|In the upper Irtysh man appeared in ice Age (middle Paleolithic). Traces of the ancient sites of Neolithic hunters were found in the area Zyryanovsk, in Ust-Narym at Semipalatinsk dunes. Andronov’s tribes that lived in the riverheads of the Irtysh River in the Bronze Age, were engaged in an important and progressive trade. In was the mining and metallurgy. In the year they extracted not less than ten tons of finished bronze. In the VIII century BC the era of the early nomadic tribes Arimasns and Saks has begun. In the first centuries AD in the nomadic world of patriarchal-feudal relations have started to develop take shape. These relations were dominating before the XX century. In IX-XIII centuries on the banks of the Irtysh River kimaki began to build their capacity, and Naiman –to the pastures.
In the end XVI – XVII century of century various areas of territory of East Kazakhstan one for another are a part of Russian state,Russian build here cities and settlements. Within all XVII century the Russian government did numerous attempts to promote upwards on the river Irtysh, but the Dzhungarsky khanateinterfered with it.
In 1718, the boyar’s son Vasiliy Cheredov has founded the Semipalatnaya fortress (nowadays – the city of Semey) near the ruins of the Dzhungarian monastery.
In 1720, envoy of the Russian Tsar Peter I of the Leyd Guards, Major Ivan Likharev has founded the fortress of Ust-Kamennaya (nowadays – the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk).
The extraordinary wealth of mineral resources of the Altay contributed to the rapid development of the mining industry. The richness and variety of mineral resources, Landscapes, flora and fauna of the region over the past three centuries, have attracted the attention of many prominent Russian and foreign researchers.
Two scientific expeditions were on the edge of the great Russian travelers: Pyot Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Nikolai Przewalski, Grigory Potanin, the author of the encyclopedia Animal Life Alfred Brehm, German Scientist Otto Finch, American journalist George Kennan. In the XIX century the East Kazakhstan has become a place of political exile. History of East Kazakhstan XX century is closely linked with the history of Russia and the USSR.
East Kazakhstan has gone through the October Revolution, Civil War, Stalin’s repressions. Together with the peoples of other former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, the East Kazakhstan fought on the fronts of the Second World War. In 1991, when Kazakhstan became an independent state, East Kazakhstan had begun to help the Kazakhstan Republic to build a sovereign state.
East Kazakhstan is a major industrial center. In the area over 1,000 medium and large industrial enterprises operate. Non-ferrous metallurgy is a key economic branch of this region, join-stock company Kazzinc has the greatest share in regional industrialproduction. Join-stock company Kazzinc is engaged in release of color, noble and rare metals.
Join-stock company Kazzinc makes more than 70 % of a commodity output of branch. Large manufacturers of metals in area are Ust-Kamenogorsky Tiano-Magnesian Industrial Complex, Ulbinsky Metal Plant, Vostok Kazmed branch of Kazahmys Corporation. The enterprises of East Kazakhstan are issued building materials, first of all, cement.
This cement is used for the construction of gas – and oil pipelines. For several year, JV Asia-Auto produces cars in Kazakhstan. This pipeline is helping Kazakhstan to build capacity in the automotive industry.
In this area food industry is successfully developing. May Company is the largest enterprise in the field of production of sunflower oil. With its considerable reserves of raw materials, Eastern Kazakhstan produces Pantocrinum and other drugs. The President of Kazakhstan Nurslultan Nazarbayev approved a pilot project to establish “Zones of High Technology” in the East Kazakhstan region.
The main idea of the project is to establish a Centre of Metallurgy and the Design Bureau. Centre of Metallurgy is created on the basis of VNIITsvetmet.
The Design Bureau started its operations in Technopark Altay. Engineering company which is engaged in the counting of ore reserves and the development of feasibility studies, also works here.
Agriculture in East Kazakhstan is developing steadily. Livestock production has been a key economic activity in East Kazakhstan for centuries and continues to be a major source of employment, food and income for the rural population. Well known that vast steppe and mountain pastures give the significant opportunities for growth in the livestock market. This field specializes in the production of meat and milk.
The region also increases the production of wool, is developing breeding. The local sheep is best developed on the left bank of the Irtysh River, in the Zaisansk basin, the foothills of the Southern Altay, Saur and Tarbagatay. Herd horses also developed in the East Kazakhstan. A specific sector of animal highlands region is Siberian Deers development.
Agriculture in East Kazakhstan is predominantly grain direction. The main agricultural enterprises are in the Irtysh steppe, foothills and valleys of the Rudny Altai, Kalbinsk ridge and Tarbagatay. Among industrial crops the main is sunflower. Here are the main crops of this culture in the Republic ofKazakhstan. Sunflower oil from the eastern region known for its taste and has admirers in all regions of Kazakhstan. In the foothills of the Altay and the southern slopes of Tarbagatay, which grows much honey plants, bee-keeping.
Gorny Altay honey for its aroma, taste and healing qualities considered one of the best in the world. East Kazakhstan small farms have come to dominate honey production generating around70% of national production of Kazakhstan honey. Nearly 800 enterprises and food processing industry produces food. Among the largest refineries in region are Shemazat Open Company, Vostok Moloko Open Company and Emile Open Company, which specializes in the production of dairy and bakery products.
The East Kazakhstan area possesses unique tourist potential. The main strengths in the tourism plan for development are: a convenient geographical position (the centre of Eurasia), cross-border cooperation with the Russian Federation, the Chinese National Republic and Mongolia, extensive territory and a variety of a natural landscape, unique recreational resources and a rich cultural-historical heritage
Tourist tracks conduct to hundreds monuments of a historical and cultural heritage, and as to nature sanctuaries – Kiin Kirish, the Sinegorsk Fir Grove, the Stone Fairy Tale. Tourists from the near abroad countries show a particular interest to recreational zones: to Buhtarminsky reservoir, Sibinsky lakes, lake Alakol, area Katon-Karagay and suburb of the city of Ridder.
Good natural landscape of edge, a considerable quantity of the rivers and lakes with fishing, hunting for an animal and game allow local tourist firms to organize such interesting tours as alloys, fishing, hunting and scientific rounds, and pant health resort vacation.
Cultural-informative rounds are interesting to fans of olden time, history, culture of the people. To their services: visiting of guest houses in Katon-Karagay area where it is possible to get acquainted with a life and traditions of local people, ethnic cuisine to visit apiaries and Siberian Deers’ farms.
Annually thousand tourists have a rest in the health-improving centers such as health resort Rahmanovsky keys, Barlyk Arasan and also in the bases of rest such as Nurtau, Izumrudnyi, Altay Alpes, Blue Gulf, Valley of Tsars, Altay bay, Klimovka, Gromotuha, Ajgerim, Alakol.
As if a slow caravan of camels, on twenty kilometers mountains Chingistau from the West on the east were stretched. Stocky, low, on a card they are imperceptible, but the place occupied with them in the history is remarkable.
Here the native land of great sons of the Kazakh people: Abay, Shakarim, Mukhtar. Everyone who has visited on this earth, as if releafed the famous epic novel Mukhtar Auezov Parth of Abai. After the pass named his name, you will see Borli – small village road to which specifies The Open Book Monument. The name it is familiar to thousand readers under the story Grey Fierce.
The words Borly, in transfer to Kazakh language means the big wolf den. Today here there is a House museum of Muhtar Auezov. Further the road conducts in Zhidebay-zimovye – the place where poet Abay has spent last years of the life. In five rooms and three halls of a museum the materials transferred by relatives and Abay’s friends are presented.
Among them – books in the Arabian, Persian, Turkish, Russian languages, documentary photographs of those years, three-stringed music instrument domra Abay, subject of a life and other valuable exhibits. Here photos of exiled of friends of Abay – Mihaelisa, the Gross, Dolgopolov and Lobanovsky.
All these exhibits acquaint visitors of a museum complex with an epoch of Abay. Value of Abay creativity for world culture are timeless. In Delhi, Cairo, Berlin, Tashkent there are streets that are named for the great Kazakh poet – Abay.
When local people in the days of the first five-year period began to construct the Turkestan-Siberian railway road, one of the stations located in the East Kazakhstan has turned to the regional center. Now Ayagoz is a large railway station. A name of one of the villages in the area – Tansyk – inseparably linked with Kozy Korpesh names and beauties the Bayan.
Fifteen centuries ago they have met each other, have fallen in love, and since then they became the Kazakhstan’s Romeo and Juliet. This poem-legend was from generation to generation transferred and the track to a majestic gravestone of the Goat of Korpesh and the Bayan of Sulu didn’t grow.
Light of the love left two hearts, inspired акынов, writers, playwrights, ethnographers and historians of all times and many people. The most ancient witness of occurring events of that time is the monument of material culture X-XI centuries, мазарthe mausoleum, “a posthumous monastery of the Goat of Korpesh”. The well-known tomb connected with a liriko-epic poem, is one of the most ancient in Kazakhstan. In 1858 the mausoleum has visited Chokan Valihanov.
The seen has made upon strong impression, and it has made the sketches. In reliability of this legend the unique archaeological find-gold a belt forces to trust. On a belt the fragment is represented: against poplars the sitting female figure inclined over a heard of the killed Dzhigit. The gold belt is in the Hermitage. The mausoleum of two enamoured tourists very like to visit, after all the legend about Kozy Korpesh and Bayan of Sulu is immortal.
In the area, that the object does not take it, it stands for a whole string of historical events. One event succeeds another, and together they arranged in a long line – past, present and future of this region. Among the attractions – one of the most famous – it is an Orthodox village church of St. Nicholas; it was built in 1900-1901, respectively.
Decrepit building almost destroyed, but still possible to judge about the architecture of that distant time. The first fortress in the town of Semipalatinsk, built in 1718, also stands in the district. From history it is known that to the XVIII century beginning Russian state at Peter I have strengthened economic and political connections with the East countries.
In 1714 on Irtysh the strengthened line consisting of fortresses, advanced posts and redoubts has been created. It is possible to consider as one more known sight of Beskaragay area an old wooden mosque near village Akkol. This unique wooden structure of Muslim cult architecture which has remained in territory of East Kazakhstan. The Tatar merchant of Sultangali Fazylbekov has constructed this mosque in 1905. Before it he has made the hajj. After it he has employed local people, and all of them on spiritual lifting have started working on construction of mosque. Now one the oldest constructions of area gradually falls into decay. From a highway the semi disassembled mosque reminds a sailing vessel floating on steppe. Alas, a fair wind he hasn’t waited yet.
Pride and beauty Borodulihinsky area – this is the relic pine forest, rich in mushrooms and berries. It stretches for hundreds of kilometers. A second similar only in Canada.The origin of belt hog due to the third and last glaciations on Earth.When the planet is warmer, the retreat of huge masses of the ice. Such a block of ice blocked the road waters.
They built up (as before a huge dam), and then rolled backward, toward the Irtysh River. The water carried the weight of sand, which was postponed in rivers. With the retreat of the glacier to the north and moving water flows. Become a powerful reservoir of sand, which became the cradle of pine forests.
As a result, now in these places in the valley grow forests, and the spaces between them dominated by steppe vegetation. Belt forests have great protective value; they constrain sandstorms, the optimal shape for the life of animals and human micro-climate. The local people prefer to relax on Mikhailovsky lakes, which in recent years have fallen into decay, but now they were slowly returning to life. They were clearing to restore the status of the fisheries of the reservoir.
There are a lot of summer camps of children. For children close to the clean lake is preferred. How beautiful and health-improving summer rest on the golden sands Shulbinsk reservoir! Especially if you spent this time near the edge of the water relict pines and before the grand panoramic view of the Shulbinsky dam.
In 1730, the mine foreman Ivan Chuporshnev has discovered rich mining deposits Berezovsky. To solve the food problem in 1760 was published Siberian Decree on employment sites from Ust-Kamenogorsk and the construction of a fortress there in convenient places, fortresses and settlement of the party on the rivers of Ube, a tributary of Irtysh Berezovka, Deep, Ulba and other Rivers, flowing into the Irtysh, the Russian people to two thousand people.
According to the stories the old residents, Ignatius Gubin settled with his family at the foot of the hill Petushok. Glubokovsky region is the birthplace of beekeeping in the Rudny Altay.
In 1786 the first bees were imported in Bobrovka, later they appeared in the Deep, Praporshikovo, and from there spread to the other territories of Altay.
Every summer hundreds of tourists flock to Big Ubinsky thresholds, located close to the village Karaguzhiha, downstream.
Fans thrill swim here on catamarans, rafts and rafting, go horseback riding, wander on foot. Party Uba so much seething at his feet, that dizzy.
For thousands of years the water had carved in tablets of deepening in the form of a variety of vessels: vases, dishes, baths, boilers and vats.
Some achieve a three-meter depth. Local residents have adapted nets to catch in these mortars chebaks.
Thresholds last along all mountain Porozhnoj. From above it is well visible, as this stone dragon on a bottom of deep gorge curls.
Land of gold places and singing akyns called Zharminsky area. Nature has endowed this region diversity. Green hills, picturesque mountain Tracts, numerous rivers and lakes. The most famous of them – a salt lake Arasan. The curative properties of its mud known for a long time.
Today, on the shores of Arasan operates a sports complex. To heal, here come people from all regions of the republic and CIS. Anglers can easily fish out of salt water Arasan carp and tench.
It has long been linked Zharminsky land caravan routes south to the north. Not by chance interested in these places travelers and geographers. There were here Ch. Valikhanov, Semenov-Tian-Shansky, G. Potanin, Obruchev, A. Yanushkevich and others. Local people are proud of its rich historical past.
Many famous National batyrs have fought against Dzhungars here. And today, not far from Kalbatau, on a high hill, the local residents have built a magnificent monument to one of these batyrs – the Er-Zhanibek. On the territory of the region remained Zharminsky countless number of old shafts and pits, in which the ancestors mined tin for the subsequent production of bronze.
Near the village Arshaly is locating a high mountain. And there are famous Arshalinskie wells here. Ideally round stone bowls of different diameter go down from top and to the bottom. Wells are the nine pieces. Water is from one to another, as if someone specifically curve had these tubs. Here are just – in what way?
Possibilities of Zaysansky area for tourism development are really boundless. Mountains are covered by woods in which wild animals, birds are found. Lakes and the rivers abound with fish. Slopes abound with a barberry, a currant, a hawthorn; all grows more than 100 kinds of medicinal grasses. Mineral water of the Dzhemeneysky deposit is famous for the quality. Fans of olden time won’t regret, if visit a local museum.
Expert historian Femistokl Zhunusov will show original exhibits: a sword, chain armor, a helmet, a spear. It is possible to take a gun of the famous researcher Przhevalsky. The mausoleum of Zeynully is constructed by well-known Zaysansky architect Bayazit Satpaev in 1920. This beautiful structure is considered a monument of architecture and it is protected by the Kazakhstan state now.Samples of bricks, of which Bajazit built the architectural masterpieces, era stored in the Zaysansky museum.
They extraordinary strong. On a legend, Bayazit held three days bricks in water, and then threw highly upghly upwards. If a brick, Hitting about the earth, broke, the architect had rejected the whole party. The hill of Ashutas stuns with the motley coloring. It is rare paleotnological monument. It has received the name from the smell of the sulfur allocated with the charred vegetative rests. In transfer from Kazakh language Ashutas is a bitter stone.
Ashutas it is well-known also for modern rare plants which more don’t meet anywhere. Scientists-paleobotanists there had been found out fossilized prinst of leaves and pollen of evergreen subtropical plants, including such wood plants, as laurels and a magnolia, and also prints of insects: thermophilic termites, dragnofilies, caddis fillies.
Zyryanovsky region is also called Belovodye. White and turquoise are curret on this earth river Bukhtarma, Turgusun, Hamira. The district is part of the coast Bukhtarma reservoir. Because of these impressive sizes Buhtarminsky reservoir also called the sea, and that is really true.
Sitting on the bank of the water’s edge, staring into the distance, you see the opposite side of the lake merges with the horizon, and the sound of the surf gently caresses your ears.
Bizarre cliffs, picturesque landscape, sandy beaches and quiet bays thoughtful create an unforgettable panorama of the coastline and the magnificent setting for your holiday.
Hundreds of tourist centers settled on the coast. What are the only types of services do not offer them to its customers – from simple rest to extreme tours.
Each of these tours in its own way interesting and attractive for tourist. Because all these tours based on a desire tourists to find new horizons and make new discoveries.
For example, you go for a walk on the reservoir on a real yacht. And there are also other entertainments – riding on boats, scooters. Fun awaits anglers. It caught grayling, trout and perch. You can do underwater hunting. Nature around the reservoir has astonishing in is variety.
Here and bare steppe, and small mountains covered with forests, and more – fantastic cliffs, sandy beaches, taiga forests and tranquil coves. There era more than 400 species of birds, 60 species of mammals.
The peak of tourist interest Katon Karagay area is considered to be a mountain Belukha. The highest peak of Altay (4506 m), it suits to itself tourists and climbers. More than two centuries of walking through the world the glory of the unique Rakhmanovsky Kluchi. Their life-giving power of a legend.
Hunter Rakhmanov pursued in these places deer. A wounded animal reached the radon source and got into it. And when I came out bloody tail disappeared. Water to heal his wounds.
Then he became a hunter, hot spring, lay in it, doctoring rheumatic knees and returned home completely healthy. Another attraction of the area – Berelsky mounds. At an altitude of 1200 m in the valley Bukhtarma, received in academic circles royal title, found the mound with a burial in the permafrost body Saks prince. These excavations have made a sensation in modern science.
The district’s operating Katon Karagaisky State National and Natural park. Only in Katon Karagay area you can watch the whole parade of waterfalls. The biggest of them is Kokkolsky. A powerful waterfall, picturesque valley with pine forests, moss-bearded man hanging from pine branches – all this can not tear my eyes away.
Katon Karagaisky region, moreover, is the unique place in Kazakhstan, where Siberian deer grow. And local people receive valuable medicinal raw materials – pants, which are valued on the world market due to its high content of biologically active substances.
The territory of the Resort occupies the biggest part of sand massif Kizylkum the valley of the low currency of the Kulundzhun River on North – West of Zaysan hollow. In the East it is limited by the waters of Buhtarminsky reservoir.
The landscape can be divided into two types: the first is alluvial accumulative, represented by fixed, brown and unfixed sand – hilled massifs, appeared as result of wind erosion of the surface.
The second one is alluvial erosive, which is represented by the terraces of the Irtysh and the Kulundzhun rivers. In the mouth of the Kulundzhun River there are situated three small lakes – which are called Kaznakovskoe, Kambar-Karasu and Chaechie accordingly. The flora of The Kuludzhunsky Reserve is represented by approximately 200 kinds of plants.
Most of them are representatives of different types of desert vegetation – wormwood, cereals ect; bushes – acacia and juniper; and some other rare kinds of plants, which are included in The Red Book. There can be found the pine – tree – its steppe from – the remnants of which disappeared in the beginning of the XIX century Hatun – Karagaysky pine-forest. In the mouth of The Kulundzhun River marsh meadows are spread.
Among the sand – hills there can be seen small lakes with reeds on the shores. Fauna is represented by two species: grey toad and sharp-nosed frog. There live six species of reptiles: multicolored lizard, grass-snake and other species included in The Red Book.
Territory of contrasts can be called Kurchum area. On the one hand –the parched plains, on the other – the mountains with snowy peaks, the wild taiga, with bears and Siberian deers. And in the centre – reserved Lake Markakol. This is the Kazakhstan largest alpine lake.
Only in it is good for fishing uskuch. It is beautiful lake with remarkably clear water. The unforgettable route starts from this lake to a colorful clays Kiin-Kirish. Martian terrain as it is hidden from prying eyes; he does not rise, on the contrary – drowned in the hopper. The heat, sparse vegetation, lack of water and traces of human presence adds color to this unearthly landscape.
Around there are the red, yellow, green, blue, white clay. It seems that you have moved, not only in space but in time – in a million years ago. The towers, domes and castles of colored of clay rocks of the paleogene, all of them fantastically eroded erosion.
Researchers reviewed here last tropical flora prints (palms, magnolias, Arua). In the variegated clays dried eternity. According to geologist, Kiin-Kirish Is a unique paleontological monument, which occupies about 300 hectares.
Bright colors clay rocks suggests that they were formed under hot and humid tropical climate of the Mesozoic, when dinosaurs ruled. The paleogene monument Kiin-Kirish due the variety of stone design no equal among the other monuments of Asia and Europe.