products and packaging, automotive component designs, and residential construction methods. Life cycle design focuses on integrating environmental considerations into product design. The challenge is to meet performance, cost, legal, and cultural requirements while achieving environmental improvements.
COURSE FORMAT
Concepts, principles and methodologies will be introduced by lecture and discussed in a seminar format. Case studies will be used throughout the course to demonstrate concepts and principles and highlight accomplishments and practical limitations of life cycle assessment and life cycle design. Class participation is essential for understanding multi-disciplinary perspectives.
In conjunction with this course, we will schedule one or two optional field trips to industrial sites to complement the course and provide you with the opportunity to visit industrial facilities.
COURSE RESOURCES


  1. Course pack: available at Ulrich’s (produced by Dollar Bill), corner of E. and S. University (a copy is also available on Reserve at the Shapiro Science Library)




  1. “Other Resources” found on Course Web Site: http://www.umich.edu/~indecol/




  1. Reference articles and reserve textbooks available at the Shapiro Science Library (third floor of Shapiro Library)

a. Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment Ed. Mary Ann Curran, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996


b. Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles (EPA 600/R-92/245). Cincinnati, OH: U.S.EPA, Office of Research and Development, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, February 1993.
c. Guidelines for Life-Cycle Assessment: “A Code of Practice.” Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1993.
d. Life Cycle Design Framework and Demonstration Projects: Profiles of AT&T and Allied Signal (EPA/600/R-95/107). Keoleian, G., Koch, J., Menerey, D. and Bulkley, J. Cincinnati, OH: U.S.EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, July 1995.
e. Life Cycle Design Guidance Manual: Environmental Requirements and the Product System. (EPA/600/R-96). Keoleian, G. and Menerey, D. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, January 1993.
f. Green Products by Design: Choices for a Cleaner Environment (OTA-E-541) U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1992.
g. Industrial Ecology. Graedel, T.E. and Allenby, B., Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995.
h. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 1994.
i. Industrial Ecology and Global Change. Ed. R. Socolow, C. Andrews, F. Berkhout, and V. Thomas. Cambridge University Press, 1994.


  1. von Weizsacker, Ernst U., Lovins, Amory, Lovins, Hunter, Factor four: doubling wealth, halving resource use London : Earthscan Publications LTD, 1997.




  1. Hawken, P., Lovins, A. and Lovins, L.H. Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution, Little, Brown and Company: Boston, 1999.




  1. Benyus, J. M. Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature Quill: New York, 1998.

4. Center for Sustainable Systems (formerly the National Pollution Prevention Center) web site: http://www.css.snre.umich.edu/



COURSE OUTLINE
I. Industrial Ecology and Sustainability Frameworks
Jan. 7 Industrial Ecology Framework

Definition, Goals, Analytical Components, and Tools

PAT Equation

Population and Carrying Capacity

Consumption Patterns

Technology


Reading: Jelinski, L.W., T.E. Graedel, R.A. Laudise, D.W. McCall, and C. Kumar N. Patel. “Industrial Ecology: Concepts and Approaches.” Proceedings, National Academy of Sciences, USA 89 (February 1992): pp. 793-797.
Daily, Gretchen C. and Paul Ehrlich. “Population, Sustainability, and Earth’s Carrying Capacity,” BioScience, November 1992: pp. 761-764, 770, 771.
Jan. 12 Sustainability Framework

Definitions and Drivers for Sustainability

Sustainability Indicators

Social and Demographic – Equity

Economic – Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI)

Ecological/Environmental – Ecological Footprint


Reading: Wackernagel, M. and W. Rees, Chapter 3 in Our Ecological Footprint, New Society Publishers: Gabriola Island, B.C. Canada (1996) pp. 61-124.
Elkington, J., Chapter 2 in The Chrysalis Economy. pp. 11-25.
Other Resources:

Sustainable Development in the United States: An Experimental Set of Indicators, A Progress Report Prepared by the U.S. Interagency Working Group on Sustainable Development Indicators, Washington, DC, December, 1998.

Ecological Footprint: http://www.rprogress.org/programs/sustainabilityindicators/ef/quiz/



Living Planet Report 2002 WWF: http://www.panda.org/downloads/general/LPR_2002.pdf

Genuine Progress Indicator: http://www.rprogress.org/publications/2000_gpi_update.pdf


Jan. 14 State of the Environment

Energy Resources

Classification (renewable and non-renewable)

Production Data

Consumption Data

Materials Resources

Classification (renewable and non-renewable)

Resource Scarcity – Minerals

Consumption Patterns

Waste


Air Pollutant Emissions

Waterborne Pollutant Discharges

Solid Waste
Reading: Annual Energy Review 2002. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE/EIA-0384(2002)) pp. 1-14.
Kessler, Stephen. Minerals Resources Economics and the Environment. Macmillan College Publishing: New York, 1994: pp. 1-6, 321-323.
Overview of Major Environmental Sustainability Issues: http://css.snre.umich.edu/css_edu_resources.htm


  • Global Change: Greenhouse Gases

  • Global Change: Ozone Depletion

  • Energy Resources: Production and Consumption

  • Material Resources: Production and Consumption

  • Environmental Pollution and Waste: Air, Water, and Land Media

  • Ecological Processes: The Planet's Life Support System.

Other Resources:


Annual Energy Review 2002. Energy Perspectives: Trends and Milestones 1949-2002: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/perspectives.pdf
Municipal Solid Waste in the United States 2001 Facts and Figures:

http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/pubs/msw2001.pdf
Air Latest Findings on National Air Quality: 2002 Status and Trends:

http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/2002_airtrends_final.pdf
Toxic Release Inventory: 2001 Public Data Release: http://www.epa.gov/triinter/tridata/tri01/pdr/index.htm

Chapter 1 Toxics Release Inventory Reporting and the 2001 Public Data Release

Chapter 2 Toxics Release Inventory Data Overview, 2001 and 1998-2001
Jan. 19 MLK Day (no class)
Jan. 21 Industrial Ecology: A Field of Ecology

Definitions

Fundamentals of Ecology

Metaphor: Food Webs and Industrial Ecoparks; and Biomimicry

Systems Analysis of Material and Energy Flows: MFA, LCA

Limits of Technology: Biosphere 2


Reading: Allenby, Braden R. “Achieving Sustainable Development through Industrial Ecology.” International Environmental Affairs 4(1): 56-68.
Ehrenfeld, John and Nicholas Gertler, “Industrial Ecology in Practice: The Evolution of Interdependence at Kalundborg,” Journal of Industrial Ecology (1997) 1(1): 67-79.
Lovins, A.B., L.H. Lovins, P. Hawken. “A Road Map for Natural Capitalism.” Harvard Business Review. May/June 1999: 145-158.

Other Resources:

Fact Sheets from the Ecological Society of America:

Ecology: http://esa.sdsc.edu/ecobroch.pdf

Ecosystem services: http://esa.sdsc.edu/ecosyssvcs.pdf

Biodiversity: http://esa.sdsc.edu/biodiv2.pdf


Cote, R.P. and E. Cohen-Rosenthal, “Desiging eco-industrial parks: a synthesis of some experiences” J. Cleaner Production (1998) 6: 181-188.
Industrial Ecology textbooks on reserve
Janine M. Benyus Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature Quill: New York, 1998
Frosch, Robert A., and Nicholas E. Gallopoulos. “Strategies for Manufacturing.” Scientific American, (September 1989): 144-152.
Jan. 26 Industrial Metabolism: Materials

Anthropogenic vs Natural Fluxes of Toxic Heavy Metals

Material Flow Analysis

Plant Derived Chemicals/ Biobased Materials

Examples: Copper, Mercury, PLA, PHA, coconut fibers (DaimlerChrysler)
Reading: Graedel, T.E.; et. al. “The Contemporary European Copper Cycle: The Characterization of Technological Copper Cycles.Ecological Economics. 42 (2002), p. 9-26.

Nriagu, Jerome A. “A global assessment of natural sources of atmospheric trace metals,” Nature 338 (March 2, 1989): 47-49.


Gerngross, Tillman U. “Can Biotechnology Move Us Toward a Sustainable Society?” Nature Biotechnology (June 1999) 17: 541-544.
A Report of the Interagency Workgroup on Industrial Ecology, Material and Energy Flows, August, 1998. http://www.umich.edu/~indecol/materials.pdf

“Coconut Fibers” High Tech Report 2001 DaimlerChrysler, p. 76-79 http://www.umich.edu/~indecol/coconutfiber2.pdf


Other Resources:

Ayres, Robert U. “Industrial Metabolism: Theory and Policy” in The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. National Academy Press: Washington, DC (1994): 23-37.


USGS Material Flow http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/mflow/

II. Life Cycle Assessment

Jan. 28 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA): Components and Applications

Process Level LCA vs Economic Input-Output (EIO) LCA

Components: Goal Definition and Scoping, Life Cycle Inventory Analysis (LCI),

Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), Life Cycle Interpretation

Functional unit of analysis


Case: Beverage Containers
Reading: ISO 14040 International Standard, Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and framework, 1997-06-15.
Henrickson, C.; et. al. “Economic Input-Output Models for Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment.” Environmental Sci. & Tech., (1998) 32: 184A-191A.
Comparative Energy and Environmental Impacts for Soft Drink Delivery Systems,

National Association of Plastic Container Recovery


Other Resources:

Hunt, Robert G., Jere D. Sellers, and William E. Franklin. “Resource and Environmental Profile Analysis: A Life Cycle Environmental Assessment for Products and Procedures.” Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Spring (1992): pp. 245-269.


Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles (EPA 600/R-92/245). Cincinnati, OH: U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, February 1993.
Guidelines for Life-Cycle Assessment: A “Code of Practice.” Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1993.
Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment. Ed. Mary Ann Curran, McGraw-Hill: New York, 1996.
See also the “Other Resources” page on the course web page for other materials.
Feb. 2 Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

System Boundaries

Process Flow Diagram

Input/Output Analysis


Case: Diapers – Disposable vs. Reusable?
Reading: Vizcarra, A.T., Lo, K.V. and P.H. Lio. “A Life-Cycle Inventory of Baby Diapers Subject to Canadian Conditions.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 13 No. 10 (1994): 1707-1716.
Feb. 4 Energy and Transportation Modules

Energy


Primary energy

Feedstock, Process Fuels and Transportation Fuels

Electricity Generation

Emission Factors

Transportation

Energy – Combustion and Precombustion (upstream processes)

Emission Factors
Reading: Energy Requirements and Environmental Emissions for Fuel Consumption– Appendix A Franklin Associates, 2000.
Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles (EPA 600/R-92/245). Cincinnati, OH: U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, February 1993: pp. 46-50.
Feb. 9 Materials Production Phase

Processes

Acquisition – Mining, drilling, harvesting

Material Processing and Synthesis – Refining, polymerization

Material Production Energy

Energy of Material Resources (e.g., plastics, wood)


Case: Food Wraps and Wood vs Steel Studs
Reading: Kessler, Stephen. Mineral Resources Economics and the Environment. McMillan College Publishing: New York, 1994: pp. 169 – 172: 200-202.

See also the “Other Resources” page on the NRE 557 website.


Feb. 11 Manufacturing Phase

Manufacturing Processes (e.g., stamping, extrusion, molding)

Allocation Rules
Case: Steel vs HDPE Fuel Tanks
Reading: Keoleian, G., Spatari, S., Beal, R., Stephens, R., Williams, R. “Application of Life Cycle Inventory Analysis to Fuel Tank System Design” Intl. J. LCA (1998) 3(1): 18-28..
Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles (EPA 600/R-92/245). Cincinnati, OH: U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, February 1993: pp. 55-59.
Callister, W.D. Materials Science and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons: New York (1994) pp. 348-352, 495-500.
Feb. 16 Use Phase

Processes

Operation (use)

Service (maintenance, repair)

Examples: driving a car, washing a cup
Case: Cups – Paper, Plastic or Ceramic?
Readings: Hocking, M.B. “Paper Versus Polystyrene: A Complex Choice.” Science 251 (1991): 504-505.
Wells, Henry A., Neil McCubbin, Red Cavaney, Bonnie Camo, and M.B. Hocking. “(Letters) Paper versus polystyrene: Environmental impact.” Science 252, no. 7 June (1991): 1361-1363.
Hocking, Martin B. “Disposable Cups Have Eco Merit,” Nature 369, 12 May (1994): 107.
Feb. 18 End-of-Life Management Phase

Options


Remanufacturing

Recycling

Waste to Energy

Landfill Disposal

Recycling Allocation

Cases: Milk/Juice Packaging


Reading: Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles (EPA 600/R-92/245). Cincinnati, OH: U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, February 1993, pp. 87-91.
Keoleian, G.A. and Spitzley, D. “Guidance for Improving Life-cycle Design and Management of Milk Packaging” Journal of Industrial Ecology (1999) 3(1): 111-126.
Mid-term Exam Period (3 day take home) start taking your exam between Feb 17 – 21.

Feb. 21-29 – Spring Break

Mar. 1 Life Cycle Impact Assessment

Methodology

Classification

Characterization

Valuation

Impact Potentials – GWP and ODP

Greenhouse Gases: CO2, CH4, N2O, CF4, C2F6, SF6, CFC substitutes


Reading: Guidelines for Life-Cycle Assessment: A “Code of Practice.” Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (1993) pp. 26-30.
Life-Cycle Impact Assessment: A Conceptual Framework, Key Issues, and Summary of Existing Methods (EPA-452/R-95-002) U.S.EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, July 1995, pp. 3-1 – 3-8.

Bare, J.; “TRACI: The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts.” Journal of Industrial Ecology. (2003) 6(3-4): 49, 56-68.


Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2002, DOE/EIA-0573(2002) Executive Summary and Chapter 1
Other Resources:

Ozone Depletion site at EPA: http://www.epa.gov/spdpublc/index.html


Mar. 3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment

Impact Potentials continued – Acidification, Smog, and Others

Human Health and Ecosystem Health

Critical Volume Approach

Environmental Defense (ED)- Scorecard
Other Resources:

Environmental Defense Scorecard http://www.scorecard.org/


Mar. 8 Class Exercise

III. Life Cycle Design and Management

Mar. 10 Life Cycle Design Framework and Design Requirements

Life Cycle Management

Multistakeholders

Internal Elements: Environmental Management Systems

External Factors

Life Cycle Design Process

Needs Analysis

Specification of Requirements

Selection and Synthesis of Design Strategies

Design Evaluation
Term Project Exercise: Multi-objective analysis using life cycle requirements matrix

Reading: Keoleian, G.A. “Life-Cycle Design” in Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment. Ed. Mary Ann Curran, McGraw-Hill: New York, 1996: pp. 6.1-6.34.


McDonough, B.; “Applying the Principles of Green Engineering to Cradle-to-Cradle Design.” Environmental Science and Technology. December 1, 2003. p. 434-441.
Other Resources:

Life-Cycle Design Guidance Manual: Environmental Requirements and the Product System. (EPA/600/R-92/226). Cincinnati, OH: U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, January 1993.
Keoleian, G., Koch, J., Menerey, D. and Bulkley, J. Life-Cycle Design Framework and Demonstration Projects: Profiles of AT&T and Allied-Signal (EPA/600/R-95/107), Cincinnati, OH: U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, July 1995.
Mar. 15 Design Strategies

Product Life Extension

Material Oriented Strategies

Material Recycling

Material Selection

Material Intensiveness

Process Oriented Strategies

Distribution Oriented Strategies


Reading: Chapter 5 “Design Strategies” in Life Cycle Design Guidance Manual: Environmental Requirements and the Product System. (EPA/600/R-92/226). Cincinnati, OH: U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Product Development, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, January 1993, pp. 61-96.
Other Resources:

von Weizsacker, Ernst U., Lovins, Amory, Lovins, Hunter, Factor four: doubling wealth, halving resource use London : Earthscan Publications LTD, 1997.


Hawken, P., Lovins, A. and Lovins, L.H. Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution, Little, Brown and Company: Boston, 1999.
Herman, R., S.A. Ardekani, J.H. Ausubel, “Dematerialization,” Technology and Environment, National Academy Press: Washington, (1989): pp. 50-69.
Mar. 17 Environmental Accounting

Internal costs: conventional, hidden, liability, less tangible costs; external costs

Cost allocation
Reading: The Lean and Green Supply Chain: A Practical Guide for Material Managers and Supply Chain Managers to Reduce Costs and Improve Environmental Performance (January 2000) (EPA 742-R-00-001, pp.58: http://www.epa.gov/oppt/acctg/pubs/lean.pdf
Popoff, Frank P. and David T. Buzzelli. “Full-Cost Accounting.” In Chemical and Engineering News. Jan. 11, 1993: 8:10.
Mar. 22 Life-Cycle Costing

Purchase, ownership, disposition

Private and social costs
Case: Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs

BIPV
Reading: Lund, Robert T. “Life-Cycle Costing: A Business and Societal Instrument.” Management Review. 67, no. 4 (1978): 17-23.

Mar. 24 Regulations and Policy Analysis

Regulatory Instruments

Policy Instruments

Voluntary Programs


Reading: Andrews, C et al. “Linking Industrial Ecology to Public Policy: Report of a Workshop” RU/EJBS Working Paper 4; PU/CEES Report No. 310.

Other Resources:

Major US Environmental Laws (EPA site):

http://www.epa.gov/teachers/environmental_laws.htm
Mar. 29 Life Cycle Framework for Environmental Marketing and Labeling

First Party Environmental Marketing

Third Party Environmental Labeling

Mandatory

Voluntary (Report Cards, Seals of Approval, Single Attribute Certification)
Case: Green Seal, Blue Angel, Green Cross
Reading: Status Report on the Use of Environmental Labels Worldwide (EPA 742-R-9-93-001) 1-28.
Other Resources:

FTC Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/grnrule/guides980427.htm



IV. Sustainable Systems

Mar. 31 Sustainable Cities (Dr. Peter Newman – 3rd Annual Wege Lecturer)

Apr. 5 Sustainable Mobility

Trends, Technology, Environmental Impacts, Economics, Policy


Reading:

Mobility 2001 Report: Overview; World Business Council for Sustainable Development:

CSS Factsheet: Personal Transportation http://css.snre.umich.edu/css_doc/CSS01-07.pdf

Apr. 7 Sustainable Housing

Trends, Technology, Environmental Impacts, Economics, Policy
Reading:

CSS Factsheet: Residential Buildings http://css.snre.umich.edu/css_doc/CSS01-08.pdf
Keoleian, G.A., Blanchard, S. and P. Reppe “Life Cycle Energy, Costs, and Strategies for Improving a Single Family House” Journal of Industrial Ecology (2000) 4(2): 135-156.
Apr. 12 Industrial Ecology Symposium: Term Project Presentations
Apr. 14 Industrial Ecology Symposium: Term Project Presentations
Apr. 19 Term Project Papers Due
Apr. 19 Sustainable Food

Environmental, Economic, and Social Sustainability Indicators for the US Food System


Reading:

CSS Factsheet: US Food System http://css.snre.umich.edu/css_doc/CSS01-06.pdf
Apr. 21 Course Review and Evaluation

April 29 Final Exam (1:30 – 3:30 pm)




COURSE REQUIREMENTS AND EVALUATION
Class participation 10 %

Assignments 15 %

Term Project 25 %

Mid-Term Exam 25 %

Final Exam 25 %
Term Project

A term project will be assigned on Jan. 21 and project groups will be formed to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration. Your group will choose a product and apply industrial ecology principles and tools to assess the environmental impacts associated with the product and identify opportunities for improvement. The term project includes a group paper and presentation.


Exams
Midterm Take home exam. 3 days to complete starting anytime between Feb 17 and Feb 21. Exams will be enclosed in unsealed envelopes. Note the start time on the envelope and when you finish seal up the exam in the envelope provided and note the time. For example, if you start the exam at 3pm on Tuesday, February 17 you must seal it up in the envelope before 3pm on February 20. Late exams will be marked down.
Final April 29th, 1:30 – 3:30 pm






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