I. Forest 10 I. A n a. Lowland tropical or subtropical seasonal evergreen forest 10

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I.A.5.N.d. Semipermanently flooded tropical or subtropical broad-leaved evergreen sclerophyllous forest

A.76 Annona glabra Semipermanently Flooded Forest Alliance

Pond-apple Semipermanently Flooded Forest Alliance

Alliance Concept

Summary: This alliance consists of swamps and sinkhole ponds, freshwater or very slightly brackish depression or swale wetlands dominated (or codominated) by Annona glabra, sometimes with some mangrove as well, and typically with numerous species of epiphytes (especially orchids and bromeliads, such as Tillandsia spp.). Physiognomy is variable, varying from dense canopies to open canopies, depending on hydrology and disturbance. Forests of this alliance sometimes approach shrubland in height (less than 5 m) but all are classed here. In southern Florida, temperate floristic components are often present, including such species as Salix caroliniana and Sambucus canadensis (= Sambucus simpsonii). The herbaceous layer is often well-developed and dominated by graminoids, such as Cladium mariscus ssp. jamaicense (= Cladium jamaicense). This alliance is widespread in the Bahamas and West Indies, and is likely to occur in tropical southern Florida.




Similar Alliances: Fraxinus caroliniana Seasonally Flooded Forest Alliance (A.344)

Similar Alliance Comments:

Alliance Distribution

Range: This alliance is found in Florida, the Bahamas, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Martinique, Antigua and Barbuda, and elsewhere in the West Indies.

Nations: AG, BS, CU, MQ, PR, US, XB

Subnations: FL

TNC Ecoregions: 54:C

USFS Ecoregions: 411Aa:CCC, 411Ab:CCC, M411A:CC

Federal Lands: NPS (Big Cypress, Everglades)

Alliance Sources

Author(s): A.S. Weakley

References: Borhidi 1991, Davis 1943, Gunderson and Loftus 1993, Hilsenbeck et al. 1979, Kimber 1988, Lindsay and Horwith 1997

[CEGL007055] Annona glabra / Crinum americanum - Bacopa caroliniana Forest

Translated Name: Pond-apple / Swamp Lily - Blue Water-hyssop Forest

Common Name: Pond Apple Slough

Ecological System(s): South Florida Pond-apple/Popash Slough (CES411.486)

Status: Standard Circumscription Confidence: 1 - Strong

Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Element Concept

Global Summary: This short forest occurs in semipermanently flooded (10- to 12-month hydroperiod) depressions filled with well-decomposed peaty soils (mucks). The canopy is strongly dominated by Annona glabra, sometimes also with Salix caroliniana. Epiphytes are abundant, including Tillandsia utriculata, Tillandsia fasciculata, and Tillandsia variabilis. Herbaceous species include Paspalidium geminatum var. paludivagum, Funastrum clausum (= Sarcostemma clausum), Pontederia cordata, Sagittaria lancifolia, Proserpinaca palustris, Bacopa monnieri, and Mikania scandens (= Mikania batatifolia).

Environmental Description

USFWS Wetland System: Palustrine

Global Environment:

Vegetation Description

Global Vegetation:

Global Dynamics:

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Global Floristic Composition

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Higher Taxon Note

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Global Other Noteworthy Species

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Commelina diffusa var. gigas - P

Cucurbita okeechobeensis G1 P

Conservation Status Rank

Global Rank & Reasons: G1G2 (10-Jan-1998). "At the turn of the century, a monospecific stand of pond-apple (Annona glabra), some 3 miles wide, was found along the southern border of Lake Okeechobee" (Davis 1943). This large occurrence was destroyed; only small and very limited occurrences remain, and those in private lands are threatened by urban expansion.

Related Concepts

Global Similar Associations: Fraxinus caroliniana / Crinum americanum - Bacopa caroliniana Forest (CEGL004478)

Global Related Concepts:

  • Pond apple - Willow Forest (Hilsenbeck et al. 1979) ?

Classification & Other Comments

Global Classification Comments: Herbaceous nominal species need reconsideration. Other notable plants found in the pond-apple forest were moon-vine (Ipomoea alba), dew flower (Commelina diffusa var. gigas (= Commelina gigas)), and Okeechobee gourd (Cucurbita okeechobeensis)" (Gunderson and Loftus 1993).

Element Distribution

Global Range:

Nations: US

States/Provinces: FL

TNC Ecoregions: 54:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:

USFS Ecoregions: 411Aa:CCC, 411Ab:CCC

Federal Lands: NPS (Big Cypress, Everglades)

Element Sources
Global Description Author(s):
References (enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Davis 1943 . X . X X . . . .

Gunderson and Loftus 1993 . X . X X . . . .

Hilsenbeck et al. 1979 . X X X X . . . .

Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .

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