House Resolution N

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"The proposal of the draft treaty which was handed to, the German Government by the British Secretary of State, Mr. Eden, contains not one of the necessary conditions for the successful organization of a really lasting peace, since it is based, in the first place, on a new discrimination which is intolerable for a great nation and on a further attempt once more to lay down Germany's inequality of rights with the other states. . . ." Ibid. 1936, p. 155.)
March 25. Naval agreement between France, United States, Britain, Australia, Canada, India, and New Zealand. ("Desiring to reduce the burdens and prevent the dangers inherent in competition in naval armament;

"Desiring, in view of the forthcoming expiration of the Treaty for the Limitation of Naval Armament signed at Washington on the 6th of February, 1922, and of the Treaty for the Limitation and Reduction of Naval Armament signed in London on the 22nd of April, 1930, . . . to make provision for the limitation of naval armament, and for the exchange of information concerning naval. construction; . . ." Treaty Inf. 1936, No. 78, p. 24.)

March 29. The German people approved Hitler's foreign policy 98.8 percent in a referendum. (Survey 1936, pp. 318 f. "I summon Germany to show the world symbolically on March 29. that this gesture [invasion of Rhineland and German peace proposals] corresponds to her will." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 181.)
March 31. Germany offered a 19 point peace plan for political prob­lems to be followed by conferences on disarmament and economic problems. ("The German Government believe that in the peace plan set forth above they have made their contribution to the creation of a new Europe on a basis of mutual respect and con­fidence between sovereign States." Ibid., pp. 191 f The main points were: Assurance on troop movement in the Rhineland, the 25 year nonaggression pacts, an air pact, agreement for cultural disarmament, national plebiscites to ratify the agreement, willing­ness to reenter the League of Nations, negotiations on colonial equality of rights, separation of the Covenant from the Versailles treaty. Ibid., pp. 188 ff.)
April 1. Ethiopia asked the League for financial assistance, removal of obstacles to transport of arms to Ethiopian troops, reinforcement and completion of sanctions compulsorily required under Art. 16, and urgent representations to Italy to respect the laws of war and pertinent international conventions. ("The Italian Government is demonstrating by its words and its actions that it has no inten­tion of ceasing hostilities and finally restoring peace within the framework of the League and in the spirit. of the Covenant. . . . Ethiopia . . . feels the utmost bitterness when she finds not merely that financial assistance has not yet been given to her, and that Article 16 of the Covenant has not been strictly enforced, but that the Italian Government has succeeded in securing a postponement of the oil sanction decided upon five months ago, and even hopes to obtain the abolition of all sanctions by bargaining." Ibid. 1935, Vol. II, p. 426.)
Austria introduced compulsory service, with or without arms. (Because of economy, sovereign rights, preservation of the exist­ing European order, failure of the other signatories of the peace treaty of St. Germain to disarm, because of its social value for physical, moral, and patriotic education. Survey 1936, p. 426. Cf. memo, of May 2, infra.)

British, French, and Belgians exchanged notes confirming staff talks. (". . . in accordance with paragraph III of the proposals [of March 19] . . with a view to arranging the technical conditions in which the obligations referred to in that paragraph should be carried out in case of unprovoked aggression." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 176.)

April 2. Treaty of Arab brotherhood and alliance signed by Iraq and Saudi Arabia. (". . . considering the bonds of Islamic friend­ship and national unity which unite them, desirous of safeguard­ing the security of their two countries, and considering the urgent need for cooperation between them and reciprocal understanding to the common advantage of both their countries . . ." Ibid. 1937, pp. 522 f.)
April 4. Ecuador abandoned sanctions against Italy. (". . . on the ground that Italy had accepted the appeal made to her by the Conciliation Committee and had declared herself prepared to enter into negotiations for bringing the dispute to an end." Ibid. 1935, Vol. II, p. 478.)
April 6. Neville Chamberlain, British Chancellor of the Exchequer, said no government would discuss the transfer of its own mandate irrespective of what would happen to those of others. ("No provision is made for the transfer of a mandated territory from the original mandatory power to any other power. . . ." Commons, Vol. 310, col. 2557.)

The Little Entente [Czechoslovakia, Rumania, and Yugo­slavia] protested the Austrian conscription law of April 1 [supra]. (". . . the military regulations for Austria, laid down in Part V of the Treaty of St. Germain, are altered. This alteration, which has been effected by a unilateral denunciation of the relevant portion of the treaty of St. Germain [Article 119], represents a manifest infringement of the military clauses of the above­mentioned treaty. . . . deeply regrets that Austria, who is like­wise a member of the League of Nations, has thought fit to take a course which, in similar circumstances, the Council of the League of Nations solemnly, condemned by its resolution of April 17, 1935. . . . cannot in any case admit that Austria should be allowed to take the law into her own hands by this unilateral step, which represents a negation of international obligations." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 316.) Austria rejected the protest. ("When they drafted the new bill, they did so deliberately and with the knowledge that they had thereby fulfilled their obligations with regard to providing the Austrian people with the necessities of life and to safeguarding the existence of the Austrian state." Ibid., p. 317.)

Ethiopia again appealed to the League for action. ("The moral confusion created throughout the world by the practical
impunity of the Italian aggression is beginning to produce its terrible consequences.

"Small States are now asking themselves what protection is afforded them by the collective security promised in the Cove­nant. Some of them, who are also victims of a breach of treaties, fear an aggression in the near future; they are consulting together to guard against the peril; should the selfish interests of a few Powers deprive them of the security which the League of Nations was to give them.

"The Great Powers are now experiencing the effects of the spirit of aggression. They are appealing to the League of Nations and to the collective security which is its essential purpose." Ibid. 1935, Vol. II, p. 431.)
April 8. France prepared a critique of the German peace proposals of March 31 and countered them with a plan of her own. (". . . does the vital right of the people authorize unilateral cancellation of engagements undertaken; will peace be ensured by the collab­oration of all in respect of the rights of each; or will States have every latitude to settle their differences as they please in a tête-à-tête with the States whose good faith they have taken by surprise? No European Government can undertake the conclu­sion of new agreements without having received a clear reply to this question. . . . Peace for all, peace total and lasting, peace with equality of rights, peace with confidence in the honor of all and with respect for the pledged word, a happy peace and a safe peace founded on international exchange which wood succeed the mortal rivalry of economic nationalism, peace made real by a wide limitation of armaments leading to disarmament. That is what the French Government proposes to other States in circumstances which, in spite of their gravity, appear to offer Europe a new possibility of union." Ibid., 1936, p. 205.)

Britain presented a memorandum to the League Committee of Thirteen on the Italian use of poison gas against the Ethiopians. (There was a realization that to condone Italy's breach of the 1925 protocol prohibiting chemical warfare was not only to share to solve extent in her guilt but also to increase, the risk that the same methods might be applied in future on occasions which might be of more direct personal interest to the governments and peoples of European states. Survey 1935, Vol. II, p. 345.)

The League Committee of Thirteen appointed a committee of jurists to examine the protocols of 1925, said to have been violated by the Italians, to consider measures member states should take as punishment for violation, and to determine what organ was competent for deciding the question of violation. (See protest of Ethiopia and memoranda of Britain, April 7 and 8, respectively, supra. Ibid., p. 345.)
April 9. The League Committee of Thirteen sent an appeal to both Italy and Ethiopia to take all measures necessary to prevent any failure to observe the said conventions. (". . having taken note of the communications sent . . . and voicing the emotion felt in this matter by public opinion." Doc. Int. Affairs 1935, Vol. II, p. 432.)


April 10. Turkey notified the signatories of the Straits convention of July 24, 1923, that she wished to conclude "agreements for regulation of the regime of the Straits under the conditions of security which are indispensable for the inviolability of Turkey's territory," and "the constant development of commercial navi­gation between the Mediterranean an the Black Sea." ("Polit­ical crises have made it clear that the present machinery for collective guarantees is too slow in coming into operation and that a delayed decision is likely in most cases to cause the ad­vantage of international action to be lost. . . .

"The position of the guarantors of the security of the Straits vis à vis the League of Nations, the particular circumstances which render doubtful, to say the least, the effective military collaboration of these guarantors to secure the object assigned to then–these factors have upset the general economy of the convention of 1923.

"It cannot be said today that the security of the Straits is still ensured by a real guarantee, and Turkey cannot be asked to remain indifferent to the possibility of a dangerous failure to act.

"Besides these considerations it should be added that the Straits convention mentions only a state of peace and a state of war, Turkey being a neutral or a belligerent in the latter case, but does not provide for the contingency of a special or general threat of war or enable Turkey in such a case to provide for her legitimate defense.

"It is amply proved today, however, that the most delicate stage of a danger from without is this very stage of a threat of war, in which a state of war may arise unexpectedly and without any formality. . . . Turkey is entitled to claim for herself the security which she has always ensured to others.

"Circumstances independent of the will of the Lausanne signatories have rendered inoperative clauses which were drawn up in all good faith, and as the issue at stake is the existence of Turkey herself and the security of her whole territory, the Government may be led to take before the nation the responsi­bility incumbent upon it by adopting the measures dictated by the imperious necessity of circumstances.

"In view of the above considerations, and rightly, holding that the provisions of Article 18 of the Straits convention relating to a joint guarantee of the four great Powers have become uncertain and inoperative and that they can no longer in practice shield Turkey from an external danger to her territory . . ." Ibid. 1936, pp. 646 ff.)

The Locarno Powers decided to ask Germany for elucidation of a certain number of points in the German memorandum of March 31. (". . . it is desirable completely to explore all the opportunities of conciliation." Ibid., p. 210.)

April 15 16. Conversations between representatives of the navies, armies, and air forces of Belgium, Britain, and France were held in London. (Cf. notes of April 1, supra. Survey 1936, p. 327.)

Beginning of anti Jewish riots by Palestinian Arabs. (It was the spontaneous rising of the Arab masses, not the deliberate policy of their leaders, that precipitated the crisis. Also the

attempt toward an autonomous government had broken down, because in a campaign of peaceful persuasion all the advantages lay with the Jews. The peoples of Syria and Egypt were about to achieve complete independence after demanding it with vio­lence. The triumph of Italy in Ethiopia seemed to reveal a decline of British power in the Eastern Mediterranean. Ibid., pp. 727 ff.)
April 17. The League Committee of Thirteen decided to admit failure of conciliation in the Italo Ethiopian dispute. (Ethiopia rejected the Italian. proposals, because "in demanding that the Ethiopian people should be abandoned to the aggressor, the Italian Govern­ment was in reality doing nothing less than fixing its price for a deal: Italy would sell her support in a European dispute in return for the raising of sanctions and for the abandonment of the League's concern with Italy's act of aggression." Ibid. 1935, Vol. II, p. 348.)
April 26. The Popular Front won general election in France. (Ibid. 1936, p. 946.)
April 27. Appeal by Princess Tsahai, of Ethiopia, for help. (". . . if mankind lets armies and gas destroy my country, and people, civilization will be destroyed too. We have a common cause. . . . Italian aggression and gas have set humanity a test." Doc. Int. Affairs 1935, Vol. II, p. 460.)

Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin said Britain had not considered and was not considering the transfer of any mandated territories to any other power, nor had any intention whatever of raising the question themselves. (". . . before any such transfer could be made, it would be necessary that the consent, at any rate, of the present mandatory Power and of the Power to whom the territory was to be transferred, and also the unanimous consent of the League Council, should be secured," Ibid. 1937, p: 237.)

May 2. The Ethiopian Emperor, Hailie Selassie, fled with his family into exile. (Because the Italians had at last succeeded in break through the "Hindenburg Line" in the south, and there was little or no response to his last call for volunteers May 1. Survey 1935, Vol. II, pp. 399 f.)

Austria issued a memorandum defending compulsory conscrip­tion law of April 1 [supra]. (". . . many criticisms of the bill have been openly expressed abroad. . . . Therefore in the interests of a lessening of the tension in the general European situation which is today decidedly inauspicious, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 317.)

May 5. Premier Mussolini declared the Italo Ethiopian war ended. ("Abyssinia is Italian Italian in fact because occupied by our victorious armies, Italian by right because with the sword of Rome it is civilization which triumphs over barbarism, justice which triumphs over cruel arbitrariness, the redemption of the miserable which triumphs over the slavery of a thousand years.

"With the populations of Abyssinia peace is already an accom­plished fact. The manifold races of the former Empire of the Lion

of Judah have shown by clear signs that they wish to live and to work tranquilly beneath the Italian tricolor." Ibid. 1936, Vol. II, p. 462.)
May 6. Britain asked German intentions on the rest of the Versailles treaty, status quo, nonaggression pacts, nonintervention, .and other clauses of their peace plan of March 31. ("it is the desire of His Majesty's Government to make every effort within their power to cooperate in the promotion of the objective described by the. German Government in the memorandum of March 31 as 'the great work of securing European peace.' " Ibid. 1936, p. 212.)
May 7. Treaty of friendship between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. ("Inspired by a sincere desire to strengthen the bonds of friend­ship between them . . ." [Unofficial translation] Ibid. p. 528.)
May 9. Royal Italian decree placed Ethiopia under Italian sovereignty and made the King of Italy the Emperor of Ethiopia. ("In view of Article 5 of the Constitution of the Kingdom; in view of Article 3, ii, of the Law of January 31, 1926 (IV), No. 100; in view of the Law of December 9, 1928 (VII), No. 2693; in recog­nition of the urgency and the absolute necessity of making provision; having heard the Fascist Grand Council; having heard, the Council of Ministers, on the proposal of the Head of the Govern­ment, Prime Minister Secretary of State . . ." Ibid. 1935, Vol. II, p. 472.)
May 10. Premier Azana was elected President in Spain. (President Niceto Alcala Zamora was deposed by the Cortes. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 20.)

Wafdist Cabinet formed in Egypt under Nahhas Pasha, former Prime Minister. (Mahir Pasha's ministry resigned May 9, be­cause of Wafd victories in parliamentary elections of May 2 and May 7. Ibid. 1936, pp. 682 f.

May 12. Chile asked end of League sanctions against Italy. (". . . in. view of the recent events which have put an end to the war . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1935, Vol. II, p. 480.)

League Council resolved that there was no cause for modifying previous measures adopted in the Italo Ethiopian dispute. (". . . further time is necessary to permit its Members to con­sider the situation created by the grave new steps taken by the Italian Government." Ibid., p. 234. Cf. Ibid., p. 482.)

May 13. Czechoslovakian bill for the defense of the state became law. (Provided for the organization of all the resources of the nation for defense in preparation for a state of war, but a state of "de­fense preparedness" could be declared if events threatened the unity of the state or the democratic form of the constitution or if law and order were threatened by internal disturbances. Survey 1935, p. 141.)


May 14. Vice Chancellor Ernest Rudiger Prince Starhemberg was excluded in a reconstruction of the Austrian Cabinet. ("In consequence of material differences of opinion between himself and the Chancellor." Ibid., p. 429.)

Guatemala gave notice of withdrawal from the League of Nations. (Preferred to extend and redefine the safeguards which they enjoyed as neighbors of the United States and favored regional isolation. Ibid., pp. 812, 950.)

May 27. Premier Mussolini, in interview, denied Greece and Turkey had anything to fear from the Italian position in Albania. ("Italy's policy in Albania is quite clear and absolutely straight­forward. Its sole object is to preserve and to respect the inde­pendent status of this small country, which for centuries has lived in friendship with us." Doc. Int. Affairs 1935, Vol. II, p. 483.)
May 28. Koloman de Kanya, Foreign Minister of Hungary, said Hungary would not impede an economic and possible future political cooperation among the Danubian States nor a real security and genuine peace along the Danube under certain conditions, but rejected the principle of reciprocal assistance. ("The Hungarian Government, however, steadfastly and under all circumstances adheres to the principle that Hungary's situation must not change for the worse through a possible readjustment in the Danube basin. . . . it would be tantamount to an obligation of rendering assistance, if need be, to those states which aggran­dized themselves at Hungary's expense. . . . I am unable to imagine a situation where the Little Entente States could offer us any fully commensurate counter-value for such an enormous sacrifice on our part. What is more, we have considerable doubt, quite justified by our experiences thus far, whether we could, in the event of a conflict, depend on a fully unbiased decision as to who was the aggressor." Ibid. 1936, pp. 332 f.)
June 2. Argentina asked the convening of the League Assembly to consider the annexation of Ethiopia and sanctions. (". . . it is essential that all the States members of the League of Nations, which is founded upon the principle of equality, should be afforded an opportunity of considering the problems arising out of the dispute between Italy and Ethiopia, which are of such overwhelm­ing importance in the present international situation, thus assum­ing their responsibilities and expressing their opinions upon the course to be followed in accordance with the fundamental prin­ciples of the Covenant." Ibid. 1935, Vol. II, p. 486.)

Chen Chi tang, Li Tsung-jen, and Pai Chung hsi, Southern military leaders from southwest China, demanded Nanking resist reinforcement of Japanese garrisons in North China. (Because of agitation in the south against the weak policy of the Nanking Government. Tension between Canton and Nanking bad grown because of action of the Nanking government in sending troops to Fukien-Kwantung border to anticipate an autonomy move in the former and from disagreement over control of the Canton Hankow railway. Survey 1936, p. 882.)

June 4. Popular Front coalition government under Léon Blum entered office in France. (Following victory in a general election May 3. Ibid., pp. 143, 946.)
June 10. Neville Chamberlain forecast the end of sanctions by Britain and departure from collective security. ("That policy [collective security] has been tried out and it has failed to prevent war, failed to stop war, failed to save the victim of the aggres­sion. . . . if we were to pursue the policy of sanctions. . . . That seems to me the very midsummer of madness. If we were to pursue it, it would only lead to further misfortunes which would divert our minds as practical men from seeking other and better solutions. . . . Surely it is time that the nations who compose the League should review the situation and should decide so to limit the functions of the League in future that they may accord with its real powers." Doc. Int. Affairs 1935, Vol. II, p. 488.)
June 18. France decreed dissolution of the Croix de Feu, Solidarité Francaise, Jeunesses Patriotes and Francistes. (Survey 1936, p. 946. )

Australia, Britain, and Canada decided to abandon sanctions against Italy. ("We have to admit that the purpose for which sanctions were imposed has not been realized. . . . The Italian military campaign succeeded. . . . To maintain sanctions without any clearly defined purpose . . . would have only this result: it would result in the crumbling of the sanctions front, so that in a few weeks time the League would be confronted with a state of affairs still more derogatory than that which we have to face today. . . . I [Anthony Eden, Secretary for Foreign Affairs] do not believe it is in the interest of the League itself that the sanctions front should crumble into confusion. I think it is right that the League should admit that sanctions have not realized their purpose and should face that fact." Doc. Int. Affairs 1935, Vol. II, pp. 491 ff.

"The Canadian Government believes that there is no prac­ticable alternative for Canada at the Assembly but to support the raising of sanctions." Ibid., p. 502.

"The sanctions in force failed to prevent an Italian victory, it is clear that their continuation cannot restore the military situation or place Abyssinia in her original position. Not only that, but the international situation is such that every effort must be made to secure a general all round settlement in the interests of peace, for which the cooperation of every nation is essential." [Australian statement.] Ibid., p. 502.)

Britain determined to maintain permanently a stronger de­fensive position in the Mediterranean than existed before the Italo Ethiopian dispute. (". . . in the light . of the experience of recent months the Government have determined that it is necessary . . ." Ibid., p. 314.)
June 19. French Council decided to accept raising of sanctions. ("The government, faithful to the principles of collective action, will associate itself with every decision of the League of Nations." [Unofficial Translation.] Ibid., p. 494.)


June 20. Arthur K. Greiser, President of the Danzig Senate, an­nounced a police order forbidding all political meetings and demonstrations. (Because of daily disturbances and incidents; and following a visit to Berlin of Greiser, Nazi gauleiter, Albert Forster, and the German consul general von Radowitz, Survey 1936, p. 545.)

President Roosevelt raised the embargo on arms to Ethiopia and Italy. ("The conditions which caused me to issue my afore­said proclamation have ceased to exist." State Release 1936, No. 351, p. 642.)

June 22. Honduras gave notice of withdrawal from the League. (Survey 1936, pp. 812, 960. Cf. May 14, supra.)
June 23. Haiti determined to abandon sanctions without waiting recommendations of the League. (". . . considering that in the present circumstances sanctions against Italy have no longer any object . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1935, Vol. II, p. 507.)
Prime Minister Baldwin in House of Commons debate explained that collective security "failed ultimately because of the reluc­tance of nearly all the nations in Europe to proceed to what I might call military sanctions." ("It would have been perfectly impossible to have brought Europe last year at any time to mili­tary sanctions, and I think the real reason, or the main reason, was that we discovered in the process of weeks that there was no country except the aggressor country which was ready for war. . . . you cannot tell when you begin [applying sanctions] at what point the aggressor will regard the sanction as a military sanction. It depends entirely on his strength. . . . But the ulti­mate sanction is always war, and unless the sanction you apply is such as to bring the aggressor to his knees, war is inevitable, and probably not a localized war, but a war throughout the whole of Europe. That is a terrible fact. . . .

". . . where there is an aggressor it would be quite impossible for the nations that wished to exercise the power of military sanc­tions against the aggressor or a group of aggressors to do it unless they are in a position to do it at once and together. I have already pointed out that if collective action is to be a reality and not merely a thing to be talked about, it means not only that every country is to be ready for war; but must be ready to go to war at once. That is a terrible thing, but it is an essential part of collective security." Commons, Vol. 313, cols. 1725 1726.)

Japanese Cabinet decided formally not to adhere to the London Naval Treaty. (Japan's prestige and her material interests would best be served by the retention of complete freedom in regard to the types as well as to the numbers of her warships. Freedom from the obligation to make her naval plans known was considered to outweigh the advantage of receiving information in advance regarding the building programs of other signatories. Survey 1936, p. 111.)
June 25. German cruiser Leipzig omitted courtesy visit to League High Commissioner Sean Lester, at Danzig. (The commander had received instructions from his superior officers in Berlin not to call upon him. Ibid., p. 546.)
Neutral states of World War I and Finland decided to end sanctions against Italy. (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Holland, Switzerland, and Spain decided the League had not the power to afford security to the lesser states; also decisions had already been taken in London and Paris. Ibid. 1935, Vol. II, pp. 473 f.)
June 26. Nicaragua gave notice of withdrawal from the League. (Ibid. 1936, pp. 812, 950. Cf. May 14, supra.)

Poland abandoned sanctions against Italy. ("In view of the most recent developments we are obliged to recognize that our joint effort has met with collective failure. The measures we took have not achieved their aim, and, having in the present case proved to be inoperative, have become useless. If; notwithstand­ing this, sanctions were maintained, they would in the opinion of the Polish Government assume the character of punitive measures, and this would be going beyond the spirit of Article 16 of the Covenant." Doc. Int. Affairs 1935, Vol. II, p. 508.)

July 4. League Assembly recommended end of sanctions against Italy. (". . . taking note of the communications and declarations which have been made to it on the subject of the situation arising out of the Italo Ethiopian dispute; recalling the previous findings and decisions in connection with this dispute; . . . Ibid., p. 234.)

The League Council asked Poland to deal with the Leipzig Affair. [June 25, supra.] ("Having regard to the fact that, in accordance with the Statute of the Free City, Poland has under­taken the conduct of the foreign relations of Danzig, . . ." Ibid. 1936, p. 441.)

July 11. Austria and Germany signed an agreement whereby Germany recognized the full sovereignty of Austria and the latter recog­nized herself as a German State and promised to act accordingly in her general policy and her policy toward Germany in particular. ("Convinced that they are thereby rendering a valuable contribu­tion towards the peaceful development of Europe, and believing that they are thereby doing the beat service to the various common interests of the two German States. . . . Each of these two Governments shall regard the internal political conditions of the other country, including the question of Austrian National­-Socialism, as a domestic concern of that country, upon which it will exert neither direct nor indirect influence. . . . Ibid., pp. 320 f.)

Danzig ordered all civil servants and government employees to belong to the National Socialist party. ("To dispose of cer­tain non Nazi judges whose decisions had not always accorded with Nazi ideas." Survey 1936, p. 556.)

July 15. Italian aviators were recruited for impending Spanish revolt. (Ibid. 1937, Vol. II, pp. 178 f., 232.)

A Russian Air Force mission arrived in Prague. (Result of the Czechoslovakian Russian treaty of mutual assistance. Cf. May 16, 1935, supra. Ibid. 1936, pp. 483, 485.)

July 16. Danzig Government promulgated a series of legislative decrees which in effect abolished most of the civic rights still enjoyed by the non Nazis and virtually nullified the guarantees of political liberty given by the constitution. (Aimed at opposi­tion parties; to complete coordination. Ibid., p. 556.)
July 17. Revolt of Foreign Legion at Morocco under Franco began Spanish civil war. Military conspirators were determined to turn out such an "ineffectual government." The immediate occasion was the assassination of Lieutenant José Castillo, officer of the Guardias de Asalto, July 12, and of Don José Calvo Sotelo, leading politician of the Right, July 13. Ibid. 1937, Vol. II, pp. 21. f.)

". . . the slow and painful development of a democratic social structure, which the Spanish people have voluntarily chosen, has led their adversaries to commit a veritable act of aggression in the name of the contrary principle. . . . The aggressor has received, both moral and material assistance from states whose political regime coincided with that to which the rebels are wedded." Alvarez del Vayo of Spain in the League, Assembly, L. N. 0. J., Special Supplement, No. 155, p. 48.

July 20. Britain, France, Russia, Japan, Greece, Rumania, Yugo­slavia, and Bulgaria permitted Turkey in the Montreux Straits Convention to refortify the Dardanelles and Bosporus, and close them at threat of war. ("Desiring to regulate transit and naviga­tion in the Straits of the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmora, and the Bosporus comprised under the general term `Straits' in such manner as to safeguard within the framework of Turkish security, in the Black Sea, of the riparian States, the principle enshrined in Article 23 of the Treaty of Peace signed at Lausanne on July 24, 1923. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 649.)
July 23. France, Belgium, and Britain decided to invite Germany and Italy to form a new Locarno agreement. ("The main purpose to which the efforts of all European nations must be directed is to consolidate peace by means of a general settlement.

"Such a settlement can only be achieved by the free cooperation of all the powers concerned, and nothing would be more fatal to the hopes of such a settlement than the division, apparent or real, of Europe into opposing blocs." Ibid., p. 219.)

July 25. France embargoed war material to Spain, excluding com­mercial aircraft ordered before July 18. (Because of a strong desire to keep France out of the war, because of the doctrinaire pacifism of the ministers, because of hostile opposition of ministers of the Right to aid to the Spanish Government, because of the semi-revolutionary social change under way in France. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 115.)

General Miguel Cabenallas, one leader of the Spanish rebels, formed a provisional government at Burgos which later became known as the Nationalists. (To settle the question of leadership. Ibid., pp. 232 f.)

July 31. Germany and Italy accepted invitation to a five power con­ference. (Cf. July 23, supra. Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, pp. 219 f.)
August 1. France approached Britain and Italy with nonintervention measures to shorten the Spanish war and avoid international complications. (French Cabinet decided something more was required than a unilateral decision on their part to withhold supplies from one party to the conflict; in view of the Republican sympathies of their supporters it was impossible to implement their self denying embargo unless the flow of foreign munitions to the Spanish Nationalists could be checked. Survey 1937, Vol. II, pp. 232 f.)
August 4. Britain declared willingness to participate in collective declaration of absolute neutrality. (Ibid., p. 233.)
August 5. Russia agreed to accept the principle of nonintervention in Spain. (Wanted foreign assistance to the Nationalists to cease immediately. Ibid., p. 234.)

General John Metaxas established a dictatorship in Greece. (Fascist sympathizer. Ibid. 1936, p. 20.)

August 7. The United States announced a policy of refraining scrupu­lously from any interference whatsoever in Spain. (". . . in con­formity with its well established policy of non interference with internal affairs in other countries, either in time of peace or in the event of civil strife . . ." State Release 1936, No. 359, p. 152. Cf. Peace, p. 323.)
August 8. French Government suspended export of all war materials, including commercial aircraft, to Spain. (To implement their own proposals fully. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 234.)
August 9. Germany assured Britain and France that no war material was or would be sent to the Spanish Nationalists from Germany. (Because of rumors that the Deutschland had landed bombs at Ceuta and a liner carrying airplanes had left Hamburg for Spain. Ibid., p. 237.)
August 10. Spanish Government protested nonintervention policy to France. (Because of what they considered to be its one sided application. Ibid., pp. 239, 397.)
August 11. Italy asked ban on moral solidarity, such as public demon­strations, press campaigns, subscriptions of money, enrollment of volunteers, as condition for her acceptance, and inquired about methods of control over observance of the policy. (Possibly obstructionist. Ibid., p. 235.)

The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden embargoed export of munitions to Spain. (In response to French suggestion. Cf. August 1, supra. Ibid., p. 238 n.)

Russia lowered the age of conscripts for active military service from 21 to 19. ("Considering the improved physical fitness of Soviet youth, due to the increased welfare of the population and the widespread development of sport and physical culture in the


U. S. S. R., and taking into account that the calling to the colors of youths at an earlier age will render possible their subsequent work in chosen careers or study to proceed without intermis­sion . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 289.)
August 12. Mr. Oswald Pirow, Minister of Defense for the Union of South Africa, said that in no circumstances could South Africa envisage the return of either Tanganyika or South West Africa to Germany. ("We are at work hand in hand with the rest of the British Empire in a common defense policy, and in this respect South Africa is to be elder brother to the rest of British Africa . . ." Ibid. 1937, p. 250.)
August 14. Switzerland embargoed arms, prohibited collection of funds and departure of volunteers. (On their own initiative they took certain measures designed to secure the objects of the non­intervention proposals, which they felt precluded from partici­pating in by joint declaration because of their permanent neutral­ity. Survey 1937, Vol. II, pp. 238, 244.)

President Roosevelt denied imperialist ambitions for the United States. (". . . before we inaugurated the good neighbor policy, there was among them [the American republics to the south] resentment and fear because certain administrations in Washington had slighted their national pride and their sovereign rights. . . Peace, like charity, begins at home. . . . We believe in democracy; we believe in freedom; we believe in peace." State Release 1936, No. 360, pp. 164 168. Cf. Peace, pp. 3241, 328.)

August 15. Britain and France exchanged a pledge for noninterven­tion in Spain, and announced prohibition of export, re-export, and transit to any destination in Spain, the Spanish possessions, or the Spanish zone in Morocco, of all arms, munitions, and ma­terials of war, and aircraft, complete or in parts, and warships, including previous contracts, effective as soon as Germany, Italy, Russia, and Portugal had adhered to the declaration. (They hoped such a declaration of unity would influence reluctant powers. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 239.)
August 17. Germany accepted nonintervention agreement of Aug. 15 if it were extended to cover individuals, too; if all arms manufac­turing countries did likewise, and urged the end of volunteering. (The German Government had obtained satisfaction from Spain for incidents arising out of the war. Ibid., p. 240.)

Uruguay suggested American republics should offer mediation in Spain. (". . . the nations of the American continent, dis­covered and civilized by its [Spain's] genius, cannot remain passive spectators. . . . If wars between nations, in which the contendents are animated by antagonistic aims and between which there is no sentiment which draws them together, can terminate in conciliatory solutions, it must not be thought that the same thing can not happen in the cases of civil wars in which, in the last analysis, all the combatants are inspired by adhesion to a common fatherland." State Release 1936, No. 360, p. 175)

August 19. Britain put embargo of Aug. 15 into effect without awaiting the adherence of others. (As a proof of good faith. Survey 1937, Vol., II, p. 240.)
August 20. The United States refused to join in mediation of the Spanish conflict. (". . . This country is committed to the prin­ciple of non interference in the internal affairs of other coun­tries. . . . After a most careful consideration of all the circum­stances involved, we are constrained to believe that the prospect that such an offer as is suggested would serve a useful purpose is not such as to warrant a departure by this Government from its well established policy." State Release 1936, No. 360, p. 176.)
August 21. Italy and Portugal adhered to the Franco British non­intervention pledge. (The Italian Government consented not to make the prohibition of "moral solidarity" an essential condition to their acceptance of an embargo on war materials. The Portu­guese Government listed a number of cases requiring action which they did not consider intervention: defense of public order, security, and territorial integrity of Portugal; defense against any socially subversive regime which might be set up in Spain; medi­ation between the parties to the conflict; maintenance of relations with the de facto government; recognition of belligerent rights of the rebels and of a new government. Survey 1937, Vol. 11, pp. 240 ff.)
August 22. The United States discouraged the export of arms and ammunition to Spain. (". . . the attitude and policy of this Government relative to the question of intervention in the affairs of other sovereign nations has been well known especially since the conclusion of the Montevideo Treaty of 1933. . . . invite your attention with equal force to the reference, in the same circular instruction, to this Government's well established policy of non interference with internal affairs in other countries, as well as to the statement that this Government will, of course, scrupulously refrain from any interference whatsoever in the un­fortunate Spanish situation. At the same time the Department expressed the opinion that American citizens, both at home and abroad, are patriotically observing this recognized American policy." Peace, p. 329.)
August 23. Russia accepted nonintervention proposal. (On condi­tion of reciprocity. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 242.)
August 24. Germany agreed to enforce arms embargo to Spain im­mediately. (Because the other interested governments had ac­cepted the French proposals. Ibid., p. 243.)

Compulsory military service in Germany was increased from 1 to 2 years. ("Under paragraph 8 of the Defense Law of May 21, 1935 . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 290. In answer to Russian move of Aug. 11, supra. The 1 year system in­volved a preliminary period of weakness during training of conscripts, and the annual contingent during the "lean years" barely reached the normal total of 300,000. Ibid. 1936, p. 147.)

Two Japanese journalists were killed by a mob in Chengtu, capital of Szechuan. (The city was aroused over an official Japanese demand for the reopening of the Japanese Consulate­ General, which had been closed after the trouble of 1932. Ibid., p. 918.)
August 25. The United States refused to recognize the legality of the Spanish war zone unless the Government declared and maintained an effective blockade of such ports. ("In taking this position my Government is guided by a long line of precedents in international law with which the Spanish Government is doubtless familiar." State Release 1936, No. 361, p. 193.)
August 26. Treaty of alliance between Egypt and Britain signed. ("Being anxious to consolidate the. friendship and the relations of good understanding between them and to cooperate in the execution of their international obligations in preserving the peace of the world;

"And considering that these objects will best be achieved by the conclusion of a treaty of friendship and alliance, which in their common interest will provide for effective cooperation in pre­serving peace and ensuring the defense of their respective terri­tories, and shall govern their mutual relations in the future . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 478.)

August 27. Portugal passed the necessary legislation to enforce the arms embargo against Spain. (Cf. Aug. 24, supra. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 243. )
August 28. Russia passed the necessary legislation to enforce the arms embargo against Spain. (Cf. Aug. 24, supra. Ibid., p. 243.)
September 1. General Ritter von Epp, Director of the Colonial League of the Reich, wrote ". . . no other State would be injured in its territorial status by Germany's demand for her due." ("When Germany brings up the question of colonies, she is thinking only of her own possessions which the Treaty of Versailles arbitrarily placed under the enforced control of the League of Nations, for the latter in its turn to hand them over to the present Mandatory Powers. The German colonial movement aims at nothing more than the removal of this enforced control and the restoration to Germany of the right of free disposal over her own colonial possessions." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 220.)
September 4. Largo Caballero formed a government including Socialists and Communists in Spain. (José Giral's Government resigned because of military disasters and threat to Madrid. Survey 1937, Vol. II, pp. 56, 97.)
September 6. Agreement between Nanking and southern Chinese leaders settling demands of June 2, supra. (Gen. Chen Chi tank, the Cantonese commander in chief, lost all support of his own people; several of his most important subordinates, the greater part of his air force, deserted; under pressure of a virtual blockade


of Kwangsi those leaders capitulated; the South Western Po­litical Council and Executive Committee was abolished; the Kwangsi military forces were incorporated into the National Army. Ibid., 1936, pp. 883, 943.)
September 7. Secretary of State Hull warned of the mounting threat to peace. ("A general war now would set loose forces that would be beyond control–forces which might easily bring about a virtual destruction of modern political thought, with all its achievements, and possibly a veritable shattering of our civilization." Peace, p. 332.)
September 9. First meeting held in London of the countries signing the nonintervention agreement on Spain. (Albania, Austria, Bel­gium, Britain, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Esthonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Irish Free State, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Rumania, Russia, Sweden, Turkey, present to establish a committee to exchange information and consider the wider aspects of nonintervention. Survey 1937, Vol. II, pp 244, 246.)

Chancellor Hitler announced 4 year plan for German autarchy. (". . . so that we can devote our export surplus to purchases of food and indispensable raw materials." Ibid. 1936, p. 240.)

France signed treaty with Syria providing for independence of the latter in 3 years. ("Given the intention expressed by the French Government before the League of Nations, taking into account the evolution already achieved, to conclude a treaty with the Syrian Government;

"Considering the progress realized toward the establishment of Syria as an independent nation;

"Given the agreement between the two Governments to realize, following a very definite program, every condition proper to assure the admission of Syria to the League of Nations, after a period of three years following the formalities of ratifica­tion; . . ." [Unofficial Translation] Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 445.)
September 12. Chancellor Hitler spoke on the wealth and resources of the Urals and Ukraine. (". . . under National-Socialist leader­ship the country would swim in plenty." Ibid. 1936, p. 294.)
September 15. Secretary of State Hull rejected departure from tradi­tional American policy to "join with other governments in collec­tive arrangements carrying the obligation of employing force, if necessary, in case disputes between other countries brought them into war." ("For current experience indicates how uncertain is the possibility that we, by our action, could vitally influence the policies or activities of other countries from which war might come." Ibid., p. 513. Cf. Peace, p. 335.

Spanish Government protested Italian, German, and Portu­guese supply of arms to rebels. (Breach of the rule of interna­tional law that foreign support must not be given to insurgents. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 248.)

September 22. Japanese marines landed in Hankow and Pakhoi. (Japanese consular policeman killed Sept. 19. Ibid. 1936, p. 943.)

Uruguay broke off diplomatic relations with Spain. (Because of the arrest and shooting in Madrid of the three sisters of the Uruguayan consul. Ibid. 1937, Vol. II, p. 214.)

First Lord of the Admiralty Sir Samuel Hoare told Commons Britain faced new problems in the Mediterranean. (". . . the Mediterranean is one of the vital highways of the Empire. The air problem has obviously made a difference, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 84.)
September 23. Japanese naval authorities took over Hongkew. (Three Japanese sailors killed. Survey 1936, pp. 918, 920.)
September 25. Franco British American devaluation of franc and stabilization agreement. (". . . to foster those conditions which will safeguard peace and will contribute to the restoration of order in international relations, and to pursue a policy which will tend to promote prosperity in the world and to improve the standard of living.

". . . to continue the policy which it has pursued in the course of recent years, one constant object of which is to maintain the greatest possible equilibrium in the system of international exchange, and to avoid to the utmost extent the creation of any disturbance of that system by American monetary action." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 668.)

(Spain protested to the League on non intervention. (Non­intervention was in practice intervention against the Govern­ment. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 248.)
September 26. Switzerland and The Netherlands devalued their cur­rency; Belgium adhered to the monetary agreement of Sept. 25. (Due to French persuasion and the inevitable. Ibid. 1936, pp. 178 181.)
September 27. Portugal joined the Non Intervention Committee. (Due to diplomatic pressure of Britain and France. Ibid. 1937, Vol. II, p. 245.)
October 1. General Francisco Franco made Commander in Chief of Nationalist Army and Chief of Spanish State. (To settle pre­vious disputes concerning insurgent leadership. Ibid., p. 115.)
October 3. Spain issued memorandum on intervention of fascists in Portugal. (To present evidence in support of their accusations. Ibid., p. 248.)
October 5. Italy devalued the lira 40.93 percent. (Because of the devaluation of the franc and competing currencies. Ibid., p. 183.)
October 6. Czechoslovakia devalued the crown. (Because of the devaluation of the franc; because many thought devaluation of February 1934 had not been large enough; because of subsequent


strong political agitation for a cut; because of the ability of her competitors to undercut her in foreign markets. Ibid. 1936, pp. 184 f.)
October 7. Russia threatened to withdraw from Non Intervention Committee if violations continued. (They were afraid repeated violations had made agreement "virtually non existent"; they could not agree "to turn the agreement into a screen shielding the military aid given to the rebels by some of the participants." Ibid. 1937, Vol. 11, p. 249.)
October 10. The League Assembly instituted an inquiry into "equal commercial access for all nations to certain raw materials." (". . . the time has now arrived when discussion . . . might usefully be undertaken with the collaboration of the principal states, whether Members or non Members of the League, having a special interest in the matter . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 773.)

League Assembly recommended reduction of excessive ob­stacles to international trade and communications and partic­ularly the relaxing and abolition as soon as possible of the sys­tems of quotas and exchange controls. (". . . as an essential condition of final success . . . to ensure the application of the policy . . . [designed to reestablish a durable equilibrium between the economics of the various countries, to lay more solid founda­tions for the stability of economic relations, and to promote international trade, . . .]." Ibid. 1936, pp. 669 f.)

October 12. Russia asked Non Intervention Committee to consider British and French control ships in Portuguese ports. (Cf. Oct. 7, supra. Survey 1937, Vol. II, pp. 250 f.)
October 14. Belgium undertook a policy of self defense and freedom from alliances. ("The rearmament of Germany following the integral remilitarization of Italy and Russia has provoked measures of exceptional precaution in most of the other states, even deliberately pacific ones, such as Switzerland and The Netherlands;

"The transformation of the methods of warfare under the influence of technical progress, notably in the matter of aviation and motorization, allow henceforth to impart to the initial operations of an armed conflict a power, rapidity, and an extent particularly alarming for countries of such extended weakness as Belgium;

"The reoccupation, like a bolt from the blue, of the Rhineland and the transfer to our frontier of bases of departure of an eventual German invasion, have accentuated our uneasiness;

"At the same time, we have watched the shaking of the founda­tions of international security by the infringements of conven­tions freely subscribed to: and by the quasi impossibility of adapting, in the actual circumstances, the stipulations of the Covenant of the League of Nations to the repression of these infringements;

"Finally, the internal dissensions of certain States run the risk of becoming entangled in the rivalries of the political and social


systems of other States, and of unchaining a keener and more devastating conflagration than that from which we are still suffering." [Unofficial Translation.] Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 224.)

Danzig Social Democratic party was dissolved. (On the ground that stores of arms and ammunition had been found in the posses­sion of the party leaders. Survey 1936, p. 563.)

October 23. Portugal broke diplomatic relations with Republican Spain. (As a move toward recognition of the Franco regime as the Government of Spain. Ibid. 1937, Vol. II, p. 256.)

Russia proposed the Spanish Government be allowed to buy arms abroad. (The best way to end the privileged situation for the rebels. Ibid., p. 251.)

October 24. Britain suggested plans for controlling all the channels by which war materials might reach Spain. (Ibid., pp. 253 f.)

Germany recognized the Italian annexation of Ethiopia. (To regulate Italo German trade relations with Ethiopia and open way for solution of various unsettled questions. Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 342.)

October 25. Rome Berlin Axis formed for diplomatic cooperation. (". . . in the interests of peace and reconstruction. This joint activity finds a solid basis not only in the common interests of our two countries but in the supreme obligation assumed by Germany and Italy to defend the great institutions of Europe." Ibid., p. 341.)
October 28. Russia continued to aid Spanish Government. (". . . those Governments who consider supplying the legitimate Spanish Government as conforming to international law, international order, and international justice are morally entitled not to con­sider themselves more bound by the agreement than those Governments who supply the rebels in contravention of the agreement." Survey 1937, Vol. II, pp. 251 f.)
November 1. Premier Mussolini said "a sincere, rapid, and complete agreement based on the recognition of reciprocal interests" should be concluded with Britain. ("Italy is an island that emerges from the Mediterranean. . . . If for others the Mediterranean is a route, for us Italians it is life." Doc., Int. Affairs 19,36, pp. 346 f.)
November 3. Franklin D. Roosevelt reelected President of the United States. (Quadrennial election. Survey 1936, pp. 822, 962.)
November 4. Switzerland adhered to currency agreement of Sept. 25, supra. (Ibid., p. 181.)
November 5. Foreign Secretary Eden said Britain had no desire to threaten or attack any Italian interest in the Mediterranean. (". . . the interests of the two countries . . . have been complementary rather than divergent." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 86.)


November 6. Australia, Canada, France, Britain, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States signed a procés verbal continuing the 1930 treaty on submarine warfare. ("Whereas the Treaty for the Limitation and Reduction of Naval Armaments signed in London on April 22, 1930, has not been ratified by all the signatories;

"And whereas the said Treaty will cease to be in force after December 31, 1936, with the exception of Part IV thereof, which sets forth rules as to the action of submarines with regard to merchant ships as being established rules of international law, and remains in force without limit of time;

"And whereas the last paragraph of Article 22 in the said Part IV states that the High Contracting Parties invite all other Powers to express their assent to the said rules;

"And whereas the Governments of the French Republic and the Kingdom of Italy have confirmed their acceptance of the said rules resulting from the signature of the said Treaty;

"And whereas all the signatories of the said Treaty desire that as great a number of Powers as possible should accept the rules contained in the said Part IV as established rules of international law; . . ." Ibid. 1936, pp. 632 f., and Treaty Inf. 1936, No. 86, p. 35.)
November 11. Rome protocol states agreed to continue economic and political cooperation. (Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 309.)

Austria and Hungary recognized the Italian Empire. (They wished "to take part in the economic exploitation of Ethiopia according to the disposition of their national economy." Ibid. 1936, p. 3.10.)

November 13. Non Intervention Committee approved the idea of supervision in Spanish ports of the embargo, "in principle," sub­ject to amendments and approval of governments. (There was still opportunity for obstructionist tactics. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 255.)

France and Lebanon concluded treaty to grant independence to the latter in due time. (Cf. Franco Syrian treaty Sept. 9, supra. Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp. 459 f.)

November 14. Germany renounced the international control of the Rhine, Elbe, Oder, and Danube provided in the Versailles treaty. ("Freedom of navigation on all waterways, and equality of treat­ment on all waterways for all States–who were at peace with one another, provided for almost a hundred years before the Great War the elements of a fruitful cooperation between the countries adjacent to navigable rivers. In opposition to this and in contra­diction to the fundamental ideas of the principle of equality of ­rights, there was created at Versailles, with regard to this question, a one sided artificial system which operated to the disadvantage of Germany and of the practical requirements of navigation. This system sought to impose upon Germany a permanent inter­national supervision of her waterways, by transferring German sovereign rights more or less completely to International Commis­sions which were subject to the extensive participation on non-­riparian States.


"The German Government have earnestly endeavoured to replace this intolerable arrangement by other agreements . . . Moreover Holland, which, next to Germany, is the most important State contiguous to the Rhine, has not adhered to the agreements concluded in May of this year; and it is precisely in regard to this river that a clear situation is necessary. As regards the Elbe, it has been found impossible to separate the new adminis­tration from its Versailles basis, and, more especially, to put an end to the situation whereby four non riparian States, with no particular interests in Elbe shipping, still claim to be guarantors of the freedom of navigation on this river. For the German Oder there still exists today an international commission in which Germany does not even participate, and which has a French secretary who was provisionally appointed in 1920 without Germany's concurrence. With regard to the Danube, Germany–a country through which the Danube flows–has endeavoured for ten years without success to regain her seat on the Danube Estuary Commission." Ibid. 1936, pp. 283 f.)
November 16. Eden expresses "regrets" over steps taken by Germany. "On May 21, 1935, the German Chancellor stated publicly that as regards the remaining Articles of the Treaty, including those relating to international rivers, . . . the German Government `will only carry out by means of peaceable understandings such revisions as will be inevitable in the course of time.' . . . In these circumstances it is a matter of regret to His Majesty's Government that at a time when discussions were proceeding and despite the assurances given last year, the German Government would once again have abandoned procedure by negotiation in favour of unilateral action." Eden in the House of Commons on Nov. 16; Hansard, Nov. 16, 1936, pp. 1334 1335.
November 18. Germany and Italy formally recognized the Franco regime as the government in Spain. (They expected Madrid to fall. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 256.)
November 20. Foreign Secretary Eden assured France and Belgium of British military support in case of unprovoked, aggression. (". . . in accordance with our existing obligations." (Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 262.)

Japan warned Peiping that she would resent a counteroffensive in Charhar. (To forestall interference with the consolidation of her political and economic position. Survey 1936, pp. 943, 913.)

November 24. The Netherlands adhered to the monetary agreement of Sept. 25, supra. (Ibid., p. 181.)
November 25. German Japanese Anti Comintern pact signed. ". . . recognizing that the aim of the Communist International, known as the Comintern, is to disintegrate and subdue existing States by all the means at its command; convinced that the toleration of interference by the Communist International in the internal affairs of the nations not only endangers their internal peace and social well being, but is also a menace to the peace of the world;


desirous of co operating in the defense against Communist sub­versive activities; . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 297; Japan, Vol. II, pp. 153 ff.)
November 26. Chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg repeated Austria's willingness to travel with Germany in questions concerning their common nationhood. (". . . I cannot emphasize clearly or strongly enough that the Agreement of July 11 must remain an unequivocal and clear line of policy, from which, I am firmly con­vinced, statesmanship must in no circumstances deviate." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 327.)
November 27. Spanish Government appealed to the League against the armed intervention of Germany and Italy. (Under Art. 11. The armed intervention of Germany and Italy in the Spanish civil war, . . . culminated in the recognition of the chief of the rebels set up as a Government by the 'wire pullers' of these same Powers. Such a proceeding is virtually an act of aggression against the Spanish Republic. The declared intention of the rebels of forcibly preventing free commerce with the ports con­trolled by the Government claims attention as a factor likely to create international difficulties. . . . These difficulties are in­creased by the fact that the rebels have been recognized by Ger­many and Italy, which, and particularly one of them, as is proved by information in the possession of the Government of the Repub­lic, are preparing to co operate with them in the naval sphere as they have done in the air and on the land. These facts, through their very simultaneity, constitute for the Spanish Government a circumstance affecting international relations which threatens to disturb international peace or the good understanding between nations upon which peace depends." Survey 1937, Vol. II, pp. 260 f.)

President Roosevelt in Rio de Janeiro speech said: "The friendly nations of the Americas can render no greater service to civilization itself than by maintaining both domestic and international peace and by freeing themselves forever from conflict." ("It is not enough that peace prevails from the Arctic to the Antarctic, from the Atlantic to the Pacific; it is essential that this condition be made permanent, that we provide effectively against the recurrence of the horrors of war and assure peace to ourselves and our posterity. . . . All of us have learned that no real, no lasting prosperity can exist where it is secured at the expense of our neighbours–that among nations, as in our domes­tic relations, the principle of interdependence is paramount.

"No nation can live entirely to itself. Each one of us has learned the glories of independence. Let each one of us learn the glories of interdependence. Economically, we supply each other's needs; intellectually, we maintain a constant, a growing exchange of culture, of science, and of thought; spiritually, the life of each can well enrich the life of all. We are showing in international relations what we have long known in private relations–that good neighbours make a good community " Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, pp. 560 561, and State Release 1936, No. 374, pp. 417 419.)


November 28. Polish Rumanian alliance reaffirmed. ("After having examined all the questions interesting the two states, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, p. 397.)

Italy recognized Manchukuo. (They wanted to establish a Consulate General at Mukden and, it was said, secure recognition for Ethiopia. Survey 1936, p. 905.)

December 1 23. Inter American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace met at Buenos Aires.
("The primary purpose of this Con­ference is to banish war from the Western Hemisphere.

"Peoples must be educated for peace. Each nation must make itself safe for peace.

"Frequent conferences between representatives of nations and intercourse between their peoples are essential.

"The consummation of the five well known peace agreements will provide adequate peace machinery.

"In the event of war in this hemisphere there should be a com­mon policy of neutrality.

"The nations should adopt commercial policies to bring each that prosperity upon which enduring peace is founded.

"Practical international cooperation is essential to restore many indispensable relationships between nations and prevent the de­moralization with which national character and conduct are threatened.

"International law should be reestablished, revitalized, and strengthened. Armies and navies are no permanent substitute for its great principles.

"Faithful observance of undertakings between nations is the foundation of international order, and rests upon moral law, the highest of all law." State Release 1936, No. 375, p. 432 and Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, pp. 563 ff., 568 ff., 594 ff. Cf. Peace, pp. 342 352.)
December 3. Japanese marines landed at Tsingtao. (Because of a lock out of employees at a Japanese cotton mill. Survey 1936, p. 944.)
December 4. Britain and France asked Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Russia to mediate in Spain and organize effective control scheme. (". . . with a view to the organization of a fully effective control . . . with the object of enabling Spain to give united expression to its national will." Ibid. 1937, Vol. II, p. 271.)

Ambassador Joseph C. Grew reported rumor of German­-Japanese military agreement. (". . . the Soviet Government has indisputable evidence that a military agreement exists." Peace, p. 342. Cf. Nov. 25, supra.)

December 8. Turkey asked the League Council to consider their dispute with France over Alexandretta, Antioch, and dependencies conditionally ceded by Turkey in virtue of the treaties of 1921 and 1923. (In conformity with Article 11, Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 472.)
December 9. Polish German negotiations about the League High Commissioner of Danzig began. Survey 1936, p. 567. (Oct. 5, League had asked Poland to seek end of situation in which the High Commissioner was unable to function. Ibid., p. 945.)


December 11. Constitution bill adopted for the Irish Free State omitting any reference to the King of England and his governor general. (As end to long differences on way to independence. Ibid., p. 949.)
December 12. Italy, Germany, and Portugal rejected Franco British proposal of Dec. 4 on mediation in Spain. (They considered reconciliation between the Nationalists and Republicans hardly conceivable. Ibid. 1937, Vol. II, p. 273.)
December 12 25. Chang Hsueh liang kidnapped Chiang Kai shek. (Because the Central Government failed to stand up to Japan, in particular, gave way in North. China; because Chang wanted to end civil war, give a free rein to the anti Japanese movement, and reorganize the Central Government to include representa­tives of all parties and factions and to "assume the task of saving the nation." Ibid. 1936, pp. 886 f.)
December 18. Britain protested German troop landing at Cadiz in Spain. (Breach of nonintervention. Ibid. 1937, Vol. II, p. 400.)
December 21. Declaration of Principles of Inter American Solidarity and Cooperation made by Inter American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace. ("The Governments, of the American Republics, having considered: That they have a common likeness in their democratic form of government and their common ideals, of peace and justice, manifested in the several treaties and con­ventions which they have signed for the purpose of constituting a purely American system tending towards the preservation of peace, the proscription of war, the harmonious development of their commerce and of their cultural aspirations in the various fields of political, economic, social, scientific and artistic activities;

"That the existence of continental. interests obliges them to maintain solidarity of principles as the basis of the life of the relations of each to every other American nation;

"That Pan Americanism, as a principle of American Interna­tional Law, by which is understood a moral union of all of the American Republics in defence of their common interests based upon the most perfect equality and reciprocal respect for their rights of autonomy, independence and free development, requires the proclamation of principles of American International Law; and

"That it is necessary to consecrate the principle of American solidarity in all non continental conflicts especially since those limited to the American Continent should find a peaceful solu­tion by the means established by the Treaties and Conventions now in force or in the instruments hereafter to be executed, . . ." Peace, p. 352.)

December 22. The Non Intervention Committee agreed to study ques­tions of volunteers and financial intervention. (Survey 1937, Vol. II; p. 277.)


December 23. The Non Intervention Committee adopted a supervision scheme for Spain. (Cf. Dec. 4, supra. Ibid., p. 276.)

Inter American convention for the maintenance, preservation, and reestablishment of peace signed. (". . . Considering: That according to the statement of Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Presi­dent of the United States, to whose lofty ideals the meeting of this Conference is due, the measures to be adopted by it `would advance the cause of world peace, inasmuch as the agreements which might be reached would supplement and reinforce the efforts of the League of Nations and of all other existing or future peace agencies in seeking to prevent war';

"That every war or threat of war affects directly or indirectly all civilized peoples and endangers the great principles of liberty and justice which constitute the American ideal and the standard of American international policy;

"That the Treaty of Paris of 1928 [Kellogg Briand Pact] has been accepted by almost all the civilized states, whether or not members of other peace organizations, and that the Treaty of Non Aggression and Conciliation of 1933 [Saavedra Lamas Pact signed at Rio de Janeiro] has the approval of the twenty one American Republics represented in this Conference, . . ." Treaty Inf. 1937, No. 88, p. 25.)

Inter American convention to coordinate, extend, and assure the fulfillment of the existing treaties between the American States signed. (". . . Animated by a desire to promote the maintenance of general peace in their mutual relations;

"Appreciating the advantages derived and to be derived from the various agreements already entered into condemning war and providing methods for the pacific settlement of international disputes;

"Recognizing the need for placing the greatest restrictions upon resort to war; and

"Believing that for this purpose it is desirable to conclude a new convention to coordinate, extend, and assure the fulfillment of existing agreements, . . ." Ibid., No. 89, p. 21.)

Additional protocol relative to nonintervention signed. (".

Desiring to assume the benefits of peace in their mutual relations and in their relations with all the nations of the earth, and to abolish the practice of intervention; and

"Taking into account that the Convention of Rights and Duties of States, signed at the Seventh International Conference of American States, December 26, 1933, solemnly affirmed the fundamental principle that `no State has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another'. . ." Ibid., p. 25.)

Treaty on the prevention of controversies signed. (". . . In order to adopt, in the interest of the maintenance of international peace, so far as may be attainable, a preventive system for the consideration of possible causes of future controversies and their settlement by pacific means; and

"Convinced that whatever assures and facilitates compliance with the treaties in force constitutes an effective guarantee of international peace . . ." Ibid., p. 26.)


Inter American treaty on good offices and mediation. (". . . Considering that, notwithstanding the pacts which have been concluded between them, it is desirable to facilitate, even more, recourse to peaceful methods for the solution of controver­sies. . . ." Ibid., p. 26.)
December 30. Chinese and Japanese settled the Chengtu and Pakhoi incidents. (Cf. Aug. 24 and Sept. 22, and Dec. 3, supra. Survey 1936, pp. 923, 944. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, pp. 641 ff.)
December 31. Italy gave Britain pledge that "so far as Italy is con­cerned, the integrity of the present territories of Spain shall in all circumstances remain intact and unmodified." [Statement of Count Ciano.] (Ibid. 1937, pp. 88 f.)

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