I will discuss the exotic plants, which can be restored with a good effect, based on some literatures that I had found

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I will discuss the exotic plants, which can be restored with a good effect, based on some literatures that I had found.
Firstly, I want to discuss about the Melaleuca quinquenervia (白千層). Melaleuca quinquenervia is widely found in Hong Kong, especially along the roadside. In Shing Mun Country Park, there is extensive afforestation of the Melaleuca quinquenervia after the World War II and become one of the major forest plantations in Hong Kong now. (Corlett, R.T. 1995)

  • Native to eastern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya and often forms pure stands. Formerly thought to occur in New Caledonia, where the tree is now considered to be a distinct species.

  • Evergreen tree to 20-25 m tall.

  • The flowers produce large quantities of pollen and nectar and are pollinated by bees.

  • The fruit is a woody capsule (4 mm) containing many minute seeds.

  • Seeds have no special buoyancy structures and are usually poorly dispersed but in hurricane winds seeds can spread up to 7 km.

  • Resistant to wind, drought, fires and salt water.

  • The thick spongy bark of the trunk is fire proof but the outer layer highly flammable.

  • Species becomes locally dominant in swampy areas over a wide geographical area. It successfully competes with and outgrows other vegetation.

  • It is suitable for windbreaks

  • M. Quinquenervia is a temperate tree at the limit of its range. Its dense canopy casts deep shade, and in association with its likely allelopathic properties, restricts ground vegetation. It is poorly utilized by wildlife. By increasing the forest cover it could result in higher demand for ground water and lowering of the water-table.

  • They are generally taller, straighter and form very dense populations and grow much faster.

  • paper-bark tree

  • Melaleuca's native range is along the coast of eastern Australia from Sydney northward. It is native also in New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, and Irian Jaya (Geary, T. F.; Woodall, S. L. 1990.)

  • No small birds or mammals eat the seed of melaleucaHofstetter, Ronald H. 1991.

  • Because of its fast growth and ability to quickly invade disturbed sites, melaleuca has been planted for erosion control on deforested sites. (Godfrey, Robert K.; Wooten, Jean W. 1981 )

  • Resiniferous evergreen tree to 30 m tall, 1 m diameter, with whitish papery bark

  • Its thick flaky bark makes it fire resistant.

Lophostemon confertus 

Geographic Range

  • The box brush originated in Australia where it is widespread on rainforest margins and eucalypt forests along the coast and tablelands of New South Wales and Queensland.

  • The seeds of the box brush, which are 2-3mm long and contained in the fruit, are the method of propagation.

  • The box brush is a unique tree in that its distribution is dependent upon soil moisture availability. It is most common in the Australian rainforests of New South Wales and can be seen in Lamington National Park as well.

  • The box brush has the ability to carry nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the roots, therefore it is often introduced to parks and other regions where it does not naturally occur because of this ability to improve soil fertility.

  • The box brush is also a popular tree used to line public streets because it provides both beauty and shade to the area.

  • The wood grown in Hawaii is moderately resistant to decay and termites. (1989)

  • This species is a hardy ornamental and shade tree with handsome foliage (1989)

  • The white brushbox flowers appear in clusters of 3 to 7 on short branches at leaf bases and the backs of leaves.

  • Seedlings must be treated and planted with care to minimize the high mortality common to this species (Petteys 1974).

It is an evergreen, dicotyledonous, angiosperm tree which can grow up to 6-15m tall. Though native plants of Taiwan and the Philippines, they always grow well in Hong Kong.

  • "Small tree; adult foliage of falcate phyllodes, juvenile and sucker-shoot foliage of bipinnate leaves

  • trunk up to 1 m thick in very old trees

  • flowers yellow,

  • Grows well between sea level in both dry and mesic habitats.

  • Will often resprout after fire.

  • In Hawaii, it was planted for windbreaks on Maui and has since formed monotypic stands at lower elevations and continues to spread up to 1000 m

  • Seeds present in the ground can germinate profusely after fire. Spread through forestry and ornamental plantings. Can be reproduced from cuttings.

  • Taiwan (native) China (native), Philippines (native),

References:  Motooka, P., L. Castro, D. Nelson, G. Nagai and L. Ching .  2002.  Weeds of pastures and natural areas of Hawaii and their management. 

In press. Stone, Benjamin. 1970.  The flora of Guam.  Micronesica 6:295.


New, T. R.


A biology of acacias / T.R. New.


Melbourne : Oxford University Press in association with La Trobe University Press, 1984.


Fung, Chun-hong.


Effects of acacias on the physical and chemical properties of granitic soils in Hong Kong / by Fung, Chun-hong.


Hong Kong : Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1995.

Acacia mangium Willd.

  • The hard, light-brown wood is dense, with narrow sapwood and a straight, close grain.

  • Capable of being directly sown, the tree appears quite promising for erosion control where adapted (NAS, 1979).

  • Tree to 30 m tall, bole often straight, to over half the total tree height.

  • Native to the Australian Center of Diversity, the mange tree has been reported to tolerate heavy soil, laterites, low pH, poor soil, slopes, and weeds (NAS, 1979, 1983d).

  • Hybridizes naturally with Acacia auriculiformis, producing hybrids which grow faster than either parent, but tending to retain the poor form of A. auriculiformis.

  • Largely Australian with disjunct distribution of small stands in New Guinea and the Moluccas, as well as in Cape York Peninsula Introduced to Banglasesh, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Papua, and the Philippines (NAS, 1983d).

  • Probably capable of ranging from Tropical Very Dry to Moist through Subtropical Dry to Wet Forest Life Zones,

  • on poor sites such as disturbed or burned sites, on degraded lateritic clay underlain with volcanic rock,

  • on soils so worn out that even shifting cultivation had been abandoned,

  • Mangium apparently tolerates annual precipitation of 10 to 45 dm or more, mean maximum temperature of 31–34°C in summer

  • It is reported on entisols and ultisols.

  • Seedlings may be defoliated by Hypomeces squamosus. Scale insects and mealy bugs may also be problematic with young plants

  • Native to northern Queensland in Australia, throughPapua New Guinea into the Indonesian provinces of Irian Jaya and Maluku.

  • A fast-growing, relatively short-lived (30-50 years) tree, adapted to a wide range of acidic (pH 4.5-6.5) soils in moist tropical lowlands.

It does not tolerate frost or shade. Grows better on fertile sites with good drainage but will tolerate soils of low fertility and impeded drainage. Young trees are susceptible to fire. Can become a weed under certain conditions.

Elliot, W. R. and D. L. Jones. 1982. Encyclopaedia of Australian plants, volume two. Lothian Publishing Co., Melbourne. p. 81.

Doran, J.C. & Turnbull, J.W. (eds.) 1997. Australian Trees and Shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. ACIAR Monograph No 24.

Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I., Wong, W.C., eds. 1995. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2).Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. 655 pp.; Prosea

Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers.

Preece, D. & Brook, R. 1996. Acacia mangium: an important multipurpose tree for the tropic lowlands. FACT Sheet 96-03

Wickneswari, R., 1994. Acacia mangium x Acacia auriculiformis hybrids. Research Pamphlet No. 116, FRIM, Malaysia.

Natural stand in Papua New Guinea. Photo: Maurice Mcdonald, CSIRO, Forestry & Forest Products, Australian Tree Seed Centre. THIS NOTE WAS PREPARED BY DANIDA FOREST SEED CENTRE

Author: Dorthe Jøker
Wildlands are forest, grasslands, savannas, deserts, wetlands, shrub lands, marshlands, or other extensively managed areas for which a self sustaining, and usually perennial, vegetation is the management objective. They often have a relatively low productivity and/or produce goods and services with relatively low market values. However, wildlands, which comprise most of the earth’s land area, are very important because they provide food , fibre, recreational amenities, comtribute, to biological diversity and control the quality and amount of water for many urban and agricultural uses.
Degradation becomes more severe as the area loses control over essential resources. Seriously damaged wildlands not only lost control over resources, they lost the capacity for self-repair and were unable prevent additional degradation.

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