House Resolution N




Yüklə 2.11 Mb.
səhifə9/30
tarix17.04.2016
ölçüsü2.11 Mb.
1   ...   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   ...   30
1938
January 1. Sir Robert Vansittart, British, permanent under secretary in the Foreign Office, transferred to post of chief diplomatic adviser. (Because of proposed change in Cabinet. Survey 1938, Vol. I, pp. 129 f.)
January 4. Chancellor Burt von Schuschnigg in interview said despite common ties with Germany Austria must preserve its historic mission as bridge between two great cultures. ("But we remain ourselves alone . . . to render great service to the German people as a whole." Ibid., p. 187; Doc. Int. Affairs, 1938, Vol. II, p. 43. Cf. July 11, Nov. 26, 1936, Oct. 8, 1937, supra.)
January 5. Twenty seven Austrian National Socialists, tried, con­victed, and sentenced. (Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 187.)
January 7. Italy announced new naval program including battleships. Ibid., p. 703.)
January 11. Non Intervention Committee authorized private negotia­tions on withdrawal of volunteers from Spain. (To prevent dead­lock over application of principle that the withdrawal of volunteers from either side should be proportional to the total number of foreign combatants in the service of either side, and to find a generally acceptable solution. Ibid., pp. 310 f.)
January 12. Austria and Hungary recognized Franco in Spain. (". . . this decision represents a practical contribution to the normalization of relations between Spain and other nations and to the pacification of Europe. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 44.)
January 16. Japan refused to deal longer with Chinese National Government. (". . . the Chinese Government, without appre­ciating the true intentions of Japan, blindly persists in their op­position against Japan, with no consideration either internally for the people in their miserable plight or externally for the peace and tranquility of all Asia." Ibid., Vol. I, p. 341.)
January 28. President Roosevelt asked rearmament program. ("As Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States it is my constitutional duty to report to the Congress that our national defense is, in the light of the increasing armaments of other nations, inadequate for purposes of national security and requires increase for that reason. . . . Specifically and solely because of the piling up of additional land and sea armaments in other countries, in such manner as to involve a threat to world

141


142 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
peace and security. [Message to Congress] Congressional Record [Bound] Jan. 28, 1938, Vol. 83, pt. II, pp. 1187 1188.)

Dr. Leopold Tavs, secretary of the Volkspolitische Referate was prosecuted for high treason. (Following raid on committee offices Jan. 26 which disclosed putsch plot to bring about resig­nation of von Schuschnigg and replacement by Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Austrian Nazi, with support of German military demon­stration. Survey 1938, Vol. 1, p. 188.)


January 31. Dominican Republic signed frontier agreement with Haiti. (". . . in accordance with the provisions of the peace treaties to which they, are both parties and in a manner satis­factory to both sides." State Release 1938, No. 436, p. 202. Cf. Dec. 17, 1937, supra.
February 4. Joachim von Ribbentrop replaced Constantin von Neurath as German Foreign Minister. (As prelude to incorporation of Austria and the Sudetenland in the Reich. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 187.)

Major changes in the German Army; Chancellor Hitler assumed supreme command. (General Werner von Fritsch, the former chief of staff, opposed Hitler's plans for the seizure of Austria. Lee, p. 291.)

Italy consented to more drastic action against submarines under Nyon patrol agreement. (At British suggestion; because of Britain's vital interest in the freedom and security of traffic in the Mediterranean. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p., 366; as a concilia­tory gesture to the British. Ibid., p. 130.)
February 5. Britain, France, and the United States asked Japan's naval building plans. ("There have for some time been per­sistent and cumulative reports, which in the absence of explicit assurances from the Japanese Government that they are ill­-founded, must be deemed to be authentic, that Japan has under­taken or intends to undertake the construction of capital ships and cruisers not in conformity with the above mentioned limits." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 512.)
February 9. Chancellor Hitler invited Chancellor von Schuschnigg to Berchtesgaden. (Following recall of German ambassadors to Austria, Italy, and Japan. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 188. Cf. Jan. 28, supra.)
February 10. Secretary of State Hull stated categorically the proposed naval program was needed for defense of the United States. (" It is the desire of the people and of the Government of the United States that this country be not drawn into or forced into war. It is the duty and the intention of the Administration to make effective so far as lies within its power the desire of the country in this as in other respects. It is the belief of those of us who, with full sense of responsibility, advocate these increases in out naval strength, that the making of these increases will con­tribute toward attainment of that objective." Peace, p. 406.)

Italy welcomed Anglo Italian conversations on all outstanding questions including de lure recognition of the Italian empire. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Col. I, p. 19.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 143
February 11. Austria extended period of military service. (Survey 1938, Vol. I. p. 691. Cf. Feb. 4, 10, supra.)

Fascist Party Secretary Roberto Farmacci wrote there was no hope of improvement in Italo-British relations as long as Anthony Eden directed the foreign policy. (Eden had wished a with­drawal of some Italian volunteers from Spain to precede talks. Ibid., p. 131. Cf. Feb. 10, supra.)


February 12. Japan refused to reveal her naval building plans to the United States. ("At this juncture, when, as a result of the non-acceptance by other countries of the reasonable desires of Japan in the matter of disarmament, there is as yet in existence no fair disarmament treaty to which Japan is a party, the Japa­nese Government are of opinion that the mere communication of information concerning the construction of vessels will, in the absence of quantitative limitation, not contribute to any fair and equitable measure of disarmament and regret that they are unable to comply with the desire of your Government on this point." State Release 1938, No. 437, p. 256. Cf. Feb. 5, supra.)

Chancellor Hitler demanded from von Schuschnigg general amnesty for Austrian Nazis, restoration of salaries or pensions, appointment of Seyss-Inquart, member of Volkspolitische Referate, to Minister for Public Order and Security; permission for Austrian National Socialists to engage in "legal activity" within the Fatherland Front. (In return for reaffirmation of principles of July 11, 1936, supra, and consent to expulsion of Dr. Tavs to the Reich. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 190. Cf. Jan. 28, supra. ". . . an effective contribution to the peaceful development of the European situation." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 48.)


February 14. Britain opened Singapore naval base. (Began in 1925 for eastern Empire defense. Simonds, Emeny, pp. 428, 436, 511.)
February 15. Austrian Cabinet accepted German demands. (Fear of German might; lack of allied support. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 191. Cf. Feb. 12, supra.)
February 16. Chancellor von Schuschnigg put pro Nazi ministers in control of police and foreign affairs in Austria. (Ultimatum from Hitler. Cf. Feb. 12, supra. Ibid., p. 191.)
February 17. Foreign Secretary Eden said Britain would consult under Feb. 17, 1934, Stresa resolution. (Wanted Italy to back Austria against Germany. Commons, Vol. 331, col. 2076. ". . . in view of the particular circumstances of the Stresa Declara­tion, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 5.)

Austrian Government sought backing of workers' organizations for the Fatherland Front. (The Social Democrats held the bal­ance in the distribution of Austrian political forces. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 195.)


February 18. Ambassador Franz von Papen declared the Austro-­German agreement of Feb. 12 the first step toward establishment of "a Central European Commonwealth of Nations under Germany's leadership." ("An independent Austria can find its

144 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


mission only within the framework of the development of Ger­many as a whole, and only as a fellow worker and fellow organizer in the present course of events–in the reconquest of the position of the Reich and its spiritual influence in the West." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 49.)

Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain asked Count Dino Grandi, Italian Ambassador to Court of St. James, to ascertain whether Italy would accept the British plan for foreign troop withdrawal from Spain and told him British decision to begin conversations did not depend on nature of Italian answer. ("I was convinced that a rebuff to the Italian expression of their desire that con­versations should start at once would be taken by them as a confirmation of [their] suspicions . . . that we had never really been in earnest about the conversations at all. I thought that if that were the effect the result would be disastrous. It would be followed by an intensification of anti British feeling in Italy, rising to a point at which ultimately war between us might be­come inevitable." Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 132. Cf. Feb. 10, supra.)

Italy refused to discuss Austria. ("In responsible quarters in Italy the meeting at Berchtesgaden and the decisions taken by Chancellor Schuschnigg are looked upon as the natural develop­ment of the relations between Germany and Austria as these were established by the agreement of the 11th July 1936." Ibid., pp. 136, 192. Cf. Feb. 17, supra.)
February 19. British Cabinet overruled Secretary Eden's policy for withdrawal of Italian troops from Spain before beginning Anglo-­Italian conversations on the whole field of Anglo Italian relations. (They wanted to reconstitute the Stresa front and let Italy check Germany in Austria. Ibid., p. 135. Cf. Feb. 18, supra.)
February 20. Secretary Eden resigned from the British Cabinet. (Because of rejection of his policy and fundamental differences between him and Prime Minister Chamberlain. Ibid., pp. 133­136. "The events of the last few days have made plain a differ­ence between us on a decision of great importance in itself and far reaching in its consequences. I cannot recommend to Parliament a policy with which I am not in agreement.

"Apart from this, I have become increasingly conscious, as I know you have also, of a difference of outlook between us in respect to the international problems of the day and also as to the methods by which we should seek to resolve them. It can­ not be in the country's interest that those who are called upon to direct its affairs should work in an uneasy partnership, fully conscious of differences in outlook yet hoping that they will not recur. This applies with a special force to the relationship be­tween the Prime Minister and the Foreign Secretary . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, pp. 8 f.)

Chancellor Hitler told Reichstag Germans in Austria and Sudeten must have self determination. ("It is in the long run intolerable for a self respecting World Power to know that fellow countrymen across the frontier are continually undergoing the greatest hardship because of their sympathy, their feeling for

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 145


union, their common experience, their point of view which they share with the whole people." Survey 1938, Vol. I, p.196. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs, 1938, Vol. II, p. 13.)

Chancellor Hitler recognized Manchukuo and expressed preference for a Japanese victory. (". . . even the greatest victory gained by Japan would be infinitely less dangerous for civilization and world peace than any success achieved by Bolshevism . . ." Ibid., p. 8.)

Rumania proclaimed new dictatorial constitution. (King Carol had ousted Premier Octavian Goga Feb. 10 and wanted to establish a monarchical dictatorship. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 709.)
February 21. Austria prohibited all meetings and parades except those of the Fatherland Front. (To suppress Nazi and legitimist faction demonstrations. Ibid., p. 197.)
February 24. Chancellor von Schuschnigg said Austria intended to resist to the uttermost further pressure from Germany. ("For now the will to freedom of the Austrian people and the intrinsic worth of our country stand like a wall." Ibid., p. 199.)

Lord Halifax appointed British Foreign Secretary. (To replace Eden. Ibid., p. 139. Cf. Feb. 20, supra.)


February 25 27. France reiterated loyalty to Czechoslovakia and Russia. (During debate on appeasement. Lee, p. 296.)
March 2. Britain published White Paper on increased armaments program. (Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 701. Cf., Jan. 28, Feb. 4, 11, supra.)
March 4. Czechoslovakia said she would defend herself if attacked. (Answer to Chancellor Hitler's speech of Feb. 20, supra. Lee, p. 296.)

Minister Seyss Inquart ruled that the swastika could be worn, a silent Hitler salute given, the German national anthem sung, if preceded by a verse of the Austrian hymn, pictures of Hitler sold, and "Neil Hitler" said in public and private. (Similar permission granted at Gratz, Nazi capital of Styria, March 2. Survey 1938, Vol. I, pp. 200 f.)


March 5. Minister Seyss Inquart said: "The spiritual German People's Reich (das geistige volksdeutsche Reich) is today already a fact, and this is not only a cultural and spiritual fact, but also a fact of political significance." (To enlighten the non Nazi Austrians. Ibid., p. 201.)
March 9. Chancellor von Schuschnigg at Innsbruck announced plebiscite for March 13. ("Now I want to know and must know whether the Austrian people wants this free, German, independent, social, Christian and united country, suffering no party divisions. Now I must know whether "truth the motto `Bread and peace in the land' can bring together our countrymen and their Front which is invincible; and whether the ideal of equality for all men in the country, so far as they stand by people

146 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


and fatherland, is for all men without exception one that they can pursue." As provided by Art. 65 of the Austrian Constitu­tion of May 1, 1934. Ibid., p. 203. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 63.)
March 10. Austrian Nazis began riots in Vienna, Linz, Gratz, and Klagenfurt; Dr. Seyss Inquart called on Chancellor von Schusch­nigg to resign. (Because of impending plebiscite. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 206. Cf. March 9, supra.)

Chautemps Cabinet resigned in France. (The Premier failed to obtain the support of the Socialists for his proposal for special powers to enable him to create a state of confidence among the investing public to facilitate large scale borrowing for defense necessities. Ibid., p. 115.)

Leslie Hore-Belisha; British Secretary of State for War, spoke on Army reorganization scheme (Commons, Vol. 332, cols. 2133 ff.)

Chancellor Hitler ordered German troops to mobilize on the Austrian frontier. (To prevent the plebiscite. Ibid., pp. 204­-207.)


March 11. Austrian reservists called up. (To meet crisis.) Austrian workers offered to back Chancellor von Schuschnigg unreservedly. Germany demanded at 10 a. m. through Dr. Edmund von Glaise-Horstenau, Minister without portfolio, that plebiscite be secret; this was granted. (Ibid., p. 207.) Germany at 4 p. m. demanded through Dr. Wilhelm Keppler that plebiscite be postponed six weeks and that von Schuschnigg be replaced by Seyss Inquart. The first was accepted; the second refused. (The first, if the Nazis would stop disturbing public order; the second, because President Wilhelm Miklas would not break oath by violating the duties of office but yield only to force. Ibid., pp. 208 f.) Germany at 6:30 p. m., through Lieutenant General Muff, the German military attaché at Vienna, said 200,000 German troops would cross Austrian frontier unless: 1. von Schuschnigg resigned; 2. Seyss Inquart assumed Chancellorship; 3. Nazis were appointed to at least two thirds of the new Cabinet; 4. full and unrestricted liberty be granted Austrian Nazi party; 5. the Austrian Legion of Nazi exiles be readmitted to Austria. (Ibid., pp. 207 ff.) Von Schuschnigg resigned at 7:30 p. m. (". . . we yield to superior force." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 65.) Seyss Inquart requested German troops be sent to Austria (". . . since the arming of the Communists had reached an alarming degree, and" he "wished to save" his "country from the fate of Spain." Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 209. Seyss Inquart appealed for peace and order and nonresistance to the German Army. (". . . any opposition to the German Army should it enter Austria is completely out of the question–out of the question too for the executive, whose most important duty is the maintenance of peace and order in this country." Ibid., p. 210. Doc. Int. Affairs, 1938, Vol. II, p. 66.) German troops entered Austria. (Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 211.) France and Britain protested "use of coercion, backed by force, against an independ­ent State in order to create a situation incompatible with its independence." (". . . we were pledged to consultation with

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 147


the French and Italian Governments in the event of action being taken which affected Austrian independence and integrity, for which provision was made by the relevant articles of the Peace Treaties. This pledge arises from agreements reached between the French, Italian, and United Kingdom Governments, first in February 1934, then in September of the same year, and finally at the Stress Conference in April 1935, in which the position was reaffirmed to consult together in any measures to be taken in the case of threats to the integrity and independence of Austria." [Statement of Neville Chamberlain.] Ibid., p. 216, Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 35.)

Chancellor Hitler wrote Premier Mussolini that the Brenner would be a definite frontier between them. ("This decision will never be subject to doubt or alteration. It was not taken by me in the year 1938, but immediately after the end of the Great War, and I have never made a mystery of it." Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 218. Cf. Germany, No. 337, p. 359 and Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 234.)


March 12. Seyss Inquart appointed new Chancellor of Austria; new ministry composed entirely of Nazis (Survey 1938; Vol. I, p. 210. Cf. March 11, supra.) Chancellor Seyss Inquart welcomed Chancellor Hitler at Linz. (Ibid., p. 211; Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, pp. 67 f.) Italy decided not to intervene in Austria. ("The Grand Council notes particularly that the plebiscite, decided upon suddenly by Chancellor von Schuschnigg, not only was not suggested by the Italian Government, but was actually contrary to the advice offered by them as soon as they were made aware of the decision, both as regards the manner and the substance and form of the proposed plebiscite. The Grand Council regards the events in Austria as the outcome of a pre­existent state of affairs and as the free expression of the feelings gild will of the Austrian people, unequivocally confirmed by the imposing public demonstrations with which the events were greeted . . . the Fascist Government have declined a French invitation to take part in concerted action, which they consider would be groundless and purposeless, and would only result in making the international situation more difficult." Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 217. Cf. Feb. 18, supra.)
March 13. Reunion of Austria and Germany, published by Austrian law in Vienna. ("In accordance with Article III; paragraph 2, of the federal constitutional law concerning the taking of extraordinary measures within the limits of the constitution; B. G. B. I Nr. 255, 1934, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 73; Survey 1938, Vol. I, p 212. Cf. State Release 1938, No. 442, p. 374.) President Miklas resigned. (At Chancellor Seyss­-Inquart's request. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 213.) Austrian Army incorporated in German Army and Austrian units trans­ferred to Germany. (By decree of Chancellor Hitler. Ibid., pp. 212 f.) Chancellor Hitler held triumphal march in Vienna. (Ibid., p. 211.)

Léon Blum, new French premier, completed his cabinet. (Cf. March 10, supra. Ibid., p. 315.)


148 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
Jewish terror began in Austria. (Jews had stronger hold in Austria than in Reich. Zionist organization attacked, robbed, dissolved. Ibid., pp. 224 ff.)

Eighteen prominent Russian leaders killed. (For treason. Ibid., p. 713.)


March 14. Germany reassured Switzerland of respect for her inde­pendence and inviolability. (German No. 337, p. 359. Cf. Feb. 23, 1937, supra.)

Britain accepted the view that Germany had been invited and no forceful pressure had been exerted. (". . . nothing could have arrested this action by Germany unless we and others with us had been prepared to use force to prevent it." Lee, p. 303.)

Austrian ministers in London, Paris, and Prague dismissed. (Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 221. Cf. March 13, supra.)
March 15. The Netherlands, extended length of conscription. (Fear of war. Cf. March 11-13, supra. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 707.)
March 16. Premier Mussolini foreswore all his previous promises concerning Austrian independence. (". . . when an event is inevitable, it is better that it should be done with your assent rather than in spite of you or worse, against you." Survey 1938, Vol. I, pp. 218 220. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 237.)

Hungary granted de facto recognition to Anschluss. (Decided to transfer Viennese Embassy to Consulate. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 221.) Foreign Secretary Halifax said Britain was bound to recognize abolition of Austrian State as national entity. (Be­cause of appeasement policy. Ibid., pp. 185, 222. For other de facto recognitions, see Ibid., pp. 221 ff.),

Konrad Henlein, leader of Sudeten Germans, called all Ger­mans in Czechoslovakia to membership in Sudeten German party. (Because of Anschluss. Lee, p. 313.)
March 17. Russia proposed conference of Britain, France, and the United States. ("Having joined the League of Nations for the purpose of organized collaboration with the other peace loving States, the Soviet Government has never missed a suitable occa­sion to recommend the most effective guarantees of peace; which it has seen in the organization of the system of collective security within the framework of the League of Nations, as well as of a system of regional pacts of mutual assistance against aggressors. . . . The present international situation paces before all peace loving States, and the Great Powers in particular, the question of their responsibility for the destinies of the peoples of Europe, and not only Europe. The Soviet Government being cognizant of its share in this responsibility and being also cognizant of its obligations ensuing from the League Covenant, from the Briand­ Kellogg Pact, and from the treaties of mutual assistance con­cluded with France and Czechoslovakia, I can state on its behalf that on its part it is ready as before to participate in collective actions, which would be decided upon jointly with it and which would aim at checking the further development of aggression and at eliminating the increased danger of a new world massacre. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, pp. 314 f.)

1   ...   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   ...   30


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azrefs.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə