House Resolution N




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1942
January 1. Declaration of the United Nations. The Governments signatory thereto declare:

"(1) Each Government pledges itself to employ its full re­sources, military or economic, against those members of the Tripartite Pact and its adherents with which such government is at. war.

"(2) Each Government, pledges itself, to cooperate, with the Governments signatory hereto and not to make a separate armistice or peace with the enemies." (Bulletin, 1942, Vol. VI, No. 132, p. 3.)

The United States Treasury order freezing Philippine funds in the United States went into effect. ("In view of the situation created by the temporary enemy occupation of important parts of the Philippine Islands." Times, Jan. 6, 1942, p. 3.)


January 2. British forces captured Bardia, Libya, taking 7,000 prisoners. (London Times, Jan. 5, 1942, p. 4.)

Japanese forces occupied Manila and the nearby naval base of Cavite. (Times, Jan. 3, 1942, p. 1.)


January 3. President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill announced the creation of a "unified command" in the Southwest Pacific area, with General Sir Archibald P. Wavell as supreme commander of all United States, British, Netherlands and Domin­ion forces in that area. ("As a result of proposals put forward by the United States and British Chiefs of Staff . . . with the concurrence of the Netherlands Government and the Dominion governments concerned." Times, Jan. 4, 1942, p. 1.)
January 4 12. China defeated and routed about 70,000 Japanese troops at the provincial capital of Changsha. (Times, Jan. 5, 1942, p. 1; Jan, 16, 1942, p. 10.)
January 5. President Roosevelt declared lend lease aid to the Pro­visional Government of Czechoslovakia. (As vital to the defense of the United States. Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 133, p. 44.)

Egypt severed diplomatic relations with Bulgaria and Finland. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 352.)


January 6. Australia declared war on Bulgaria. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 349.)

President Roosevelt, in his annual message to Congress on the state of the Union, said that plans had been laid for cooperation among all the United Nations, and that there would be a continuation of conferences and consultations among military staffs. ("We shall not fight isolated wars, each nation going its own way. . . . The militarists of Berlin and Tokyo started this war,


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314 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


but the massed, angered forces of common humanity will finish it." Congressional Record [bound], Vol. 88, Pt. I, p. 33.)

M. Molotov handed a note on German atrocities to represent­atives of all countries in diplomatic relations with Russia. ("There was documentary proof that this was done in all the districts which fell into German hands and that the acts were not those of separate undisciplined units, but a previously worked out plan fostered by the German command." International News, Jan. 24, 1942, p. 78.)

Egypt suspended diplomatic relations with Vichy. (Egypt notified France that relations with Vichy were contrary to the spirit of the Anglo Egyptian treaty. Times, Jan. 7, 1942, p. 5; Jan. 12, 1942, p. 4.)
January 8. The Inter American Commission for Territorial Adminis­tration was established under the provisions of the Convention on the Provisional Administration of European Colonies and Possessions in the Americas, which entered into force on this date. (To "provide for the provisional administration of any territory located in the Americas, should a non American state directly or indirectly attempt to replace another non American state in the sovereignty or control which it exercised over such territory." Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 186, p. 70.)
January 11. Japanese forces invaded the Netherlands Celebes, and Borneo. (Times, Jan. 12, 1942, p. 1.)
January 12 17. With the capture of Solum and Halfaya Pass, the British eliminated the last Axis strongholds on Egyptian soil. (London Times, Jan. 16, 1942, p. 3; Jan. 19, 1942, p. 4.)
January 13. Inter Allied Conference met in London. ("Whereas Germany . . . has instituted in the occupied countries a regime of terror. . . . And whereas these acts of violence are being similarly perpetrated by the allies and associates of the Reich. . . . And whereas international solidarity is necessary in order to avoid the repression of these acts of violence simply by acts of vengeance on the part of the general public, and in order to satisfy the sense of justice of the civilized world. . . .

"The undersigned Representatives of the Government of Bel­gium, the Government of Czechoslovakia, the Free French National. Committee, the Government of Greece, the Government of Luxemburg, the Government of the Netherlands, the Government of Norway, the Government of Poland, the Govern­ment of Yugoslavia; . . .

"Place amongst their principal war aims the punishment, through the channel of organized justice, of those guilty and responsible for these crimes. . . ." International News, Jan. 24, 1942, pp. 50 51.)
January 14. U. S. blacklisted 1,800 European firms. (Persona in the United States no longer may, engage in business or financial transactions with these firms. Officials explained that the firms may regain the good graces of the United States by demon­strating a complete severance of trade or financial relations with the enemy. Times, Jan. 15, 1942, pp. 1, 14.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 315


January 15. Agreement signed in London between Greece and Yugoslavia for the constitution of a Balkan Union. ("Having observed past experience, and more particularly recent experiences, which have demonstrated that a lack of close understanding between the Balkan peoples has caused them to be exploited by the powers of aggression . . ., and considering that in order to assure the independence and peace of the Balkan states, the fundamental principle of their policy must be the principle of `The Balkans for the Balkan peoples. . . .' " New Europe, Vol. II. (Feb. 1942), p. 79.)

Third meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American republics; opening session Rio de Janeiro, Jan. 15, 1942.

"We are meeting together under the terms, and in the spirit, of inter American agreements to take counsel as to the course which our governments should take under the shadow of this dire threat to our continued existence as free people." [Statement of Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles, in an address at the opening session.] (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 134, p. 55.)
January 18. A military convention between Germany, Italy, and Japan was signed in Berlin. (Laying down "guiding lines for the common operations against the common enemies." International News, Jan. 24, 1942, p. 69.)
January 19. The Russians freed Moscow from immediate peril by capturing Mozhaisk, the last German stronghold near Moscow. (London Times, Jan. 21, 1942, p. 4.)
January 20. General de Gaulle, broadcasting from London, said Fighting France and the new Russia were allies. ("For centuries past Franco Russian alliances have been thwarted by intrigue or lack of understanding; but the necessity for such an alliance ap­pears anew at every turning point in history." International News, Feb. 7, 1942, p. 114.)
January 21. Spain severed diplomatic relations with Poland. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 370.)
January 23 28. Allied sea and air forces attacked a large Japanese convoy in the Macassar Strait, between Borneo and Celebes, and inflicted Japan's first great sea losses. (London Times, Jan. 27, 1942, p. 4; Jan. 29, 1942, p. 4.)

Japanese forces landed in New Guinea and in the Solomon Islands, about 950 miles northeast of Australia. The Govern­ment of Australia appealed to the United States and Britain for immediate material assistance. By January 26 the Japanese oc­cupied Rabaul on the island of New Britain. (Times, Jan. 24, 1942, p. 1; London Times, Jan. 27, 1942, p. 4.)

Agreement for a Polish Czechoslovak Confederation signed in London. ("The purpose of the confederation is to assure com­mon policy with regard to foreign affairs; defence, economic and financial matters, social questions, transport; posts, and telegraphs." International News, Feb. 7, 1942, p. 89.)

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January 24. Special Court of Inquiry, with Supreme Court Associate Justice Owen J. Roberts as its head, submitted As report on Pearl Harbor disaster. (The report placed the main responsibility on Admiral Kimmel and General Short for failing to take seriously the warnings of imminent attack, for failing to confer with each other on necessary precautions, and for taking only minimum and inadequate precautions. Times, Jan. 25, 1942, pp. 1, 30, 31.)

Peru severed diplomatic relations with Germany, Italy, and Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 367.)

The Navy Department reported successful night destroyer attack in the Macassar Straits. (Times, Jan. 26, 1942, p. 1.)

Peru and Uruguay broke off diplomatic relations with the Axis Powers. (Pursuant to resolution signed at Rio Conference January 23, recommending rupture of diplomatic relations with the Axis. Times, Jan. 25, 1942, p. 1.)


January 25. The Union of South Africa declared war on Thailand. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 371.)

New Zealand declared war on Thailand. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 366.)

Uruguay severed diplomatic relations with Germany, Italy, and Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 372.)

The Government of Thailand declared war on Great Britain and the United States. Thai troops began to advance into Burma. (Times, Jan. 26, 1942, p. 1.)


January 26. The Governments of Bolivia and Paraguay broke off relations with the Axis Powers. Cf. Jan. 24, supra. (Times, Jan. 27, 1942, p. 10.)

The first American Expeditionary Force of several thousand soldiers arrived in Northern Ireland. At the same time, head­quarters of the United States Armed Forces were being established in England. (Times, Jan. 27, p. 1.)

Establishment of Combined Raw Materials Board, Munitions Assignments Board, Combined Shipping Adjustment Board.

("To further coordination of the United Nations war effort, the President and Prime Minister Churchill have set up three boards to deal with munitions, assignments, shipping adjustment and raw materials. . . . Members of the boards will confer with representatives of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, China, and such others of the United Nations as are necessary to attain common purposes and provide for the most effective utilization of the joint resources of the United Nations." Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 136, p. 87.)


January 27. Representatives of the Free French National Committee in London and of the United States had come to an agreement concerning the Allied military use of French possessions in the Pacific area. (French possessions were strategically valuable. Times, Jan. 28, 1942, p. 1.)
January 28. Final Act, Third Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics.

"III. The American Republics, in accordance with the pro­cedures established by their own laws and in conformity with the

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 317
position and circumstances obtaining in each country in the existing continental conflict, recommend the breaking of their diplomatic relations with Japan, Germany, and Italy, since the first mentioned State attacked and the other two declared war on an American country." (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 137, pp. 118­-119.)

Brazil broke off diplomatic and commercial relations with the Axis. (Cf. Jan. 24, supra. Times, Jan. 29 1942, p 1.)

Brazil severed diplomatic relations with Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 350.)

Paraguay severed diplomatic relations with Germany, Italy, and Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 367.)


January 29. Ecuador severed diplomatic relations with Germany, Italy, and Japan. (Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 230, p. 352.)

Treaty of Alliance between the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union and Iran.

"Having in view the principles of the Atlantic Charter . . . endorsed by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on 24th September 1941, with which His Imperial Majesty the Shah in­-shah declares his complete agreement and from which he wishes to benefit on an equal basis with the other nations of the world. . . ." (Cmd. 6335 [London, 1942].)

An agreement settling the frontier, dispute between Ecuador and Peru was signed in Rio de Janeiro. ("The Governments of Ecuador and Peru, desiring to find a solution to the question of boundaries which for a long period of time has separated them, and taking into consideration the offer which was made to them by the Governments of the United States of America, of the Argentine Republic, of the United States of Brazil, and of Chile, of their friendly services to find a prompt and honorable solution to the problem, and moved by the American spirit which prevails in, the Third Consultative Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, have resolved to celebrate a Protocol of Peace, friendship and boundaries. . . ." (Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 140, p. 195.)

Axis forces occupied Bengasi. (London Times, Jan. 30, 1942, p. 4.)

Ecuador severed diplomatic relations with the Axis. (Cf. Jan. 24, 28, supra. Times, Jan. 30, 1942, p. 4.)

Despite the serious British reverses in the Orient, the House of Commons gave Prime Minister Churchill his la best vote of con­fidence on the conduct of the war [464 to l]. (Commons, Vol. 377, Col. 1018.)
January 31. Great Britain and Ethiopia signed an agreement and Military Convention. (Restored the normal diplomatic rela­tions that had been interrupted by the Italian conquest and pro­vided financial aid to the Ethiopian Government. The Military Convention provided for a British military mission and for strategically placed British military forces in Ethiopia. Commons, Vol. 377, cols. 1052 1053.)

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The United States Pacific fleet severely attacked Japanese positions in the Marshall and Gilbert Islands, destroying numer­ous Japanese ships, planes, and, shore establishments. (Times, Feb. 2, 1942, p. l; Feb. 13, 1942, p. 1.)

Japanese drove British from Malaya mainland and laid siege to Singapore. (Times, Feb. 1, 1942, p. 1.)


February 1. Juan Antonio Rios elected President of Chile. (De­feated Gen. Carlos Ibańez del Campo, Rightist candidate. Times, Feb. 2, 1942, p. 1.)

Major Vidkun Quisling proclaimed Premier of Norway by Reich Commissar, Joseph Terboven. (Herr Terboven will con­tinue to rule the country from the background. . . "realizing that the struggle against Norwegian opposition will become more bitter, the Germans have decided to have Major Quisling ready as an eventual scapegoat." Times, Feb. 2, 1942, p. 5.)


February 3. German troops entered Derna, in Libya. (Times, Feb. 5, 1942, p. 1.)
February 5. Iran severed diplomatic relations with Vichy (as a con­sequence of the Anglo Russian occupation of Iran, according to Vichy statement. Times, Feb. 6, 1942, p. 4.)
February 6. Establishment by the United States and Great Britain of the Combined Chiefs of Staff, announced by War Department. (". . to insure complete coordination of the war effort of Great Britain and the United States, including the production and dis­tribution of their war supplies, and to provide for full British and American collaboration with the United Nations. . . ." Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 186, pp. 66 67.)
February 7. President Roosevelt approved the resolution of Congress authorizing him to render financial aid to China in an amount not to exceed $500,000,000.

("Whereas China has for more than four years valiantly resisted the forces of Japanese aggression; and

"Whereas financial and economic aid to China will increase her ability to oppose the forces of aggression; and

"Whereas the defense of China is of the greatest possible importance . . ." 56 Stat., Pt. I: 82 83.)

The Navy announced that the combined naval forces of the Australian New, Zealand area had been placed under command of Vice Admiral Herbert F. Leary, of the United States Navy, with the title of "Commander Anzac Forces." (Times, Feb. 8, 1942; p. 16.)
February 9. Admiral William H. Standley appointed U. S. Ambassador to Russia (to succeed Laurence A. Steinhardt, new Ambassador to Turkey). (Times, Feb. 10, 1942, p. 6.)

A Pacific Council representing the British Commonwealth and the Netherlands established in London. First meeting February 10. (To coordinate views on the war in the Pacific for transmission to the Anglo American Chiefs of Staff in Washington. "The

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 319
creation of the council is in line with the plan agreed upon be­tween President Roosevelt and Mr. Churchill for collaboration in the spheres of defense, foreign affairs and supply." Times, Feb. 10, 1942, p. 6.)
February 10. Generalissimo Chiang Kai shek visited India and con­ferred with British administrative and military officials, and with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of All India Congress Party. (He was endeavoring to convince the native leaders of India that. India should put aside her political quarrels with Britain, and concentrate on war against the Japanese. Times, Feb. 11, 1942, p. 3.)
February 11. Vice Admiral C. E. L. Helfrich of the Netherlands Navy succeeded Admiral Hart as Commander of United Nations naval forces in the Southwest Pacific. (Times, Feb. 12, 1942, p. 1.)
February 12. The German battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau and the cruiser Prinz Eugen successfully ran. the English Channel from Brest to the North Sea. (Times, Feb. 13, p. 1.)

British Government invited India to send representatives to Imperial War Council and Pacific War Council ("His Majesty's government are anxious that India be afforded the same oppor­tunity as the dominions of being represented in the War Cabinet and the Pacific War Council for purposes of formulation and direction. of policy for. the prosecution of the war." Times, Feb. 13, 1942, p. 3.)

Japanese capture Bandjermasin, capital of Borneo, and Macassar, capital of Celebes. (Times, Feb. 13, 1942, p. 2.)

President Roosevelt proclaimed in force the convention be­tween the American Republics on the Provisional Administration of European Colonies and Possessions in the Americas, signed at Havana on July 30, 1940. (". . . the instruments of ratification of 14 of the American republics [the two thirds required by the terms of the convention to bring it into force] having been deposited with the Pan American Union." Cf. July 30, 1940, supra. Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 138, p. 158.)


February 14 16. Japanese forces invaded Sumatra and captured the oil refining area of Palembang. (Times, Feb. 15, 1942, p. 11.)
February 15. Japanese captured Singapore and its garrison. (Times, Feb. 16, 1942, p. 1.)
February 18. President Morinigo signed a decree severing financial and commercial relations with the Axis Powers. (In accordance with the recommendation of the Rio de Janeiro Conference. Cf. Jan. 24, 28, supra. Times, Feb. 19, 1942, p. 6.)
February 19. Riom trials opened. Accused were MM. Blum, Dala­dier, Guy la Chambre, Jacomet, Pierre Cot, General Gamelin. (A special Supreme Court was created to try the defendants on the charge that they betrayed their trust and that the responsi­bility for the defeat of France rested upon them. Times, Feb. 20, 1942, p. 1.)

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February 19 22. Japan occupied the Portuguese island of Timor, alleging self defense, and promised withdrawal upon the accom­plishment of self defense objectives. (Times, Feb. 23, 1942, p. 5.)
February 21. Chiang Kai shek appealed to Britain to give India "real political power." ("The Indian people thus would realize that their participation in the war was not merely to aid anti­-aggression nations to secure victory but also the turning point in their struggle for their own freedom," Such a move would "redound to the credit of the British Empire." Times, Feb. 22, 1942, p. 1.)
February 23. American oil refinery near Santa Barbara, California, shelled by Japanese submarine. (Times, Feb. 24, 1942, p. 1.)

Mutual Aid Agreement signed between the Governments of the United States and Great Britain.

"Article I. The Government of the United States of America will continue to supply the Government of the United Kingdom with such defense articles, defense services, and defense informa­tion as the President shall authorize to be transferred or provided.

"Article II. The Government of the United Kingdom will continue to contribute to the defense of the United States of America and the strengthening thereof and will provide such articles, services, facilities or information as it may be in a posi­tion. to supply.


* * * * *

"Article VII. In the final determination of the benefits to be provided to the United States of America by the Government of the United Kingdom in return for aid furnished under the Act of Congress of Mar. 11, 1941, the terms and conditions thereof shall be such as not to burden commerce between the two coun­tries, but to promote mutually advantageous economic relations between them and the betterment of world wide economic rela­tions. To that end, they shall include provision for agreed action by the United States of America and the United Kingdom, open to participation by all other countries of like mind, directed to the expansion, by appropriate, international and domestic measures, of production, employment, and the exchange and consumption of goods, which are the material foundations of the liberty and welfare of all peoples; to the elimination of all forms of discriminatory treatment in international commerce; and to the reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers; and, in general, to the attainment of all the economic objectives set forth in the Joint Declaration made on August 12,1941, by the President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

"At an early convenient date, conversations shall be begun between the two Governments with a view to determining, in the light of governing economic conditions, the best means of attaining the above stated objectives by their own agreed action and of seeking the agreed action of other like minded Governments."(Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 140, pp. 191 192; Cmd. 6341.)

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February 27. Japanese aircraft made their first assault on Indian territory with a raid on the Andaman Islands, in the Bay of Bengal, south of Burma. (Times, Feb. 28, 1942, p. 1.)

President Roosevelt authorized the establishment of the Joint Mexican United States Defense Commission. (". . . to study problems relating to the common defence of the United States and Mexico, to consider broad plans for the defence of Mexico and adjacent areas of the United States, and to propose to the respective governments the cooperative measures which, in its opinion, should be adopted." Vol. 7, Federal Register, p. 1607.)

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