This is a brief chronological list of events from January through September 1944. The events have been noted without comment. The Department of State Bulletin, the chronologies of Current History and of the Bulletin of International News, the New York Times and the London Times proved most useful in the preparation of this list. It was prepared after the completion of the index to the main chronology, and is not itself indexed.
The first part of the Addenda (through May) is the work of Evelyn Wiley; the period from June through September was covered by A. 0. Sarkissian (both of the Inquiry Section).
January 8. Russian armies drove across the border into pre-war Poland. (This report was not confirmed by the Russian Government. )
January 5. Announcement was made of the establishment under the Anglo-American Caribbean Commission of a system of West Indian conferences.
The Polish Government in London issued a statement on the entry of the Soviet forces into pre-war Poland. The Polish Nation was entitled to expect "full justice and redress" as soon as it was freed from enemy occupation. The first condition of such justice was "The earliest reestablishment of Polish sovereign administration in the liberated territories of the Republic of Poland and the protection of life and property of Polish citizens."'
January 9. Prime Minister Churchill and General de Gaulle met at Marrakesh, Morocco, for discussions on the cooperation of a French expeditionary force in the invasion of Europe, and the degree of authority of the French committee in the control of civil affairs inside France after the invasion.
January 10. Prime Minister Churchill and President Roosevelt, in a joint announcement, reported that merchant shipping losses due to U-boats were 60 percent less than losses for the preceding year.
The report of the Anglo-American Caribbean Commission was issued: A Caribbean Research Council had been set up (representing Britain, United States, and the Netherlands); steps had been taken to establish an organization for coordinating and expanding the purchase of imported food; an interisland distribution system was developed.
Announcement was made of a Swedish-German trade agreement for 1944, providing for reduction of Swedish exports to Germany.
The Moscow radio broadcast a statement by the Soviet Government replying to the Polish statement of January 5. The Soviet statement declared that the Polish assertions about the Soviet-Polish frontier were incorrect, and defended the incorporation of the territories of western Ukraine in Soviet Ukraine, and those
of western White Russia in Soviet White Russia. The Soviet, Government did not regard the 1939 frontiers as immutable. The Soviet-Polish frontier could pass approximately along the so-called Curzon line, but Poland's western borders must be extended to incorporate Polish land previously stolen by Germany. The Soviet Government repeated its desire for the reestablishment of a strong, independent Poland, and for friendship between Poland and the Soviet Union.
January 12. Leighton McCarthy presented his letters of credentials to President Roosevelt as the first Canadian Ambassador to the United States.
January 15. The Polish Government replied to the Russian statement of January 10: The Polish Government was "approaching the British and United States Governments with a view to securing through their intermediary the discussion by the Polish and Soviet Governments . . . of all outstanding questions, the settlement of which should lead to friendly and permanent cooperation between Poland and the Soviet Union . . ."
Secretary of State Hull announced the reorganization of the State Department. A policy committee and a post-war program committee were established. An advisory council on foreign policy and a new division for labor relations were created.
January 16. It was announced that General Eisenhower had arrived in Great Britain and assumed his duties as Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces.
January 17. Colombia signed the United Nations Declaration.
Moscow radio broadcast the Russian reply to the Polish declaration of January 15. The evasion in the Polish declaration of the question of the recognition of the Curzon line as the Soviet Polish frontier could only be interpreted as a rejection of that line. The Soviet Government was of the opinion that it could not enter into official negotiations with the Polish Government, since diplomatic relations were broken off between them, and had been broken off through the fault of the Polish Government. In the opinion of Soviet circles these circumstances demonstrated that the existing Polish Government did not desire to establish good neighborly relations with the Soviet Union.
January 19. In a speech to the House of Commons, Foreign Secretary Eden warned the Spanish Government against continued aid to Germany by maintaining Spanish troops on the Russian front.
January 20. Soviet troops captured Novgorod.
General Isaias Medina, President of Venezuela, addressed the United States Congress.
January 22. Allied troops made a surprise landing a short distance from Rome in the Anzio region.
January 25. Eighty-three Japanese planes and numerous ships were destroyed by an Allied raid on Rabaul.
January 26. President Ramirez of Argentina, informed President Roosevelt that he had signed a decree of breach of diplomatic relations with Germany and Japan.
January 27. Atrocity stories on the treatment by the, Japanese of American and Filipino soldiers after the surrender of Bataan and Corregidor disclosed in official reports of the United States Army and Navy.
The government of Liberia declared war on Germany and Japan.
January 29. Russian troops cleared the entire Moscow Leningrad area of Germans.
January 31. Combined United States forces invaded Kwajalein.
The United States Department of State issued a statement in which it revealed a series of protests and requests concerning the treatment of prisoners made by the United States to Japan from December 7, 1941, to date.
February 2. Russian forces crossed the Esthonian border and captured Vanakula.
February 3. United States warships shelled Paramushiru Island in the first attack on Japanese home territory.
February 4. Argentina severed diplomatic relations with Bulgaria, Vichy France, Hungary, and Rumania.
February 6. In Italy, both on the Cassino front and on the beachhead south of Rome, Allied troops were forced to withdraw under heavy German counterattacks.
February 8. The Chancellor of the Exchequer announced in the House of Commons that a Financial and a Mutual Aid Agreement had been signed with the French Committee of National Liberation.
President Roosevelt signed a proclamation to repeal the Chinese Exclusion Act.
February 12. Pravda published an article accusing the Polish Government of "hostile activities screened by false words of friendship."
February 15. German fortification of the Mount Cassino Abbey bombed by Allies. President Roosevelt declared that such monuments cannot be spared where American lives are at stake.
February 16-17. Strong United States Navy task forces attacked Truk.
February 17. The Red Army completed "liquidation" of 10 trapped Nazi divisions in the Ukraine.
February 25. President Ramirez, of Argentina, resigned and was succeeded by General Edelmiro Farrell.
February 29. The Soviet Government confirmed the Finnish-Soviet peace rumors, and revealed the conditions of peace demanded of Finland.
Americans invaded the Admiralty Islands.
March 3. President Roosevelt declared that the Italian Fleet would be equally divided between the United States, Great Britain, and Russia, the decision having been made when Italy surrendered.
March 6. In a daylight raid, 800 American planes bombed Berlin in what was to be the beginning of round-the-clock bombing.
March 11. Former Vichy Minister of the Interior, Pierre Pucheau, was found guilty of treason and sentenced to death by a special military court in Algiers.
March 15. Allied bombers leveled Cassino with 3,500-ton assault.
March 17. United States planes landed Allied troops behind Japanese lines in northern Burma, following occupation of Hukawng Valley by United States and Chinese infantry.
March 20. The Russians swept into Bessarabia.
It was reported that Turkey had concluded a new commercial treaty with Germany.
March 21. Finland announced its rejection of the Russian armistice terms.
Secretary of State Hull issued a 17-point program of American foreign policy aimed at a post-war world of international cooperation.
March 22. The Japanese invaded India from Burma.
March 29. German troops entered Hungary and took control of airfields and other key points.
March 21-31. The first West Indian Conference, acting under the Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, was held at Bridgetown, Barbados, British West Indies. Its purpose was the discussion of a cooperative program to rebuild economic, social, and health conditions in American and British possessions in the Caribbean area.
March 22. Prime Minister Churchill declared that a clarification of the Atlantic Charter must be the subject for renewed consultation between the principal Allies.
March 25. Secretary of State Hull announced that the United States would send a delegation to collaborate with the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education in London. The delegation would consist of: Hon. J. William Fulbright, chairman Archibald MacLeish, John W. Studebaker, Grayson N. Kefauver, Ralph E. Turner, Dean C. Mildred Thompson (appointment announced April 1).
March 28. House Joint Resolution 192 approved, providing for the appropriation of a sum not to exceed $1,350,000,000 to be used for United States participation in the work of United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration.
March 28-April 3. Allied bombers destroyed 288 Japanese planes at Hollandia in largest Southwest Pacific raids.
March 30. United States bombers from the Mediterranean area began a series of heavy raids on the Balkans.
March 31. The House of Commons gave Prime Minister Churchill a 425 to 23 vote of confidence, after a previous Government defeat on the issue of equal pay for women teachers.
April 2. The Red Army swept into Rumania.
April 7. United States Under Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., arrived in London to begin a series of conferences with the British Foreign Office.
April 9. Secretary of State Hull, in a speech to the people of the Nation, defined United States foreign policy.
April 10. The Russians captured Odessa.
Apr. 10. Liberia signed the United Nations Declaration.
Apr. 13. Three thousand United States planes from Britain and Italy raided Germany, Hungary, and Yugoslavia.
April 14. Canada signed a treaty with China relinquishing extraterritorial rights in China.
April 22. Allies landed at Hollandia, Dutch Now Guinea.
April 28. The Chinese acknowledged the Japanese capture of Chengchow.
May 9. The Soviet Army retook Sevastopol.