I. Forest 10 I. A n a. Lowland tropical or subtropical seasonal evergreen forest 10




Yüklə 3.59 Mb.
səhifə2/94
tarix26.04.2016
ölçüsü3.59 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   94

I. Forest

I.A.3.N.a. Lowland tropical or subtropical seasonal evergreen forest

A.33 Bursera simaruba - Coccoloba diversifolia - Nectandra coriacea - Eugenia axillaris Forest Alliance


Gumbo Limbo - Pigeon-plum - Lancewood - White Stopper Forest Alliance

Alliance Concept

Summary: This alliance consists of tropical hardwood hammocks of southern Florida, which are found on sites with elevated limestone at or near the surface. Classic examples occur inland, but closely related maritime examples fringe both the Gulf and Atlantic coastlines where sands contain substantial shell fragments, and are also found in the Florida Keys. The vegetation consists of closed, broad-leaved forests with large numbers of evergreen and semi-evergreen tree species, many with tropical affinities reaching their northern range limits. Periodic freezes limit northward expansion, and coastal examples extend much farther north than inland ones. Canopy height ranges from 6-17 m, and is usually essentially unistratal. The canopy composition is usually very diverse at a given location but varies greatly from association to association and from site to site. Bursera simaruba and Coccoloba diversifolia are possibly the most likely species to be encountered in hammocks throughout the region, along with the small tree Eugenia axillaris. However, a large number of other tropical species may also be encountered depending upon location. Lysiloma latisiliquum, Swietenia mahagoni, Simarouba glauca, and Sideroxylon foetidissimum are some of the species with the greatest size potential (and therefore usually dominating the basal area of more mature hammocks). Quercus laurifolia and Quercus virginiana are among the relatively few species with temperate affinities which may be present. These hammocks are notably deficient in terrestrial herbaceous species, and the forest floor is consequently sparsely vegetated. However, herbaceous epiphytes are abundant and conspicuous, including ferns, bromeliads, and orchids.

Environment: Tropical hardwood hammocks of this alliance are developed on elevated limestone bedrock, freshwater marl, marine marl, and shelly sands. They occur in three discrete major inland regions: the Keys (Alexander 1953), southeastern Big Cypress, and the Miami Rock Ridge (Alexander 1967), as well as along both the Gulf and Atlantic coastlines. Underlying geology and soils are somewhat different among these regions, and the juxtaposition with other vegetation may be somewhat unique. Generally, soils are highly organic with uneven and widely ranging thickness (Snyder et al. 1990). The northward ranges of component tropical species is limited by the incidence of frosts (Drew and Schomer 1984). Hammocks often form an abrupt boundary with other vegetation types. Alexander (1953) noted an example in the Florida Keys on an elevated area of limestone with a pH of 6.7, bordering (within a few feet) a stunted mangrove swamp with pH of 8.8.

Vegetation: The canopy is usually very diverse at a given occurrence and also varies greatly from association to association and from site to site. Alexander (1953) compared hammocks of the Pinecrest and Miami areas, and found over ten species in one area and not the other. Regardless of location, nearly all of the component species in this alliance are of West Indian affiliation, with the exception of Quercus virginiana, Quercus laurifolia, Morus rubra, Sabal palmetto, and Celtis laevigata. Possibly the most likely species to be encountered in hammocks throughout the region are Bursera simaruba and Coccoloba diversifolia (Snyder et al. 1990), along with the small tree Eugenia axillaris and Nectandra coriacea. In addition, Exothea paniculata is also common (T. Armentano pers. comm.). Characteristic tree species (variable from association to association) include Amyris elemifera, Ardisia escallonoides, Calyptranthes pallens, Calyptranthes zuzygium, Canella winteriana, Celtis laevigata, Chrysophyllum oliviforme, Coccoloba diversifolia, Coccoloba uvifera, Drypetes lateriflora, Eugenia axillaris, Eugenia foetida, Ficus aurea, Guettarda scabra, Krugiodendron ferreum, Lysiloma latisiliquum, Metopium toxiferum, Morus rubra, Myrcianthes fragrans, Myrsine floridana, Nectandra coriacea, Pisonia aculeata, Piscidia piscipula, Pithecellobium keyense, Prunus myrtifolia, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus virginiana, Randia aculeata, Sabal palmetto, Sapindus saponaria, Schoepfia schreberi, Sideroxylon celastrinum (= Bumelia celastrina), Sideroxylon foetidissimum (= Mastichodendron foetidissimum), Sideroxylon salicifolium (= Bumelia salicifolia), Simarouba glauca, Swietenia mahagoni, and Zanthoxylum fagara. Of these species, the trees with the greatest size potential (and therefore usually dominating the basal area of more mature hammocks) are Quercus virginiana, Lysiloma latisiliquum, Swietenia mahagoni, Bursera simaruba, and Sideroxylon foetidissimum. These hammocks are notably deficient in terrestrial herbaceous species, and the forest floor is consequently sparsely vegetated. However, herbaceous epiphytes are abundant and conspicuous, including ferns, bromeliads, and orchids (Snyder et al. 1990).

Dynamics: These forests tend to have a dense canopy that produces deeper shade, less evaporation, and lower maximum air temperatures than surrounding vegetation. This microclimate, in combination with high water tables, tends to keep humidity levels high and the community quite mesic (FNAI 1990). A number of orchid and bromeliad species thrive in such conditions. Unlike most coastal plain systems, fire is a major threat to South Florida Hardwood Hammocks. For this reason, many examples occur alongside natural firebreaks, such as the leeward side of exposed limestone (Robertson 1953), moats created by limestone solution (Duever et al. 1986), and elevated outcrops above marshes, scrub cypress, or sometimes mangrove swamps (Snyder et al. 1990). Alexander (1953) studied a hammock in the Florida Keys which he suggested replaced an originally more pine-dominated stand.

Similar Alliances: Casasia clusiifolia - Guapira discolor Forest Alliance (A.34)--on coastal berms as opposed to stabilized dunes, similar species composition.

Similar Alliance Comments:

Alliance Distribution

Range: This alliance is endemic to Florida.

Nations: US

Subnations: FL

TNC Ecoregions: 54:C, 55:C

USFS Ecoregions: 232De:CPP, 232Gb:CCC, 411Ab:CCC, 411Ac:CCC, 411Ad:CCC, 411Ae:CCC, 411Af:CCC, 411Ag:CCC

Federal Lands: NPS (Big Cypress, Everglades)

Alliance Sources

Author(s): A.S. Weakley, mod. R.E. Evans, mod. M. Pyne

References: Alexander 1953, Alexander 1967, Armentano pers. comm., Borhidi 1991, Craighead 1984, Davis 1943, Drew and Schomer 1984, Duever 1984a, Duever et al. 1986, Eyre 1980, FNAI 1990, FNAI 1992a, Gunderson and Loftus 1993, Hilsenbeck et al. 1979, Johnson et al. 1990b, Kruer 1992, Loope et al. 1994, McGuire and Brown 1974, Olmsted and Loope 1984, Olmsted et al. 1980a, Olmsted et al. 1981, Phillips 1940, Robertson 1953, Ross et al. 1992, Schomer and Drew 1982, Snyder et al. 1990

[CEGL007003] Bursera simaruba - Swietenia mahagoni - Lysiloma latisiliquum / Nectandra coriacea - Coccoloba diversifolia Forest


Translated Name: Gumbo Limbo - West Indian Mahogany - False Tamarind / Lancewood - Pigeon-plum Forest

Common Name: Inland Tropical Hardwood Hammock



Ecological System(s): South Florida Hardwood Hammock (CES411.287)

Status: Standard Circumscription Confidence: 2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley, mod. R.E. Evans

Element Concept

Global Summary: This association represents south Florida inland hardwood hammocks which were apparently first studied by Harper (1927) and Davis (1943). Examples are dominated by a diverse mixture of hardwood species with tropical affinities; the exact composition varies locally between individual hammocks, and especially between hammocks in three discrete regions of Florida (the Keys, southeastern Big Cypress, and the Miami Rock Ridge). At least 10 or 12 species may occur in roughly equal proportions in the canopy, but the density of the species may be dramatically affected by the successional status of the hammock. Among the species which may be encountered are Bursera simaruba, Ficus aurea (more common in maritime hammocks), Swietenia mahagoni, Lysiloma latisiliquum, Chrysophyllum oliviforme, Acoelorraphe wrightii, Quercus virginiana, Quercus laurifolia, Sabal palmetto, Sideroxylon salicifolium, Simarouba glauca, Coccoloba diversifolia, Metopium toxiferum, Nectandra coriacea (= Ocotea coriacea), and Sideroxylon foetidissimum (more common in maritime hammocks). Myrcianthes fragrans and Eugenia axillaris are typical understory species. Common shrubs are Schoepfia schreberi, Ardisia escallonoides, Tetrazygia bicolor, Randia aculeata, Erythrina herbacea, Rivina humilis, Psychotria tenuifolia (= Psychotria sulzneri), and Psychotria nervosa. Herbs and ferns include Anemia adiantifolia, Anemia wrightii, Nephrolepis exaltata, Thelypteris augescens, Oncidium floridanum, Habenaria odontopetala, and Campyloneurum phyllitidis. Epiphytes are abundant and diverse, and include Tillandsia utriculata, Tillandsia fasciculata, Tillandsia balbisiana, Tillandsia variabilis, Tillandsia setacea, Pleopeltis polypodioides ssp. michauxiana, Phlebodium aureum, Vittaria lineata, and Encyclia tampensis. Soils are shallow (less than 30 cm deep), and consist of litter and calcareous sand over limestone.

Environmental Description

USFWS Wetland System:

Global Environment: Hardwood hammocks are usually found in areas protected from fires, such as the leeward side of exposed limestone (Robertson 1953), on elevated outcrops above marshes or scrub cypress, and sometimes along mangrove swamps (Alexander 1953). Generally, soils are highly organic with uneven and widely ranging thickness (Snyder et al. 1990). However, inland tropical hammocks occur in three discrete regions of south Florida, each with somewhat different underlying geology and soils. Soils often consist of a organic loam; mahogany hammocks as a subtype occur on marl soils over limestone; Acoelorraphe is generally found on hydromorphic peat (T. Armentano pers. comm.). If more information becomes available which documents the floristic and/or ecological differences between stands in these areas, this type may be subdivided accordingly.

Vegetation Description

Global Vegetation: Stands are dominated by a diverse mixture of hardwood species with tropical affinities. At least 10 or 12 species may occur in roughly equal proportions in the canopy (Johnson and Muller 1993a). There may be local variation in species composition between individual hammocks, and especially in three discrete major inland regions: the Keys, southeastern Big Cypress, and the Miami Rock Ridge. For example, Alexander (1953) compared hammocks of the Pinecrest and Miami areas and found over 10 species in each area that were not present in the other. Regardless of location, nearly all of the component species are of West Indian affiliation, with the exception of Quercus virginiana, Quercus laurifolia, Morus rubra, and Celtis laevigata. Among the species which may be encountered are Bursera simaruba, Ficus aurea (more common in maritime hammocks), Swietenia mahagoni, Lysiloma latisiliquum, Chrysophyllum oliviforme, Acoelorraphe wrightii, Quercus virginiana, Quercus laurifolia, Sabal palmetto, Sideroxylon salicifolium, Simarouba glauca, Coccoloba diversifolia, Metopium toxiferum, Nectandra coriacea (= Ocotea coriacea), and Sideroxylon foetidissimum (more common in maritime hammocks). Myrcianthes fragrans and Eugenia axillaris are typical understory species. Common shrubs are Schoepfia schreberi, Ardisia escallonoides, Tetrazygia bicolor, Randia aculeata, Erythrina herbacea, Rivina humilis, Psychotria tenuifolia (= Psychotria sulzneri), and Psychotria nervosa. Herbs and ferns include Anemia adiantifolia, Anemia wrightii, Nephrolepis exaltata, Thelypteris augescens, Oncidium floridanum, Habenaria odontopetala, and Campyloneurum phyllitidis. Epiphytes are abundant and diverse and include Tillandsia utriculata, Tillandsia fasciculata, Tillandsia balbisiana, Tillandsia variabilis, Tillandsia setacea, Pleopeltis polypodioides ssp. michauxiana, Phlebodium aureum, Vittaria lineata, and Encyclia tampensis. The exotic Pteris vittata may be present.

Global Dynamics: These forests tend to have a dense canopy that produces deeper shade, less evaporation, and lower maximum air temperatures than surrounding vegetation (Armentano pers. comm.). This microclimate, in combination with high water tables, tends to keep humidity levels high and the community quite mesic (FNAI 1990). A number of orchid and bromeliad species thrive in such conditions. Unlike most coastal plain systems, fire is a major threat to South Florida Hardwood Hammocks. Alexander (1953) documented the apparent replacement of pineland by hardwood hammock on Key Largo, Florida. In addition, Alexander (1967) showed a similar replacement process over a 25-year period southwest of Miami.

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Global Floristic Composition

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Higher Taxon Note

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Global Other Noteworthy Species

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Conservation Status Rank

Global Rank & Reasons: G1G2 (10-Jan-1998). This community is of restricted extent and range and is threatened by exotic species.

Related Concepts

Global Similar Associations: Ficus aurea - Sideroxylon foetidissimum - Bursera simaruba / Eugenia foetida - Guapira discolor - Nectandra coriacea Forest (CEGL007001)--maritime hammocks of the southeast Florida coast. Ficus aurea - Sideroxylon foetidissimum - Bursera simaruba / Eugenia foetida - Piscidia piscipula / Hymenocallis latifolia Forest (CEGL007002)--maritime hammocks of the southwest Florida coast. Sideroxylon foetidissimum - Sideroxylon salicifolium - Ficus aurea - Quercus virginiana - Celtis laevigata Forest (CEGL007004)--occurs on Indian middens. Swietenia mahagoni - Piscidia piscipula - Colubrina arborescens Forest (CEGL004710)--an estuarine shoreline (coastal) type.

Global Related Concepts:

  • Coral Rock Jungle Hammock (Davis 1943) ?

Classification & Other Comments

Global Classification Comments: Ficus aurea was removed from the name as it is more indicative of maritime hammocks (Johnson and Muller 1993a). Given the current attributions, this type apparently covers hammocks of all inland hammock regions in south Florida. However, there is a wide range of variability between given patches or stands. If more data become available, other associations type may be warranted. Alexander (1958) provided data which document wide variation in hammocks between two regions of south Florida, in terms of species composition, frequency, and density. These data could provide the basis for recognizing finer association types. However, fairly dramatic density differences occurring with successional status, may confound such interpretations.

Element Distribution

Global Range: This type is restricted to southern Florida. It is apparently endemic to southern tropical Florida.

Nations: US

States/Provinces: FL

TNC Ecoregions: 54:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:

USFS Ecoregions: 411Af:CCC

Federal Lands: NPS (Big Cypress, Everglades)

Element Sources
Global Description Author(s): R.E. Evans and M. Pyne
References (enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Alexander 1953 . . . X . . . . .

Alexander 1967 . X . X X . . . .

Armentano pers. comm. . . . X . . . . .

Davis 1943 . X X X . . . . .

FNAI 1990 . . . X . . . . .

FNAI 1992a . X . X X . . . .

Harper 1927 . X . X . . . . .

Johnson and Muller 1993a . . . X . . . . .

Robertson 1953 . . . X . . . . .

Snyder et al. 1990 . . . X . . . . .

Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .


[CEGL007004] Sideroxylon foetidissimum - Sideroxylon salicifolium - Ficus aurea - Quercus virginiana - Celtis laevigata Forest


Translated Name: Mastic - White Bully - Strangler Fig - Live Oak - Sugarberry Forest

Common Name: South Florida Indian Midden Hammock



Ecological System(s): South Florida Hardwood Hammock (CES411.287)

Status: Standard Circumscription Confidence: 2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s): Hilsenbeck et al. (1979)

Element Concept

Global Summary: This hardwood hammock community occurs on Indian middens in southern Florida. These forests are closely related to other hardwood hammocks of the region but may be differentiated most easily by their occurrence on anthropogenic midden piles. Because these middens are topographically higher than the immediately surrounding landscape, they apparently lack a true hydroperiod and consequently develop larger trees than some other hammocks. Many of the nominal species may also be encountered in inland hammocks of the region. Perhaps the most distinctive vegetation feature of these stands is the persistence of species cultivated by the aboriginal inhabitants.

Environmental Description

USFWS Wetland System:

Global Environment: This type occurs only on anthropogenic Indian middens that are topographically higher and consequently drier than the surrounding landscape (Hilsenbeck et al. 1979). The middens are elevated above the immediately surrounding landscape, but their elevation does not "exceed that of interior hammocks found on limestone outcrops" (T. Armentano pers. comm.).

Vegetation Description

Global Vegetation: The vegetation of these forests is closely related to other hardwood hammocks of the region (Hilsenbeck et al. 1979). They tend to have somewhat larger trees, some lower canopy diversity, and occur on different sites. In addition to the nominals, other characteristic species include Chrysophyllum oliviforme, Chamaecrista fasciculata (= Cassia brachiata), and Ocimum campechianum (= Ocimum micranthum). Perhaps the most distinctive vegetation feature of these stands is the persistence of species cultivated by the aboriginal inhabitants, including Sapindus saponaria (soapberry), Piscidia sp. (for fishing), one or more Citrus sp. (e.g., rough lemon, orange), Carica papaya, etc. Ocimum is an annual or short-lived perennial herb (T. Armentano pers. comm.).

Global Dynamics:

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Global Floristic Composition

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Higher Taxon Note

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Global Other Noteworthy Species

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Conservation Status Rank

Global Rank & Reasons: G1Q (30-Jan-2003). All south Florida hardwood hammocks are rare and extremely geographically confined. As currently defined, this community is even more restricted in distribution and extent than other tropical hammocks and is limited only to former Indian middens. Hilsenbeck et al. (1979) point out that these middens are favorite locations for hunt camps. The concentration of such activities is likely to degrade the quality of the existing vegetation. A "Q" has been applied to the rank to indicate the close relationship of this community with other inland hardwood hammocks of south Florida. More information is needed to determine the floristic distinctiveness of this type.

Related Concepts

Global Similar Associations: Bursera simaruba - Swietenia mahagoni - Lysiloma latisiliquum / Nectandra coriacea - Coccoloba diversifolia Forest (CEGL007003)--occurs on "natural" environments and typically lacks a significant component of Quercus virginiana and Celtis laevigata.

Global Related Concepts:

  • Midden Forest (Hilsenbeck et al. 1979) ?

Classification & Other Comments

Global Classification Comments: This type was originally listed as "questionably distinct" and should perhaps be considered within the range of variation within tropical hardwood hammocks [see Bursera simaruba - Swietenia mahagoni - Lysiloma latisiliquum / Nectandra coriacea - Coccoloba diversifolia Forest (CEGL007003)]. More data are needed to determine the uniqueness of this type.

Element Distribution

Global Range: This community occurs on Indian middens in southern Florida.

Nations: US

States/Provinces: FL

TNC Ecoregions: 54:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:

USFS Ecoregions: 411Ab:CCC, 411Ad:CCC

Federal Lands: NPS (Everglades)

Element Sources
Global Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley, mod. M. Pyne
References (enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Armentano pers. comm. . . . X . . . . .

Hilsenbeck et al. 1979 . X X X X . . . .

Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .


[CEGL004710] Swietenia mahagoni - Piscidia piscipula - Colubrina arborescens Forest


Translated Name: West Indian Mahogany - Jamaica-dogwood - Coffee Colubrina Forest

Common Name: South Florida Madeira Hammock



Ecological System(s): Southwest Florida Coastal Strand and Maritime Hammock (CES411.368)

Status: Standard Circumscription Confidence: 2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley after Olmsted et al. (1981)

Element Concept

Global Summary: This tropical hammock type occurs in the southern coastal portions of Everglades National Park. Swietenia mahagoni, Piscidia piscipula, and Colubrina arborescens are prominent components of the canopy. This hammock type occurs on ridges of shoreline- or storm-deposited marl and/or sand. Hammocks further inland (and north) replace Swietenia with Lysiloma to some extent.

Environmental Description

USFWS Wetland System:

Global Environment: This hammock type occurs on ridges of shoreline- or storm-deposited marl and/or sand.

Vegetation Description

Global Vegetation: Swietenia mahagoni, Piscidia piscipula, and Colubrina arborescens are prominent components of the canopy in stands of this type. Other canopy species may include Eugenia foetida, Coccoloba diversifolia, Conocarpus erectus, Metopium toxiferum, and Pithecellobium keyense (T. Armentano pers. comm.). Hammocks further inland (and north) replace Swietenia mahagoni with Lysiloma latisiliquum to some extent. Lysiloma is characteristic of limestone outcrops, Swietenia of either sandy storm ridges (north shore of Florida Bay) or marl deposits (T. Armentano pers. comm.).

Global Dynamics:

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Global Floristic Composition

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Higher Taxon Note

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Global Other Noteworthy Species

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Conservation Status Rank

Global Rank & Reasons: G1Q (10-Jan-1998). This is a very restricted tropical hardwood hammock type, and is restricted to estuarine shoreline situations. It has been reduced in extent, and has been altered by cutting of mahogany.

Related Concepts

Global Similar Associations: Bursera simaruba - Swietenia mahagoni - Lysiloma latisiliquum / Nectandra coriacea - Coccoloba diversifolia Forest (CEGL007003)

Global Related Concepts:

  • Madeira Hammock (Olmsted et al. 1981) ?

Classification & Other Comments

Global Classification Comments: More information is needed.

Element Distribution

Global Range: This tropical hammock type occurs in the southern coastal portions of Everglades National Park.

Nations: US

States/Provinces: FL

TNC Ecoregions: 54:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:

USFS Ecoregions: 411Ae:CCC

Federal Lands: NPS (Everglades)

Element Sources
Global Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley
References (enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Armentano pers. comm. . . . X . . . . .

Olmsted et al. 1981 . X X X X . . . .

Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .


A.34 Casasia clusiifolia - Guapira discolor Forest Alliance


Seven-year-apple - Blolly Forest Alliance

Alliance Concept

Summary: This alliance includes diverse-canopied forests with a short canopy height of 3-8 m on coastal berms formed from storm-deposited shell hash of biogenic origin, consisting of limestone sand, shell, and calcareous algal fragments. Typical canopy components include Guapira discolor, Eugenia foetida, Metopium toxiferum, Pithecellobium keyense, Casasia clusiifolia, Suriana maritima, Conocarpus erectus, Bursera simaruba, Coccoloba uvifera, Eugenia axillaris, Coccothrinax argentata, Thrinax radiata, Reynosia septentrionalis, Sideroxylon celastrinum (= Bumelia celastrina), Piscidia piscipula, Erithalis fruticosa, and the exotic Casuarina equisetifolia. This alliance occurs in the Florida Keys and in extreme southern peninsular Florida.

Environment: This alliance occurs on coastal berms formed from storm-deposited shell hash of biogenic origin, consisting of limestone sand, shell, and calcareous algal fragments.

Vegetation: Typical canopy components include Guapira discolor, Eugenia foetida, Metopium toxiferum, Pithecellobium keyense, Casasia clusiifolia, Suriana maritima, Conocarpus erectus, Bursera simaruba, Coccoloba uvifera, Eugenia axillaris, Coccothrinax argentata, Thrinax radiata, Reynosia septentrionalis, Sideroxylon celastrinum (= Bumelia celastrina), Piscidia piscipula, Erithalis fruticosa, and the exotic Casuarina equisetifolia.

Dynamics:

Similar Alliances: Bursera simaruba - Coccoloba diversifolia - Nectandra coriacea - Eugenia axillaris Forest Alliance (A.33)

Similar Alliance Comments:

Alliance Distribution

Range: This alliance occurs in the Florida Keys and in extreme southern peninsular Florida.

Nations: US

Subnations: FL

TNC Ecoregions: 54:C

USFS Ecoregions: 411Ae:CCC, 411Ag:CCC

Federal Lands: NPS (Everglades)

Alliance Sources

Author(s): A.S. Weakley

References: Davis 1940, Duever 1986, Eyre 1980, FNAI 1992a, Kruer 1992, Olmsted et al. 1981, Ross et al. 1992

[CEGL004711] Thrinax radiata - Casasia clusiifolia - Erithalis fruticosa Forest


Translated Name: Florida Thatch Palm - Seven-year-apple - Black Torch Forest

Common Name: Fan Palm Hammock



Ecological System(s): South Florida Hardwood Hammock (CES411.287)

Status: Standard Circumscription Confidence: 2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Element Concept

Global Summary: Coastal berm vegetation of extreme southern peninsular Florida. Thrinax radiata, Casasia clusiifolia, and Erithalis fruticosa are characteristic canopy components.

Environmental Description

USFWS Wetland System:

Global Environment:

Vegetation Description

Global Vegetation:

Global Dynamics:

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Global Floristic Composition

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Higher Taxon Note

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Global Other Noteworthy Species

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specifyRare(geogarea),Invasive,Animal,orOther)

Conservation Status Rank

Global Rank & Reasons: G1Q (10-Jan-1998). This community is extremely limited in range and extent, occurring in only a few small examples in the Florida Keys. It has been affected by coastal development in the Florida Keys.

Related Concepts

Global Similar Associations:

Global Related Concepts:

  • Fan Palm Hammock (Olmsted et al. 1981) ?

Classification & Other Comments

Global Classification Comments:

Element Distribution

Global Range: This coastal berm vegetation occurs in extreme southern peninsular Florida.

Nations: US

States/Provinces: FL

TNC Ecoregions: 54:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:

USFS Ecoregions: 411Ae:CCC

Federal Lands: NPS (Everglades)

Element Sources
Global Description Author(s):
References (enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Olmsted et al. 1981 . X X X X . . . .



Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   94


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azrefs.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə