House Resolution N




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EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 275
with such vigor that public order was endangered. The present changes came about under the pressure of this public anxiety. There are no other reasons for the change since the accession to power of King Peter II who at once formed a Government of national union representing the views of the Serb, Croat, and Slovene peoples." Ibid., p. 349, Cf. footnote, ibid. Cf. Mar. 25, supra.)

The United States appropriated $7,000,000,000 for lend lease. (Public, No. 23, 77th Cong., 55 Stat., Pt. I p. 53.)

Prime Minister Churchill promised British help to the new Yugoslav Government (". . . to defend the freedom and in­tegrity of their country." Times, Mar. 28, 1941, p. 8) and said "the defeat of Hitler and of Hitlerism is a sufficient war aim and will open the door to every worthy peace aim." ("Every­one knows what we are fighting about, but if you try to set forth in a catalogue what will be the exact settlement of affairs in a period which is unforeseeable, you will find that the moment you leave the area of pious platitude you will descend into the arena of heated controversy, and that would militate against efforts which we are making, and we could not, in justice to our country, take such a step." Ibid., p. 8.)
April 3. Yugoslavia ordered final mobilization. (Because of failure of Italian peace move and departure of German and Italian legations. Ibid., April 4, 1941, p. 1. Cf. Mar. 27, supra.)
April 3 4. The United States rejected German and Italian protests over the taking possession of the steamships Pauline Friedrich and Arauca. (". . . the plain provisions of our statutes . . . made it a felony for the master or any other person in charge or command of a vessel, foreign or domestic, or for any member of the crew or other person, within the territorial waters of the United States, willfully to cause or permit the destruction or injury of such a vessel or to tamper with its motive power or instrumentalities of navigation; and . . . authorize the author­ities of this Government to take possession and control of any vessel and to remove therefrom the officers and crew when such action is deemed to be necessary to protect the vessel from damage or injury or to prevent damage or injury to any harbor or waters of the United States."' Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 93, p. 419.)
April 4. Pro Nazi military coup d'état in Iraq. (Said to have been provoked by continuous intervention Times, Apr. 5, 1941, p. 2.)

The United States asked withdrawal of Italian naval attaché ("I have the honor to state that various facts and circumstances have come to the attention of the Government. of the United States connecting Admiral Alberto Lais, Naval Attaché of the Royal Italian Embassy, with the commission by certain persons of acts in violation of the laws of the United States.

"The President has reached the conclusion that the continued presence of Admiral Lais as Naval Attach of the Embassy would no longer be agreeable to this Government." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 93, pp. 420 f.)

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April 5. Yugoslav Russian treaty of friendship and nonaggression signed at Moscow. (". . . inspired by friendship existing be­tween the two countries and convinced that preservation of peace forms their common interest, . . ." Times, Apr. 6, 1941, p. 1.)
April 6. Germany, Italy, and Bulgaria attacked Yugoslavia. ("Dur­ing the night of March 27 Yugoslavia . . . passed immediately over to the enemies of the Axis. The Italian Government followed with great attention and the greatest calm the events that led Yugoslavia to unite herself with Great Britain and Greece and become, like Greece, a base of operations for the British forces in Europe.

"In the light of this fact the Italian Government has decided to move with its military, naval, and aerial forces in close col­laboration with those of Germany." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, pp. 554 f. Cf. "I [Hitler] have repeatedly warned of the attempt by the British to land troops in Southeastern Europe, and I have said that this constitutes a threat to the German Reich. Unfortunately this warning went unheeded by the Yugoslav nation. I have further tried, always with the same patience, to convince Yugoslav statesmen of the absolute necessity for their cooperation with the German Reich for restoration of lasting peace and order within Yugoslavia." Times, Apr. 6, 1941, p. 26. Cf. Mar. 27, Apr. 3, supra.)

Official Yugoslav statement. ("The real reason for the German aggression is that Germany wanted Yugoslavia to depart from its position of neutrality she adopted in the European conflict since the beginning of the war. Unjustly attacked, Yugoslavia in defending herself against an aggressor is faithful to her history and national traditions and firmly resolved to defend her national independence, territorial integrity, and national honor. In answer to German allegations regarding the causes of this aggression, it is replied . . . that Germany is the aggressor State and Yugo­slavia has done nothing against Germany." Times, Apr. 7, p. 5.)

"Germany attacked Greece. ("The Reich Government can no longer close their eyes to the fact that Greece is making com­mon cause with Britain and must therefore be regarded as Germany's enemy in the present war with all the consequences that this entails." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 554.)

Message of King George of Greece to his people. ("Greeks! A new enemy this morning insulted the honour of our country. With no warning, . . . German troops attacked our frontiers. Our heroic army, . . . is already defending it with its blood. Greeks! The Greek people, who have proved to the world that they rank honour above everything else, will defend it against this new enemy to the end." Times, Apr. 7, p. 4.)
April 7. Britain severed diplomatic relations with Hungary. ("Hun­gary has become a base of operations against the Allies." Ibid., Apr. 8, 1941, p. 7. Cf. Nov. 20, 1940, supra.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 277


April 8. Italy requested the withdrawal of American military attaché. (Cf. Apr. 4, supra. Bulletin, Vol. IV. No. 94, p. 453.)

Vice President Henry. A. Wallace said America must assume responsibility for the peace. ("We of the United States can no more evade shouldering our responsibility than a boy of eighteen can avoid becoming a man by wearing short pants. . . . Peace will bring world wide chaos unless the United States fur­nishes positive leadership." Times, Apr. 9, 1941, p. 18.)


April 9. United States Danish agreement on defense of Greenland by the United States signed. ("Whereas: One. After the invasion and occupation of Denmark on April 9, 1940, by foreign military forces, the United Greenland Councils at their meeting at Godhavn on May 3, 1940, adopted in the name of the people of Green­land a resolution reiterating their oath of allegiance to King Christian X of Denmark and expressing the hope that, for as long as Greenland remains cut off from the mother country, the Government of the United States of America will continue to hold in mind the exposed position of the Danish flag in Greenland, of the native Greenland and Danish population, and of established public order; and,

"Two. The Governments of all of the American Republics have agreed that the status of regions in the Western Hemi­sphere belonging to European powers is a subject of deep con­cern to the American Nations, and that the course of military events in Europe and the changes resulting from them may create the grave danger that European territorial. possessions in America may be converted into, strategic centers of aggression against nations of the American Continent; and

"Three. Defense of Greenland against attack by a non Ameri­can power is essential to the preservation of the peace and security of the American Continent and is a subject of vital concern to the United States of America and also to the Kingdom of Denmark; and

"Four. Although the, sovereignty of Denmark over Greenland is fully recognized, the present circumstances for the tine being prevent the Government in Denmark from exercising its powers in respect of Greenland . . ." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 94, p. 445. Cf. Peace, pp. 642 f. Cf. May 1, 1940, supra.)


April 10. Hungary attacked Yugoslavia. (". . . in view of the participation of Bulgaria and Hungary in the attack against Yugoslavia perpetrated by the Axis powers." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 133, p. 555. Cf. Nov. 20, 1940, Apr. 6, supra.)

President Roosevelt modified the Red Sea combat zone. (Sec. 3 (c) of, Public Res. 54 approved Nov. 4, 1939. "The President may from time to time modify or extend any proclamation issued under the authority of this section, and when the conditions which shall have caused him to issue any such proclamation shall have ceased to exist . . ." Ibid., Vol. IV, No. 94, p. 450.)

Senate Joint Resolution 7 passed, affirming and approving non­recognition of the transfer of any geographic region in the Western Hemisphere from one non American power to another non­-American power. ("Whereas our traditional policy has been to

278 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


consider any attempt on the part of non American powers to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as danger­ous to the peace and safety not only of this country but of other American republics, . . ." 55 Stat., Pt. I, p. 133.)
April 12. Denmark repudiated agreement of April 9. (". . . with­out authorization from here, and contrary to the constitu­tion, . . ." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 95, p. 471.)
April 13. Japanese Russian five year neutrality pact signed at Mos­cow with joint declaration regarding the frontiers of the Japanese protectorate of Manchukuo. (". . . guided by a desire to strengthen peaceful and friendly relations between the two countries, . . ." Times, Apr. 14, 1941, p. 8. Cf. Japan, Vol. II, p. 186.)
April 14. The United States continued to recognize Henrik Kauffmann as Minister of Denmark after his purported recall. (". . . you consider this action to have been taken under duress and to be invalid both from the point of view of Danish and of generally recognized common law, in view of the existing occupation of Denmark by German military forces.

"My Government considers it to be the fact that the Govern­ment in Denmark in this respect is acting under duress, . . ." (Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 95, p. 471. Cf. Apr. 12, supra.)


April 15. Bulgaria severed diplomatic relations with Yugoslavia. (". . . in view of the unwarranted and unprovoked attacks on her territory" by Yugoslav air forces and foreign elements operating from Yugoslav bases. Times, Apr. 16, 1941, p. 3. Cf. Apr. 6, supra.)
April 16. The United States presented four fundamental principles as foundation for international relations. "1. Respect for the territorial integrity and the sovereignty of each and all nations. 2. Support of the principle of noninterference in the internal affairs of other countries. 3. Support of the principle of equal­ity, including equality of commercial opportunity. 4. Non­-disturbance of the status quo in the Pacific except as the status quo may be altered by peaceful means.' " (For basis of informal, exploratory discussions with Japan. Peace, p. 730. Cf. Japan, Vol. II, p. 407.)
April 17. Yugoslav Army surrendered. (Capitulation. Times, Apr. 18, 1941, p. 1.)
April 19. Britain sent troops to Iraq. (Under clause IV of the Anglo-­Iraqi treaty: ". . . in the event of an imminent menace of war the contracting parties will immediately confer together on the necessary measures for defense.

"The aid of the King of Iraq in event of war or imminent menace of war, will consist in furnishing to His Britannic Majesty, on Iraq territory, all facilities and assistance in his power, includ­ing the use of roads, rivers, ports, airdromes, and means of communications." Ibid., Apr. 20, 1941, p. 1. Cf. Apr. 4, supra.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 279
April 20. President Roosevelt announced an exchange of defense articles with Canada. (". . . measures by which the most prompt and effective utilization might be made of the productive facilities of North America for the purposes both of local and hemisphere defense and of the assistance which in addition to their own programs both Canada and the United States are rendering to Great Britain and the other democracies.''' Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 96, p. 494. Cf. Aug. 18, 1940, supra.)
April 21. Greece signed armistice with Germany. ("The armistice that has been signed with the Germans without authority appears to have been precipitated by exhaustion from an unequalled victorious struggle of six months and more. It is the result of crushing pressure exerted on our gallant army." Times, Apr. 24, 1941, p. 3. Cf. Ibid., p. 4.)
April 22. Two thousand American troops arrived in Philippines. (Reinforcements. Ibid., Apr. 23, 1941, p. 13. Cf. Jan. 27, Feb. 25, supra.)
April 23. Greece severed diplomatic relations with Bulgaria. (After Bulgarian troops had occupied Thrace. Ibid., Apr. 24, 1941, p. 4,)

Greece surrendered to Germany and Italy. ("The High Com­mand of the Greek Army in Epirus and Macedonia represented by General Tsolakoglou turns to the Italian High Command of Armed Forces in Albania and the High Command of German Forces in Greece to ask that unconditional surrender of the Greek Army in Epirus and Macedonia be accepted." Ibid., p. 4.)


April 24. Bulgaria declared state of war in those areas of Greece and Yugoslavia occupied by Bulgarian troops. (Cf. Apr. 15, 23, supra. Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 96, p. 555.)

Australian detachments reinforced. Singapore. (To strengthen defenses against surprise from land or sea. Times, Apr. 25, 1941, p. 1. Cf. Feb. 16, supra.)


April 26. China and the United States signed a monetary stabilization accord. ("This is a cooperative agreement between friendly nations that are working together in many ways to preserve the basic freedoms. Apart from the obvious purposes of stabilizing the relationship between the currencies concerned, it will be an important factor in fostering the welfare of the participating countries." Ibid., Apr. 26, 1941, p. 7.)

The Inter American Financial and Economic Advisory Com­mittee passed resolution recognizing right of the republics to requisition foreign flag vessels in their ports. ("Whereas,

"Subparagraph (D) of Article 2, Resolution IV, on economic cooperation, of the Meeting of Foreign Ministers of the American Republics at Panama, in 1939 charged the Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory Committee with studying and proposing to the Governments the most effective measures for mutual cooperation to lessen or offset dislocations in the trade of the American republics resulting from the present war;

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"The commerce of the American republics has normally been carried on in large measure in merchant vessels of non-American polders, many of which are not available for such trade because of the increasing rate of destruction of the means of maritime transportation by the belligerent nations, the consequent increased diversion of such vessels to other trades, and the prolonged stationing by their owners of a large number of such vessels in American ports interrupting their normal commercial activities; and

"The resulting shipping shortage has prejudiced and is preju­dicing the commerce of and among the American republics, creating a very grave problem for the fundamental right of the nations of the Americas to preserve the trade which is essential. to their normal existence;

"Some of the American republics have already been forced to take steps with a view to remedying this situation; and

"Bearing in mind the recommendations of the Inter-American Neutrality Committee, which were adopted by Resolution I of the Second Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics at Habana in July 1940 . . ." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 97, p. 531.)


May 1. Britain withdrew from Greece. (When it became obvious that the resistance of the Greek army to German invasion was at an end, the Government of Greece requested that the entire contingent which had been sent to its help should be withdrawn from Greece. Times, May 1, 1941, pp. 1, 4.)
May 2. British began fighting in Iraq. (Iraq Government held British reinforcements violated pact. Ibid., May 2, 1941, p. 1. ) Occupied oil fields. (Ibid., May 3., 1941, p. 2. Cf. Apr. 19, supra.)
May 3. Germany and Italy divided and annexed Slovenia. By decree. ("Contemporary history in all parts of the globe, which this war has confirmed, demonstrates the impossibility for very Small nations to lead an autonomous life. They are fatally destined too enter into the sphere of influence of this or that great neighboring power." Ibid., May 4, 1941, p. 43.)
May 6. Emperor Hailie Selassie regained Ethiopian throne. (Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 100, p. 635. Cf. Times, May 7, 1941, p. 5. Cf. May 2, 1936, supra.)

Secretary of War Stimson advocated use of Navy to convoy to Britain. ("The world is facing so great a crisis that all of our efforts must be turned toward the defense of our nation's safety. . . . our own self defense requires that limits should be put to lawless aggression on the ocean. The President has said that we must not allow the steps which we have already taken to become ineffective." Ibid., p. 14.)


May 9. French Indochinese-Thai peace treaty signed at Tokyo with Japanese guarantee of new borders. (Japanese mediation. Ibid., May 9, 1941, p. 8. Cf. Jan. 31, supra.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 281


Russia withdrew recognition from German occupied states of Belgium, Norway, and Yugoslavia. (Patching up differences with Germany. Ibid., May 10, 1941, p. 1.)
May 10. Flight of Rudolph Hess to Scotland. (Ibid., May 13, 1941, p. 1.)
May 12. Yugoslavia protested the creation of the "Independent State of Croatia." ("It is, of course, a cardinal principle of interna­tional law that military occupation of territory in the course of hostilities does not change the juridical status of the territory thus occupied and that occupation by enemy armies provides no legal basis for the establishment of a new juridical status within. such territory." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 102, p. 682. Cf. May 3, supra.)

Japan presented a proposal for a general settlement between the United States and Japan. (". . . it is the sincere desire of both Governments that the incidents which led to the deteriora­tion of amicable sentiment among our peoples should be prevented from recurrence and corrected in their unforeseen and unfortunate consequences.

"It is our present hope that, by a joint effort, our nations may establish a just peace in the Pacific; and by the rapid consumma­tion of an entente cordiale [amicable understanding], arrest, if not dispel, the tragic confusion that now threatens to engulf civilization." Peace, p. 657.)

Russia recognized rebel government of Iraq. (To improve rela­tions with Germany and avert German attack on Ukraine and Caucasus. Times, May 13. 1941, p. 2. Cf. Apr. 19, Supra.)


May 13. Prime Minister Robert G. Menzies of Australia told America the war was America's business. (". . . for parliamentary liberty and the ordered rights of self-government are our joint and several heritage. . . . it is essential for the world not only that tyranny should be defeated but that it should be defeated quickly before the scars made by it are too deep and too last­ing. . . ." Ibid., May 14, 1941, p. 6.)
May 14. France accepted new German terms for economic collabora­tion. (Ibid., May 15, 1941, p. 1. "France can, surmount her defeat and save her rank as a European and colonial power in the world." [Unofficial translation.] Rice, p. 68.)

Germany proclaimed the northern part of the Red Sea a zone of military operations. (Result of war developments in the Eastern Mediterranean. Times, May 14, 1941, p. 1. Cf. Apr. 10, supra.)


May 15. President Roosevelt rebuked France for collaboration amounting to an alliance. ("The people of the United States can hardly believe that the present Government of France could be brought to lend itself to a plan of voluntary alliance, implied or otherwise, which would apparently deliver up France and its colonial empire, including French African colonies and their Atlantic coasts, with the menace which that involves to the peace and safety of the Western Hemisphere." Ibid., May 16, 1941, pp. 1, 4.)

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May 16. Iceland severed union with Denmark. (Because the latter was unable to exercise governmental functions under the law of 1918 and the former did not wish to prolong the treaty. Ibid., May 20, 1941, p. 11. Cf. Apr. 24, May 9, 1940, supra.)

Iraq and Russia exchanged notes to establish diplomatic and consular relations. (Ibid., May 18, 1941, p. 6. Cf. May 12, supra.)


May 18. Italy planned to restore Croatian monarchy. ("By virtue of further. agreements entered into with representatives of the so called `Independent State of Croatia' that `state,' previously established on Yugoslav territory by the military authorities of occupation, has been declared by the Italian Government to be a hereditary monarchy under Italian protection, thus establish­ing in effect if not in name an annexation of these territories by the Italian Government." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 102, p. 683. Cf. May 12, supra.)
May 21. Germany requested that foreign diplomatic agents evacuate Paris by June 10. (Paris area was regarded as "an extended zone of operations." Times, May 22, 1941, p. 1.)

S. S. Robin Moor sunk by German submarine. (Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 103, p. 716.)


May 22. Britain warned France of the danger of collaboration with Germany. ("If the Vichy government, in pursuance of their declared policy of collaboration with the enemy, take action or permit action detrimental to our conduct of the war or designed to assist the enemy's war effort, we shall naturally hold ourselves free to attack the enemy wherever he may be found, and in so doing we shall no longer feel bound to draw any distinc­tion between occupied and unoccupied territory in the execution of our military plans." Times, May 23, 1941, p. 4. Cf. Oct. 21, 1940, May 14, supra.)
May 23. Admiral Darlan tells why France chose collaboration freely. (For "ameliorations of the consequences of defeat and of the conditions of the armistice. . . . It is necessary for her to choose between life and death. The Marshal and the Govern­ment have chosen life." Ibid., May 24, 1941, p. 4. Cf., Rice, p. 69. )
May 27. President Roosevelt proclaimed unlimited national emer­gency. (". . . what started as a European war has developed, as the Nazis always intended it should develop, into a world war for world domination.

"Adolf Hitler never considered the domination of Europe as an end in itself. European conquest was but a step toward ultimate goals in all the other continents. It is unmistakably apparent to all of us that, unless the advance of Hitlerism is forcibly checked now, the Western Hemisphere will be within range of the Nazi weapons of destruction. . . The war is approaching the brink of the Western Hemisphere itself. It is coming very close to home." 55 Stat., Pt. II, p. 1647.)

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