I. Forest 10 I. A n a. Lowland tropical or subtropical seasonal evergreen forest 10




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I.A.4.N.g. Saturated temperate seasonal evergreen forest

A.60 Magnolia virginiana - Persea palustris Saturated Forest Alliance


Sweetbay - Swampbay Saturated Forest Alliance

Alliance Concept

Summary: These are saturated forests of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains which have canopies typically dominated by Magnolia virginiana and/or Persea palustris. Both species are generally present; one or the other may dominate. In some stands and associations now assigned here, dominance of these species may be shared with Gordonia lasianthus, or this species may dominate. This alliance was originally described as lacking substantial dominance by Gordonia lasianthus, this species being present only in small amounts, but the former Gordonia lasianthus Saturated Forest Alliance has been merged in here. In addition to these species, Acer rubrum, Pinus serotina, and Pinus elliottii var. elliottii may also occur.
This alliance includes seepage-fed saturated forests found at the base of steepheads, with cool microclimates; also stream-associated flats and isolated peaty wetlands; as well as peaty soils only slightly above sea level, in swales and seepage-fed areas adjacent to sand dunes. Associated shrubs may include Cyrilla racemiflora, Illicium floridanum, Ilex coriacea, Ilex glabra, Viburnum nudum var. nudum, Clethra alnifolia, Itea virginica, Pinckneya bracteata, and Lyonia lucida. In addition, Cephalanthus occidentalis may occur in wetter examples. Vines (Smilax laurifolia, Smilax glauca, Vitis rotundifolia) may also occur. Herbs include Rhynchospora spp., Peltandra sagittifolia, Peltandra virginica, Sarracenia purpurea, Drosera intermedia, Pinguicula pumila, Viola X primulifolia, Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides, Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Woodwardia areolata, and Carex atlantica ssp. capillacea. Sphagnum is common to scattered in examples of this alliance. Some examples occur in association with Cliftonia monophylla forest, in slightly drier (though still saturated) situations. Canopy coverage can vary from closed to somewhat open, depending on disturbance; some maritime associations are subject to flooding, hurricanes, or storms which can create canopy openings. A maritime forest dominated by Persea palustris is included here; in this example Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera) is common in the shrub layer. The herb layer has Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Woodwardia virginica, and Woodwardia areolata. This alliance is known from the Atlantic Coastal Plain from North Carolina south to Florida, and in the Florida Gulf Coastal Plain. Occurrences in subtropical Florida have subtropical components, such as Chrysobalanus icaco, Ficus aurea, Annona glabra, Sambucus canadensis (= Sambucus simpsonii), Myrsine floridana, Psychotria tenuifolia, Dicliptera sexangularis, Cladium mariscus ssp. jamaicense, Acrostichum danaeifolium, Blechnum serrulatum, Nephrolepis exaltata, Thelypteris kunthii, Rivina humilis, Habenaria odontopetala, and Melothria pendula.

Environment: This alliance includes seepage-fed saturated forests of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains with cool microclimates found at the base of steepheads and other slopes, also stream-associated flats and isolated peaty wetlands, as well as peaty soils only slightly above sea level, in swales and seepage-fed areas adjacent to sand dunes. This includes streamhead pocosins and other peaty streamhead situations such as large peat dome pocosins and peat-filled Carolina bays.

Vegetation: These are saturated forests of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains which have canopies typically dominated by Magnolia virginiana and/or Persea palustris. Both species are generally present; one or the other may dominate. In some stands and associations now assigned here, dominance of these species may be shared with Gordonia lasianthus, or this species may dominate. This alliance was originally described as lacking substantial dominance by Gordonia lasianthus, this species being present only in small amounts, but the former Gordonia lasianthus Saturated Forest Alliance has been merged in here. In addition to these species, Acer rubrum, Pinus serotina, and Pinus elliottii var. elliottii may also occur. Associated shrubs may include Cyrilla racemiflora, Illicium floridanum, Ilex coriacea, Ilex glabra, Viburnum nudum var. nudum, Clethra alnifolia, Itea virginica, Pinckneya bracteata, and Lyonia lucida. In addition, Cephalanthus occidentalis may occur in wetter examples. Vines (Smilax laurifolia, Smilax glauca, Vitis rotundifolia) may also occur. Herbs include Rhynchospora spp., Peltandra sagittifolia, Peltandra virginica, Sarracenia purpurea, Drosera intermedia, Pinguicula pumila, Viola X primulifolia, Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides, Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Woodwardia areolata, and Carex atlantica ssp. capillacea. Sphagnum is common to scattered in examples of this alliance. A maritime forest dominated by Persea palustris is included here; in this example Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera) is common in the shrub layer. The herb layer has Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Woodwardia virginica, and Woodwardia areolata. In a maritime forest example Morella cerifera is common in the shrub layer. The herb layer in this type has Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Woodwardia virginica, and Woodwardia areolata. Occurrences in subtropical Florida have subtropical components, such as Chrysobalanus icaco, Ficus aurea, Annona glabra, Sambucus canadensis (= Sambucus simpsonii), Myrsine floridana, Psychotria tenuifolia, Dicliptera sexangularis, Cladium mariscus ssp. jamaicense, Acrostichum danaeifolium, Blechnum serrulatum, Nephrolepis exaltata, Thelypteris kunthii, Rivina humilis, Habenaria odontopetala, and Melothria pendula.

Dynamics: Canopy coverage can vary, depending on disturbance; some maritime associations are subject to flooding, hurricanes, or storms which can create canopy openings. An example of this Alliance (CEGL007049) burned in a high-intensity wildfire in 1998 at Bradwell Bay, Apalachicola National Forest.

Similar Alliances: Cliftonia monophylla Saturated Forest Alliance (A.58) Cyrilla racemiflora - Ilex coriacea - (Cliftonia monophylla) Saturated Shrubland Alliance (A.802)--related vegetation from the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Magnolia virginiana - Nyssa biflora - (Quercus laurifolia) Saturated Forest Alliance (A.378)--includes some related mixed broad-leaved evergreen - cold-deciduous vegetation. Pinus serotina Saturated Woodland Alliance (A.581) Taxodium distichum - Persea palustris - Chrysobalanus icaco Seasonally Flooded Forest Alliance (A.366)

Similar Alliance Comments: Some examples occur in association with Cliftonia monophylla forest, in slightly drier (though still saturated) situations.

Alliance Distribution

Range: This alliance is found in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains of Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina, and may occur in Alabama and Louisiana.

Nations: US

Subnations: AL?, FL, GA, NC, SC

TNC Ecoregions: 53:C, 54:C, 55:C, 56:C, 57:C

USFS Ecoregions: 232Be:CCC, 232Bf:CCC, 232Bg:CCC, 232Bh:CCC, 232Bi:CCC, 232Bj:CCP, 232Bn:CC?, 232Bo:CC?, 232Bp:CC?, 232Bq:CC?, 232Br:CCC, 232Bs:CC?, 232Bu:CCC, 232Bv:CCP, 232Ca:CCC, 232Cb:CCC, 232Cc:CCC, 232Cd:CCC, 232Ce:CCC, 232Cf:CCC, 232Cg:CC?, 232Ch:CCC, 232Ci:CCC, 232Db:CCC, 232Dc:CCC, 232Ga:CCP, 232Gb:CCC, 232Gc:CCP, 232Gd:CCP, 411Ab:CCC

Federal Lands: DOD (Eglin, Fort Gordon?, Fort Stewart?); NPS (Everglades); USFS (Apalachicola, Croatan, Francis Marion?, Ocala, Osceola)

Alliance Sources

Author(s): S. Landaal, mod. A.S. Weakley, mod. M. Pyne

References: Allard 1990, Ambrose 1990a, Christensen et al. 1981, Clewell 1971, Eyre 1980, FNAI 1990, FNAI 1992a, FNAI 1992b, Gunderson and Loftus 1993, Hillestad et al. 1975, Hilsenbeck et al. 1979, Hosier 1975, Huck 1987, Jones 1981, Kindell et al. 1997, Kologiski 1977, Loope et al. 1994, Olmsted and Loope 1984, Rayner 1984, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Schomer and Drew 1982, South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department 1984, Weakley and Schafale 1991, Wharton 1978, Wolfe 1990

[CEGL007015] Magnolia virginiana - Persea palustris - Chrysobalanus icaco / Acrostichum danaeifolium - Nephrolepis exaltata Forest


Translated Name: Sweetbay - Swampbay - Coco-plum / Inland Leather Fern - Boston Swordfern Forest

Common Name: Everglades Bayhead Forest (Shark Slough Type)



Ecological System(s): South Florida Bayhead Swamp (CES411.366)

Status: Standard Circumscription Confidence: 2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s): Hilsenbeck et al. (1979)

Element Concept

Global Summary: This bayhead community occurs in the Shark River Slough portion of the Everglades region of southern Florida. It is characterized by a mixture of temperate and tropical species. When compared with the related bayhead forest associated with Taylor Slough, this type has lower canopy closure and species richness, and includes a stronger temperate floristic component. The canopy consists primarily of Persea palustris, Ficus aurea, Magnolia virginiana, Salix caroliniana, Annona glabra, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Chrysobalanus icaco, and Ilex cassine. The shrub layer includes Sambucus canadensis (= Sambucus simpsonii), Myrsine floridana, and Psychotria tenuifolia. Herbaceous species include Cladium mariscus ssp. jamaicense, Acrostichum danaeifolium, Blechnum serrulatum, Dicliptera sexangularis, Nephrolepis exaltata, Thelypteris kunthii, Rivina humilis, Habenaria odontopetala, and Melothria pendula. Epiphytes are infrequent.

Environmental Description

USFWS Wetland System: Palustrine

Global Environment: Stands of this association are found on soils which are relatively deep peats. The hydroperiod has been reported as being 3 months or less (Hilsenbeck et al. 1979), but other references cite it as being up to 6 months (e.g., Olmsted and Loope 1984).

Vegetation Description

Global Vegetation: The 4- to 10-m canopy of this association consists of Persea palustris, Ficus aurea, Magnolia virginiana, Salix caroliniana, Annona glabra, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Chrysobalanus icaco, and Ilex cassine. The shrub layer includes Sambucus canadensis (= Sambucus simpsonii), Myrsine floridana, and Psychotria tenuifolia. Herbaceous species include Cladium mariscus ssp. jamaicense, Acrostichum danaeifolium, Blechnum serrulatum, Dicliptera sexangularis, Nephrolepis exaltata, Thelypteris kunthii, Rivina humilis, Habenaria odontopetala, and Melothria pendula. Epiphytes are infrequent.

Global Dynamics:

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Global Floristic Composition

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Higher Taxon Note

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Global Other Noteworthy Species

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Conservation Status Rank

Global Rank & Reasons: G1 (10-Jan-1998). This community is restricted to the Everglades of southern Florida. It is affected by altered hydrology and fire regimes.

Related Concepts

Global Similar Associations: Rhizophora mangle - Taxodium distichum - Metopium toxiferum / Chrysobalanus icaco / Apteria aphylla Forest (CEGL007454)--more tropical composition.

Global Related Concepts:

  • Bog, Everglades Bayhead subtype (FNAI 1992b) B

  • Shark Slough Bayhead Forest (Hilsenbeck et al. 1979) ?

  • South Florida Bayhead (Loope et al. 1994) ?

  • Strand Swamp, Everglades Bay Swamp subtype (FNAI 1992b) ?

Classification & Other Comments

Global Classification Comments: The hydroperiod has been reported as being 3 months or less (Hilsenbeck et al. 1979), but other references cite it as being up to 6 months (e.g., Olmsted and Loope 1984, T. Armentano pers. comm.).

Element Distribution

Global Range: This bayhead community occurs in the Shark River Slough portion of the Florida Everglades.

Nations: US

States/Provinces: FL

TNC Ecoregions: 54:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:

USFS Ecoregions: 411Ab:CCC

Federal Lands: NPS (Everglades)

Element Sources
Global Description Author(s): M. Pyne
References (enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Armentano pers. comm. . . . X . . . . .

FNAI 1992a . . . X X . . . .

FNAI 1992b . . X X X . . . .

Gunderson and Loftus 1993 . X . X X . . . .

Hilsenbeck et al. 1979 . X X X X . . . .

Loope et al. 1994 . X X X X . . . .

Olmsted and Loope 1984 . . . X . . . . .



Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .

A.61 Sabal palmetto - Quercus virginiana Saturated Forest Alliance


Cabbage Palmetto - Live Oak Saturated Forest Alliance

Alliance Concept

Summary: This alliance encompasses wet palmetto - live oak forests, primarily occurring throughout central and southern Florida, with scattered locations further north. These are sometimes known as low hammocks or hydric hammocks. Sabal palmetto and Quercus virginiana generally share dominance, and few other trees except Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola are commonly encountered. Sabal palmetto or the other two primary canopy species may strongly dominate local patches. Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera) is a typical shrub or small tree. A related alliance (Sabal palmetto - Quercus laurifolia - Quercus virginiana - Magnolia virginiana - Ulmus americana Saturated Forest Alliance (A.380)) encompasses more diverse-canopied hydric hammocks, occurring in more inland situations (or at least away from immediate coastal influence) and with enough admixture of deciduous and tardily deciduous trees to be placed in a mixed forest subclass (see below). This alliance generally occurs on sands, shell hash, or limestone, with either a substantial calcareous component or influence (past or present) of brackish water. Occurrences in North Carolina and South Carolina are of small size and are marginally attributable to this alliance.

Environment: This alliance generally occurs on sands, shell hash, or limestone, with either a substantial calcareous component or influence (past or present) of brackish water.

Vegetation: This alliance encompasses wet palmetto-live oak forests, occurring throughout central and southern Florida; these are sometimes known as low hammocks or hydric hammocks. Sabal palmetto and Quercus virginiana generally share dominance, and few other trees except Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola are commonly encountered. Sabal palmetto or the other two primary canopy species may strongly dominate local patches. Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera) is a typical shrub or small tree. Sapindus saponaria can be a shrub and subcanopy codominant on limestone in the Florida peninsula.

Dynamics:

Similar Alliances: Sabal palmetto - Quercus laurifolia - Quercus virginiana - Magnolia virginiana - Ulmus americana Saturated Forest Alliance (A.380)--related mixed forests. Sabal palmetto Saturated Woodland Alliance (A.488)--related woodlands.

Similar Alliance Comments: A related alliance (A.380) encompasses more diverse-canopied hydric hammocks, occurring in more inland situations (or at least away from immediate coastal influence) and with enough admixture of deciduous and tardily deciduous trees to be placed in a mixed forest subclass.

Alliance Distribution

Range: This alliance is found in Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Occurrences in North Carolina and South Carolina are of small size and are marginally attributable to this alliance.

Nations: US

Subnations: FL, GA, NC, SC

TNC Ecoregions: 54:C, 55:C, 56:C, 57:C

USFS Ecoregions: 232Bf:CCC, 232Cb:CCP, 232Ce:CCC, 232Ci:CCP, 232Da:CCP, 232Db:CCP, 232Dc:CCC, 232De:CCC, 232Ga:CCC, 232Gb:CCC, 411Af:CCC

Federal Lands: DOD (Cape Canaveral); NPS (Big Cypress); USFS (Ocala); USFWS (Merritt Island)

Alliance Sources

Author(s): D.J. Allard, mod. A.S. Weakley, mod. M. Pyne

References: Ambrose 1990a, Armentano pers. comm., Duever and Brinson 1984b, Eyre 1980, FNAI 1990, FNAI 1992a, FNAI 1992b, Harshberger 1914, Johnson and Barbour 1990, Richardson 1977, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Stalter et al. 1981, Vince et al. 1989

[CEGL007060] Quercus laurifolia - Sabal palmetto / Myrsine floridana - Psychotria nervosa Forest


Translated Name: Diamondleaf Oak - Cabbage Palmetto / Myrsine - Wild Coffee Forest

Common Name: Oak - Sabal Tropical Hydric Hammock



Ecological System(s): South Florida Bayhead Swamp (CES411.366)

South Florida Hydric Hammock (CES411.273)



Status: Standard Circumscription Confidence: 2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Element Concept

Global Summary: This association includes slightly higher hammock islands surrounded by wet prairies of southern Florida. This wetland hammock association occurs in southern Florida, but its range is north of most other tropical hardwood hammocks. The canopy is dominated by warm temperate species Quercus laurifolia and Sabal palmetto. Tropical species, e.g., Myrsine floridana and Psychotria nervosa, are prominent in the subcanopy and shrub strata. These communities often form `tree islands,' surrounded by wet prairies.

Environmental Description

USFWS Wetland System: Palustrine

Global Environment: This association includes slightly higher hammock islands surrounded by wet prairies of southern Florida. These communities often form `tree islands,' surrounded by wet prairies.

Vegetation Description

Global Vegetation: The canopy of this wetland hammock association is dominated by warm temperate species Quercus laurifolia and Sabal palmetto. Tropical species, e.g., Myrsine floridana and Psychotria nervosa, are prominent in the subcanopy and shrub strata.

Global Dynamics:

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Global Floristic Composition

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Higher Taxon Note

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Global Other Noteworthy Species

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Conservation Status Rank

Global Rank & Reasons: G1? (13-Sep-1997).

Related Concepts

Global Similar Associations: Sabal palmetto - Quercus virginiana Saturated Forest (CEGL007040)--occurs in ecologically related settings, but is composed of temperate flora.

Global Related Concepts:

Classification & Other Comments

Global Classification Comments:

Element Distribution

Global Range: This association occurs in southern Florida.

Nations: US

States/Provinces: FL

TNC Ecoregions: 54:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:

USFS Ecoregions: 411Af:CCC

Federal Lands: NPS (Big Cypress)

Element Sources
Global Description Author(s):
References (enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .


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