House Resolution N




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Yugoslav Government announced Serb Croat accord. (Ac­cepted by Prince Paul as basis for new National Union Cabinet. Times, Aug. 27, 1939, p. 1.)
August 27. Chancellor Hitler wrote Premier Daladier war seemed in­evitable. (". . . no nation with a sense of honor can ever give up almost two million people and see them maltreated on its own frontiers. I therefore formulated a clear demand: Danzig and the Corridor must return to Germany. The Macedonian condi­tions prevailing along our eastern frontier must cease. I see no possibility of persuading Poland, who deems herself safe from attack by virtue of guarantees given to her, to agree to a peaceful solution. . . . I see no possibility open to us of influencing Poland to take a saner attitude and thus to remedy a situation which is unbearable for both the German people and the German Reich." German, No. 461, pp. 476 f.; French, No. 267, pp. 285 f.); that objectionable as his methods were in revising the dictate of Versailles, he found solutions without bloodshed acceptable to others. ("By the manner in which these solutions were accom­plished, statesmen of other nations were relieved of their obliga­tion, which they often found impossible to fulfill, of having to accept responsibility for this revision before their own people." Ibid., p. 284; German, No. 461, p. 475.)

British Ambassador reported German allegations of ill treat­ment of German minority gross exaggeration. ("In any case it is purely and simply deliberate German provocation in accordance with fixed policy that has since March exacerbated feeling between the two nationalities. I suppose this has been done with object of (a) creating war spirit in Germany, (b) impressing public opinion abroad, (c) provoking either defeatism or apparent aggression in Poland. . . . In face of these facts, it can hardly be doubted that, if Herr Hitler decides on war, it is for the sole purpose of destroying Polish independence." British, No. 55, pp. 124 f.)

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Britain suggested Poland get the Pope to act as intermediary. (To approach Germany with suggestions of neutral observers and exchange of populations. Ibid., No. 72, p. 616.)

France notified Belgium that she would respect the letter's neutrality as long as another Power would. ("The Government of the Republic have neglected nothing that might contribute to the maintenance of peace. If their efforts should fail, the French Government know that the Belgian Government would act in exact conformity with their international obligations." French, No. 270, p. 287.); also Luxemburg. (Ibid., No 279, p. 292.) Britain sent identic notification. (Belgium, p. 70.)


August 28. Britain told Germany they would welcome a mutual dis­cussion and agreement after a peaceful settlement of German­-Polish differences by negotiation which would safeguard the essential interests of Poland and secure international guarantee of the settlement. ("A just settlement of these questions between Germany and Poland may open the way to world peace. Failure to reach it would ruin the hopes of better understanding between Germany and Great Britain, would bring the two countries into conflict, and might well plunge the whole world into war. Such an outcome would be a calamity without parallel in history." British, No. 73, 74, pp. 161 165; German, No. 463, p. 479; French, No. 277, pp. 290 ff )

Ambassador Henderson told Chancellor Hitler he must choose between England and Poland. ("If he put forward immoderate demands there was no hope of a peaceful solution." British, No. 75; p. 167.) Chancellor Hitler wanted return of Danzig and the whole Corridor and a rectification in Silesia (because of post­war plebiscite. Ibid., p. 167); indicated willingness to negotiate. The Ambassador said the Prime Minister could carry Britain in a policy of friendship for Germany and the possibility of a German-­British alliance need not be excluded. ("If he [Hitler] were prepared to pay the price of the latter by a generous gesture as regards Poland, he could at a stroke change in his favor the whole of public opinion not only in England but in the world." Ibid., p. 168. Cf. French, N. 287, pp. 295 f.)

Belgium and The Netherlands offered their good offices to Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. (". . . in the hope of averting war." British, No. 134, p. 242; French; No. 284, p. 294.)

Poland called up more reservists. (". . . on account of the intentions towards Poland expressed in the communication made by the German Chancellor to the British Ambassador, . . ." Ibid., No. 272, p. 288.)

Nobuyuki Abe succeeded Premier Hiranuma of Japan. (Si­monds, Emeny, p. 690.)
August 29. Prime Minister Chamberlain reported on British prepara­tion for war. ("The issue of peace or war is still undecided, and we still will hope, and still will work, for peace; but we will abate no jot of our resolution to hold fast to the line which we have laid down for ourselves." Commons; Vol. 351, col. 116; British, No. 77, pp. 174 f.)

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Chancellor Hitler consented to direct negotiations with Poland provided Russia was . included among the guarantors; asked Polish plenipotentiary by Aug. 30. (". . . the written communi­cation received from the British Government gives them [the German Government] the impression that the latter also desire a friendly agreement along the lines indicated to Ambassador Henderson. The German Government desire in this way to give to the British Government and to the British people a proof of the sincerity of the German intention of arriving at a state of permanent friendship with Great Britain." German, No. 464, p. 481; British, No. 78, p. 177; No. 79, 80, pp. 178 f.; French, No 291, 293, pp. 298 f.; No. 298, pp. 302 ff.; No: 336, p. 327.)

Occupation of Slovakia by German troops completed. (At request of Dr. Joseph Tiso for protection from Polish invasion. Times, August 29, 1939, p. 11; August 30, 1939, p. 9.)


August 30. Lord Halifax instructed Henderson to notify Germany that she must not expect a Polish representative in Berlin that day. "We understand that German Government are insisting that a Polish representative with full powers must come to Berlin to receive German proposals. We cannot advise Polish Government to comply with this procedure, . . . Could you suggest to German Government that they adopt the normal procedure, when their proposals are ready, of inviting Polish Ambassador to call and handing proposals to him for transmission to Warsaw and inviting suggestions as to conduct of negotiat­ions." British, No. 88, p. 183.) Ambassador Henderson said Poland should endeavor to establish direct contact. (". . . Hitler is determined to achieve his ends by so called peaceful fair means if he can, but by force if he cannot. . . Nevertheless, if Herr Hitler is allowed to continue to have the initiative, it seems to me that result can only be either war or once again victory for him by a display of force and encouragement thereby to pursue the same course again next year or the year after." Ibid., No. 82, pp. 180 f.) British Ambassador at Warsaw, Sir Howard William Kennard, said Poland would not send representative to Berlin. ("They would certainly sooner fight and perish rather than submit to such humiliation, especially after examples of Czecho Slovakia, Lithuania, and Austria. . . . I should sug­gest that if negotiations are to be between equals it is essential that they should take place in some neutral country, or even possibly Italy, and that the basis for any negotiations should be, some compromise between the clearly defined limits of March proposals on the German side and status quo on Polish side." Ibid., No. 84, p. 181.) Lord Halifax warned Poland to abstain from violence and stop inflammatory radio propaganda. ("At­mosphere may be improved if strict instructions are given or confirmed by Polish Government to all their military and civil authorities. . . . Not to fire on fugitives or members of the German minority who cause trouble, but to arrest them; to abstain themselves from personal violence to members of Ger­man minority, . . . to allow members of German minority wishing to leave Poland to pass freely; to stop inflammatory radio propaganda." Ibid., No. 85, p. 182.) Britain refused to
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advise Polish plenipotentiary to go to Berlin to receive German proposals. (". . . wholly unreasonable." Ibid., No. 88, p. 183.) Britain consented to Russian participation in the guarantee, but said immediate German and Polish contact would be im­practicable; asked pledge of no military aggression during negotiations and a temporary modus vivendi for Danzig. (To prevent the occurrence of incidents tending to render German Polish relations more difficult." Ibid., No. 89, pp. 184 f.; German, No. 466, pp 484 f.) Ambassador Henderson told Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop he should give proposals to the Polish Ambas­sador and open negotiations in the normal manner. (Cf. British, Nos. 84 and 88, supra. Ibid., No. 92, p. 188,) Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop said the question of proposals no longer existed. ("By midnight Germany had received no answer from Poland. . . . this urgency was the outcome of the fact that two fully mobilized armies were standing face to face within firing distance of each other and that at any moment some incident might lead to serious conflict." German, No. 466, p. 483. "Herr von Ribbentrop's reply was to produce a lengthy document which he read out in German aloud at top speed. Imagining that he would eventually hand it to me I did not attempt to follow too closely the sixteen or more articles which it contained. . . . When I asked Herr von Ribbentrop for the text of these proposals . . ., he asserted that it was now too late as Polish representative had not arrived in Berlin by midnight. I observed that to treat matter in this way meant that request for Polish representative to arrive in Berlin on 30th August constituted, in fact, an ulti­matum. . . . This he denied, saying that idea of an ultimatum was figment of my imagination. . . . We parted on that note, but I must tell you that Herr von Ribbentrop's whole demeanour during an unpleasant interview was aping Herr Hitler at his worst." British, No. 92, p. 188.). (For text of sixteen proposals, see German, No. 466, pp, 485 ff.; "In putting forward these proposals, the German Government are attempting find a final solution, putting an end to the intolerable situation arising from the present demarcation of frontiers, securing to both parties their vital lines of communication, eliminating as far as possible the problem of the minorities, and, in so far as this should prove impossible, rendering the fate of the minorities bearable by effectively guaranteeing their rights." Ibid., p. 486.)
August 3l. Germany announced she considered her proposals rejected. ("Owing to the non arrival, of the Polish delegate who was ex­pected by the German Government, there no longer existed the primary condition for informing the British Government, . . . It was clearly too much to expect of the German Government that they should continue not only to reiterate their willingness to enter upon such negotiations, but even to sit and wait and allow themselves to be put off by the Polish side with feeble subterfuges and empty declarations.

"In the meantime a démarche by the Polish Ambassador has again shown that not even he is authorized to enter upon any dis­cussion whatsoever, much less to negotiate.

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"Thus the Führer and the German Government have now waited for two days in vain for the arrival of an authorized Polish delegate." Ibid., No. 468, p. 490. Cf. note to Britain. British, No. 98, pp. 192 ff.)

Britain urged Poland to confirm to Germany their acceptance of principle of direct discussion. ("French Government fear that German Government might take advantage of silence on part of Polish Government." Ibid., No. 94, p. 190. Cf. also No. 95, p. 190.) Poland confirmed it. (Ibid., No. 97, pp. 191 f.) Poland refused to authorize her Ambassador to Berlin to accept German proposals. (". . . it might be accompanied by some sort of ultimatum. In his view it was essential that contact should be made in the first instance, and that then details should be discussed as to where, with whom, and on what basis negotiations should be commenced." Ibid., No. 96, p. 191. Cf. Ibid., No. 102, p. 200. Cf. French, Nos. 311 and 313, pp. 310 f.

Premier Mussolini offered to arrange a conference September 5. (". . . With the object of examining the clauses of the Treaty of Versailles which are the cause of the present trouble." Ibid., No. 306, p 307.)

Britain began evacuations. (Precautionary measure. Times, Sept. 1, 1939, p. 1.)

Germany cut communications with Warsaw. (French, No. 319, p. 315: ". . . the German radio bulletin is at pains to point out that negotiations have been broken off.")
September 1. Germany invaded Poland. ("The Polish State has refused the peaceful settlement of relations which I desired, and has appealed to arms. Germans in Poland are persecuted with bloody terror and driven from their houses. A series of violations of the frontier, intolerable to a great Power, prove that Poland is no longer willing to respect the frontier of the Reich. In order to put an end to this lunacy, I have no other choice than to meet force with force from now on." Chancellor Hitler's Proclamation to the German Army. British No. 107, p. 214; German, No. 471, p. 502: "In the night Polish soldiers of the Regular Army fired the first shots in our own territory. Since 5:45 a.m. we have been returning their fire." British, No. 105, p. 205; No. 112, p. 218; No. 113, p. 219; French, No. 322, p. 317; No. 329, p. 323; Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 10, p. 184.)

Halifax informed of armed German aggression. ("Minister for Foreign Affairs has just telephoned to me in the middle of an air raid to beg me to point out to your Lordship that various cases of armed German aggression, which have occurred this morning on Polish soil, cannot be taken longer as mere isolated cases but constitute acts of war. Various open towns have been bombed from the air, with heavy civilian casualties, and his Excellency drew my attention to desirability of some military action from the air this afternoon. . . . Mr. Beck has also given me a cate­gorical and official denial that any Polish act of aggression occur­red last night as stated by Deutsches Nachrichten-Buero." Sir H. Kennard to Halifax, British, No. 112, pp. 218 219.)

Halifax informed Sir H. Kennard that the Polish Ambassador called upon him early in the morning and told him "that he had been officially informed from Paris that German forces had crossed
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the frontier at four points. He added that the towns of Vilno, Grodno, Brest Litovsk, Lodz, Katowice and Cracow were being bombed and that at 9 A. M. an air attack had been made on Warsaw, as a result of which there were many civilian victims, including women and children. As regards the German attack, he understood, although he had no official information, that the points at the frontier which had been crossed were near Danzig, in East Prussia and Upper Silesia. His Excellency said that he had few words to add, except that it was a plain case as provided for by the treaty. British, No. 113, p. 219.

Chancellor Hitler stated war aims to the Reichstag: the Danzig question and the Corridor question; a change in German Polish relations to ensure a peaceful coexistence of the two states, to limit attacks to military objectives. ("I am determined to eliminate from the German frontiers the element of insecurity, the atmosphere which permanently resembles that of civil war.. . . . I will not wage war against women and children. . . . Whoever fights with poison gas will be fought with poison gas. Whoever disregards the rules of human warfare can but expect us to do the same." German, No. 471, p. 502. Cf. British, No. 106, pp. 211 f.; French, No. 318, p. 319.)

Chancellor Hitler named his successors: Herman Goering and Rudolf Hess. ("Should anything happen to me in this war." German, No. 471, p. 503.)

Britain and France notified Germany that unless it suspended all aggressive action against Poland and withdrew its forces from Polish territory, they would fulfill their obligations to Poland. ("Information which has reached His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the French Government indicates that German troops have crossed the Polish frontier and that attacks upon Polish towns are proceeding. In these circumstances it appears to the Governments of the United Kingdom and France that by their action the German Government have created con­ditions, namely, an aggressive act of force against Poland threaten­ing the independence of Poland, which call for the implementation by the Governments of the United Kingdom and France of the undertaking to Poland to come to her assistance." British, No. 105, p. 205; German, No. 472, p. 504; No. 473, p. 506.) Britain ordered complete mobilization of army, navy, and air force. (Expected unfavorable reply from Germany. British, No. 105, p. 206.) "It how only remains for us to set our teeth and to enter upon this struggle, . . . We have no quarrel with the German people, except that they allow themselves to be governed by a Nazi Government. As long as that Government exists and pursues the methods it has so persistently followed during the last two years, there will be no peace in Europe. We shall merely pass from one crisis to another, and see one country after another attacked by methods which have now become familiar to us in their sickening technique. We are resolved that these methods must come to an end. If out of the struggle we again re establish in the world the rules of good faith and the renuncia­tion of force, why, then even the sacrifices that will be entailed upon us will find their fullest justification." Ibid., p. 207. Cf. Ibid., No. 110, p. 217.) France mobilized. (French, No. 356, p. 338.).

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Danzig annexed by Germany. (By proclamation of Albert Forster, head of Danzig state: "The hour for which you have been longing for twenty years has, come. This day Danzig has re­turned to the great German Reich. Our Füehrer, Adolf Hitler, has freed us." British, No. 108, p. 214; Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 10, p. 185.)

Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop insisted no German act of aggression had taken place. (". . . for months Poland had pro­voked Germany. It was not Germany that had mobilized against Poland, but Poland against Germany. In addition to that, on the previous day regular and irregular Polish units had invaded German territory." German, No. 472, p. 505. Cf. Ibid., No. 473, p. 506; British, No. 111, p., 217.)

Poland denied any Polish aggression of August 31. (Ibid., No. 112, p. 219.)

Norway declared its neutrality. (Norway, p. 27.)

Switzerland declared its neutrality. (". . . the basis of its policy for many centuries and to which the Swiss people are deeply attached; in that these principles are consonant with their aspira­tions, their internal organization and their position in relation to other States. By virtue of the special mandate which has just been conferred upon it by the Federal Assembly, the Federal Council formally declares that the Swiss Confederation will pre­serve and defend, with all the means at its disposal, the inviolabil­ity of its territory and the neutrality which the treaties of 1815 and their complementary obligations have recognized as being in the true interests of the whole European political system." French, No. 326, p. 321.) France promised to respect it. (". . . in accordance with the treaties of 1815 and their comple­mentary obligations. Ibid., No. 334, p. 326.)

France accepted Premier Mussolini's proposal for a peace con­ference. ("The French Government values highly the spirit in which the proposal of the Royal Government has been made, and reaffirms its willingness to seek all possible means, and to asso­ciate itself with any steps intended, to facilitate and render pos­sible an amicable settlement of the dispute which has arisen be­tween Germany and Poland." Ibid., No. 327, p. 322; German, No. 475, p. 507.)

Finland declared her neutrality. (Finnish, No. 5, p. 38.)

President Roosevelt appealed to Britain, France, Italy, Ger­many, and Poland to have their armed forces "in no event and under no circumstances" bombard civilians or unfortified cities under conditions of reciprocity. {"If resort is had to this form of inhuman barbarism during the period of the tragic conflag­ration. with which the world is now confronted, hundreds of thousands of innocent human beings who have no responsibility for, and who are not even remotely participating in, the hostilities which have now broken out, will lose their lives." Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 10, p. 181.) Favorable replies were received from France, Britain, Poland, Germany. (Ibid., pp. 181 ff.)

Italy announced her neutrality. (The Fascist Council of Min­isters decided "that Italy will not take any initiative in military operations." Ibid., p. 182.)
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September 2. Poland asked aid of France and Britain. (". . . it was essential that there should be some diversion as soon as possible in the West." British, No. 115, p. 221.)

Chancellor Hitler accepted Premier Mussolini's proposal for a conference if French and British notes of September 1 were not ultimatums and if he were allowed twenty four hours grace (Ibid., No. 143, p. 247). Britain and France both denied warnings were ultimatums; France approved grace period in principle; Britain took grace period into consultation, said armistice was insufficient, evacuation must precede (French, No. 360, p. 346).


September 3. President Roosevelt forecast "official" neutrality for the United States. (". . . this proclamation is in accordance with international law and with American policy. . . . This Nation will remain a neutral nation, but I cannot ask that every American remain neutral in thought as well. Even a neutral has a right to take account of facts. Even a neutral cannot be asked to close his mind or his conscience." Bulletin, Vol. I, No, 11, p. 202. Cf. Peace, pp. 484 f.)

Britain sent ultimatum to Germany. ("Please seek interview with Minister for Foreign Affairs at 9 a. m. to day, Sunday or, if he cannot see you then, arrange to convey at that time to representative of German Government the following communica­tion: `In the communication which I had the honour to make to you ion 1st September I informed you, on the instructions of His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, that, unless the German Government were prepared to give His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom satisfactory assur­ances that the German Government had suspended all aggressive action against Poland and were prepared promptly to withdraw their forces from Polish territory, His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom would, without hesitation, fulfill their obligations to Poland. Although this communication was made more than twenty four hours ago, no reply has been received but German attacks upon Poland have been continued and intensi­fied. I have accordingly the honour to inform you that, unless not later than 11 a. m., British Summer Time, to day 3rd Sep­tember, satisfactory assurances to the above effect have been given by the German Government and have reached his Majesty's Government in London, a state of war will exist between the two countries as from that hour,' " Halifax to Henderson, British, No. 118, pp. 224 225.)

Britain declared state of war existed with Germany. ("No, such undertaking, was received by the time stipulated, and, conse­quently this country is at war with Germany." British, No. 120, p. 229.)

Germany rejected the British ultimatum. (Britain "clearly encouraged Poland to continue in her criminal attitude which was endangering the peace of Europe. On these lines the British Government rejected the proposal made by Mussolini which still might have saved the peace of Europe, although the German Government had expressed their readiness to accept such proposal. The British Government are thus responsible for all the misery and suffering that has overtaken now, or is about to overtake, so

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many peoples. German, No. 479, pp. pp. 510 f.; British, No. 119, p. 227.)

France delivered ultimatum to Germany.

("You should present yourself to day, September 3, at noon, at the Wilhelmstrasse and ask for the German Government's reply to the communication which you handed in at 10 p. m. on Septem­ber 1. If the reply to the questions contained in the communica­tion is in the negative, you should recall the responsibility of Germany which you evoked during your last interview, and you should notify to the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Reich or to his representative that the French Government find themselves, by reason of the German reply, compelled to fulfill as from to day, September 3, at 5 p. m., the engagements which France entered into towards Poland, and which are known to the German Gov­ernment." Bonnet to Coulondre in Berlin, French, No. 365, p. 350; cf. also No. 345, p. 332.)

France declared war on Germany. ("The Supreme effort, attempted by the Government of the French Republic and by the British Government with a view to maintain peace by the cessa­tion of aggression, was frustrated by the refusal of the German Government. In consequence, as a result of the aggression aimed by Germany against Poland, a state of war exists between France and Germany as from September 3, 1939, at 5 p. m." Bonnet to Heads of Diplomatic Missions accredited to Paris. French, No. 368, p. 352.)

Britain suspended all obligations of the London Naval Treaty of March 26, 1936. (". . . in consequence of the state of war which exists with Germany and in accordance with the provisions of Article 24 . . ." Ibid., Vol. I, No. 11, p. 239.) .

British Steamship Athenia sunk with loss of 30 Americans. (Torpedoed. Ibid., p. 227.)

India declared war on Germany. ("I, Victor Alexander John, Marquess of Linlithgow, Governor General of India and ex officio Vice Admiral therein, being satisfied thereof by information re­ceived by me, do hereby proclaim that war has broken out between His Majesty and Germany." Ibid., Vol. V, No. 130, p. 552.)

Australia declared war on Germany. (". . . I, Alexander Gore Arkwright, Baron Gowrie, the Governor General aforesaid, acting with the advice of the Federal Executive Council, do hereby pro­claim the existence of war." Ibid., p. 552.)

New Zealand declared war on Germany. ("His Excellency the Governor General has it in command from His Majesty the King to declare that a state of war exists between His Majesty and the Government of the German Reich, and that such state of war has existed from 9:30 p. m., New Zealand standard time, on the third day of September, 1939." Ibid.; p. 552.)

Belgium declared its neutrality. (Belgian, p. 72.)


September 4. Italy abandoned attempt at mediation. (Because of British reply to Chancellor Hitler's questions. British, No. 143, p. 249.)
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September 5. The United States proclaimed its neutrality. ("Whereas a state of war unhappily exists between Germany and France; Poland; and the United Kingdom, India, Australia, and New Zealand.

"And whereas the United States is on terms of friendship and amity with the contending powers, and with the persons inhabit­ing their several dominions;

"And whereas there are nationals of the United States residing within the territories or dominions of each of the said belligerents, and carrying on commerce, trade, or other business pursuits therein;

"And whereas there are nationals of each of the said belligerents residing within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States, and carrying on commerce, trade, or other business or pursuits therein;

"And whereas the laws and treaties of the United States, with­out interfering with the free expression of opinion and sympathy, nevertheless impose upon all persons who may be within their territory and jurisdiction the duty of an impartial neutrality during the existence of the contest;

"And whereas it is the duty of a neutral government not to permit or suffer the making of its territory or territorial waters subservient to the purposes of war; . . ." Proclamation No. 2348, Vol. 4, Federal Register, p. 3809. Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 11, pp. 203, 208.)

Panama invited American republics to consult. ("In view of the recent international events which have stirred the entire world, the Government of Panama has joined with the greatest pleasure the joint request which the Governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, the United States of America, Mexico, and Peru have sent to the sister republics of the American continent for the purpose of placing into operation the procedure of consultation provided for and agreed upon in the pertinent conventions and declarations of Buenos Aires and Lima, . . ." Ibid., p. 235.)
September 6. Union of South Africa declared war on Germany. (". . . I do by this my Proclamation in the name and on behalf of His Majesty the King declare and make known that from this the sixth day of September, 1939, the peaceful relations between the Union and the German Reich are severed and that the Union is, for the purposes of all laws, at war with the German Reich as from the aforementioned date." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 552.)

Iraq severed diplomatic relations with the Reich. (Council of Ministers decided to support British stand. Times, Sept. 8, 1939, p. 5.)

President Roosevelt proclaimed the agreement of June 23, supra, with Britain for the exchange of cotton and rubber. (Rati­fied July 17, ratification deposited August 25. "In accordance with the provisions of article 8 of the agreement it was agreed upon by both Governments that the agreement should enter into force on August 25, 1939. On that day by an exchange of notes the effective date was formally made of record." Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 11, p. 240.)

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September 8. President Roosevelt proclaimed a national emergency. ("Whereas a proclamation issued by me, on September 5, 1939, proclaimed the neutrality of the United States in the war now unhappily existing between certain nations; and

"Whereas this state of war imposes on the United States cer­tain duties with respect to the proper observance, safeguarding, and enforcement of such neutrality, and the strengthening of the national defense within the limits of peace time authorizations; . . ."; Vol. 4, Federal Register, p. 3851.)

Britain established virtual long-range blockade of Germany. ("Germany was resorting to unrestricted submarine warfare, . . ." Times, Sept. 9, 1939, p. 1.)
September 10. Canada declared war on Germany. ("Now Therefore We do hereby Declare and Proclaim that a State of War with the German Reich exists and has existed in Our Dominion of Canada as and from the tenth day of September, 1939." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 562.)

United States neutrality laws extended to Canada. (Ibid., Vol. I, No. 12, p. 246.)


September 11. Germany announced counter-blockade of Britain. (Britain had announced blockade September 3, 1939. Times, Sept. 12, 1939, p. 1: ". . . in the economic warfare forced on her by Britain Germany is . . . not only able to resist every pres­sure of blockade and every form of British hunger warfare, but to reply to it with the same methods.")
September 13. American Ambassador Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr., reported on German bombardment in Poland. (". . . in. my opinion the German forces are taking advantage of every oppor­tunity, without regard to the danger to the civilian population which may be involved. It is also evident that the German bombers are releasing the bombs they carry even when they are in doubt as to the identity of their objectives." Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 12, p. 250.)
September 14. Secretary of State Hull said the United States had not abandoned any of its rights under international law. ("these restrictive measures [neutrality regulations] do not and cannot constitute a modification of the principles of international law but rather they require nationals of the United States to forego, until the Congress shall decide otherwise, the exercise of certain rights under those principles." Ibid., p. 245.)
September 17. Russia invaded Poland from the East. "Events arising out of the Polish German War has revealed the internal insolvency and obvious impotence of the Polish state. Polish ruling circles have suffered bankruptcy. . . . Warsaw as the capital of the Polish state no longer exists. No one knows the whereabouts of the Polish Government. The population of Poland have been abandoned by their ill starred leaders to their fate. The Polish state and its government have virtually ceased to exist. In view of this state of affairs, treaties concluded between the Soviet Union and Poland have ceased to operate. A situation has arisen in
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Poland which demands of the Soviet Government especial concern for the security of its state. Poland has become a fertile field for any accidental and unexpected contingency that may create a menace to the Soviet Union. . . . Nor can it be demanded of the Soviet Government that it remain indifferent to the fate of its blood brothers, the Ukrainians and Byelo Russians [White Russians] inhabiting Poland, who even formerly were without rights and who now have been abandoned entirely to their fate. The Soviet Government deems it its sacred duty to extend the hand of assistance to its brother Ukrainians and brother Byelo­-Russians inhabiting Poland." Molotov, quoted in Times, Sept. 18, 1939, p. 5.)

Russia notified Finland she would respect her neutrality. (Finnish, No. 7, p. 39.)

Italy promised Greece not to take the initiative in resorting to any military action against her. ("Even in the event of Italy entering the war, . . ." Greek, p. 41.)
September 18. German and Russian troops agreed provisionally on partition of Poland at Brest Litovsk. (Two armies met as campaign approached end. Times, Sept. 19, 1939, p. 1.)

Denmark; Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Iceland announced their intentions "to uphold their right to continue their tradi­tional commercial relations with all States including the belliger­ent Powers. (". . . to safeguard their own economic life." Finnish, No. 9, p. 41.)


September 19. Chancellor Hitler made general peace offer on basis of his territorial gains or war to a finish. ("Germany has there limited but unalterable claims, and she will realize those claims one way or another. . . . Today you have the Germany of Frederick the Great before you. . . . We will take up the gaunt­let and we will fight as the enemy fights. . . . This Germany does not capitulate. We know too well what fate. would be in store for Germany. . . The German people take notice of this and shall fight accordingly. . . . We are determined to carry on and stand this war one way or another. . . ." Times, Sept. 20, 1939, p. 18.)
September 20. Britain and France determined to continue the war. ("France and Great Britain will not permit a Hitler victory to condemn the world to slavery and to ruin all moral values and destroy liberty." Ibid., p. 19.)
September 21. Premier Armand Calineseu of Rumania was assassi­nated by Iron Guard members. (Ibid., Sept. 22, 1939, p. 1.)

President Roosevelt called a special session of Congress to repeal the arms embargo. (". . . in order that it may consider and act on the amendment of certain legislation, which, in my best judgment, so alters the historic foreign policy of the United States that it impairs the peaceful relations of the United States with foreign nations. . . . I now ask again that such action be taken in respect to that part of the act which is wholly inconsist­ent with ancient precepts of the law of nations–the embargo provisions. I ask it because they are, in my opinion, most vitally

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dangerous to American neutrality, American security, and Ameri­can peace. . . . I give to you my deep and unalterable convic­tion, based on years of experience as a worker in the field of international peace, that by the repeal of the embargo the United States will more probably remain at peace than if the law remains as it stands today." Congressional Record [Bound], Vol. 85, pt. 1, pp. 10 12.)
September 23. Premier Mussolini reaffirmed Italy's intention of remaining neutral unless attacked. ("In this present moment of un­certainties the ruling voice which spontaneously has arisen from the Italian masses says, `Strengthen our. army in preparation for any eventualities and support every possible peace effort while working in silence.' " Times, Sept. 24, 1939, p. 42.)

Germany announced end of Polish campaign. ("In a con­nected series of destructive battles, of which the greatest and most decisive was in the bend of the Vistula, the Polish Army of a million men has beep defeated, captured, or routed.

"No single Polish active or reserve division, none of their independent brigades, etc., escaped this fate. Only fractions of individual groups were able to avoid immediate destruction by fleeing into the swamps of Eastern Poland. They succumbed there to Soviet Russian troops.

"Of the entire Polish Army only an insignificant remainder still is fighting at hopeless positions in Warsaw, in Modlin, and on the Peninsula of Hela." Ibid., p. 41.)

Consultative meeting of foreign ministers of the American republics. (". . . to consider, in a moment of grave emergency, the peaceful measures which they may feel it wise to adopt either individually or jointly, so as best to insure their national interests and the collective interests of the nations of the New World." Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 14, p. 299.)
September 28. Germany and Russia partitioned Poland in border and friendship treaty. ("The German Reich Government and the Government of Soviet Russia, after the disintegration of the former Polish state, consider it their task to restore in this region law and order and to insure nationals living there an existence corresponding to their national character." Times, Sept. 29, 1939, p. 1.)

Esthonia signed 10 year mutual assistance pact with Russia, giving latter material, air bases, and military rights. ("Being desirous of promoting the friendly relations which were estab­lished by the Treaty of Peace concluded on February 2, 1920, and which are founded upon independent political existence and non interference in internal affairs of the other contracting party;

"Recognizing that the Treaty of Peace of February 2, 1920, and the Pact of Non aggression and Peaceful Settlement of Con­flicts of May 4, 1932, continue as heretofore the firm foundation of their mutual relations;

"Being convinced that it is in the interests of both of the contracting parties to determine the exact terms of insuring their mutual security; . . ." Bulletin,, Vol. I, No. 20, p. 543.)


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September 30. Polish provisional government established in Paris. (President of Poland, interned in Rumania, resigned. Ibid., No. 15, p. 342.)

Germany notified Britain her armed merchantmen would be sunk without warning. ("Several German submarines have been attacked by British merchant ships in the past few days. Hitherto German submarines have observed international law by always warning merchant ships before attacking them. Now, however, Germany will have to retaliate by regarding every vessel of the British merchant navy as a warship." Times, Oct. 1, 1939, p. 43.)


October 3. Inter American Conference reaffirmed their declaration of solidarity, announced, sea safety zones in Western Hemisphere for neutrals ("Firmly united by the democratic spirit which is the basis of their institutions,

"Desirous of strengthening on this occasion the solidarity which is the outgrowth of that spirit, and

"Desirous of preserving peace in the American continent and of promoting its reestablishment throughout the world, . . ." Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 15, p. 326; ". . . but the present war may lead to unexpected results which may affect the fundamental interests of America, and there can be no justification for the interests of the belligerents to prevail over the rights of neutrals causing disturbances and suffering to nations which, by their neutrality in the conflict and their distance from the scene of events, should not be burdened with its fatal and painful consequences.

"To this end it is essential as a measure of necessity to adopt immediately provisions based on the above mentioned precedents for the safeguarding of such interests, in order to avoid a repe­tition of the damages and sufferings sustained by the American nations and by their citizens in the war of 1914 1918." Ibid.., pp. 331 f, and resolved to consult "in case any geographic region of America subject to the jurisdiction of any non American state should be obliged to change its sovereignty, and there should result therefrom a danger to the security of the American continent, . . ." Ibid., p. 334.)


October 5. Latvia signed 10 year mutual aid treaty [giving Russia naval and air bases on Baltic]. (". . . for the purpose of de­veloping the friendly relations created by the peace treaty of August 11, 1920, which were based on the recognition of the independent statehood and non interference in the internal affairs of the other party; : . ." Ibid., No. 20, p. 542; Latvia, p. 103.)

Russia invited Finland to political discussion. (Finnish, No. 10, p. 42: "Now that the international situation has altered on account of the war.")


October 6. Chancellor Hitler demanded peace on his terms or a war of destruction. ("But if this war is really to be waged only in order to give Germany a new regime, that is to say, in order to destroy the present Reich once more and thus to create a new Treaty of

220 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


Versailles, then millions of human lives will be sacrificed in vain, for neither will the German Reich go to pieces nor will a second Treaty of Versailles be made. And even should this come to pass after three, four, or even eight years of war, then this second Versailles would once more become the source of fresh conflict in the future.

"In any event, a settlement of the world's problems carried out without consideration of the vital interests of its most power­ful nations could not possibly, after the lapse of from five to ten years, end in any other way than that attempt made twenty years ago which is now ended. . . . If Europe is really sincere in her desire for peace, then the States in Europe ought to be grateful that Russia and Germany are prepared to transform this hotbed into a zone of peaceful development and that these two countries will assume the responsibility and bear the burdens inevitably involved.

"For the Reich this project, since it cannot be undertaken in an imperialistic spirit, is a task which will take fifty to a hundred years to perform.

"Justification for this activity on Germany's part lies in the political, organizing of this territory as well as in its economic development. In the long run, of course, all Europe will benefit from it. Second, and in my opinion by far the most important task, is the creation of not only a belief in, but also a sense of European security. . . . Neither force of arms nor lapse of time will conquer Germany. There never will be another No­vember 1918, in German history. It is infantile to hope for the disintegration of our people. . . ." Hitler, My New Order, pp. 750 756. Conciliation, November 1939, No. 354, pp. 520-524.)


October 9. Finns mobilized. (Because of Russian demands. Finnish, No. 11, pp. 43 ff.)

German raider captured the American City of Flint. (Contra­band. Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 18, pp. 429 431.)


October 10. Russia concluded 15 year mutual assistance pact with Lithuania for military and air bases and right to fortify Lithua­nian German frontier. (". . . for the purpose of developing the friendly relations established by the Treaty of Peace of July 12, 1920, and based on recognition of the independent state existence and non intervention in the internal affairs of the other Party; recognizing that the Treaty of Peace of July 12, 1920, and the Pact on Non Aggression and the Peaceful Settlement of Conflicts of September 28, 1926, form as heretofore a firm basis for their mutual relations and undertakings; convinced that the defini­tion of the exact conditions of insuring mutual security and the just settlement of the question regarding the state appurtenance of the city of Vilno and Vilno Province, unlawfully wrested from Lithuania by Poland, meet the interests of both Contracting Parties, . . ." Ibid., No. 25, p. 705.)
October 11. President Roosevelt wrote President Mikhail I. Kalinin of Russia his hope that "the Soviet Union will make no demands on Finland which are inconsistent with the maintenance and development of amicable and peaceful relations between the two
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 221
countries, and the independence of each." (Because of long­standing and deep friendship between the United States and Finland. Ibid., No, 17, p. 395.)
October 12. Prime Minister Chamberlain warned Germany to choose between definite guarantees for permanent European security and "war to the utmost of our strength." ("Peace conditions cannot be acceptable which begin by condoning aggression. . . . Past experience has shown that no reliance can be placed upon the promises of the present German Government. . . . Only when world confidence is restored will it be possible to find–as we would wish to do with the aid of all who show good will–­solutions of those questions which disturb the world; which stand in the way of disarmament, retard the restoration of trade, and prevent the improvement of the well being of the peoples. There is thus a primary condition to be satisfied. Only the German Government can fulfill it. If they will not, there can as yet be no new or better world order of the kind for which all nations yearn." Commons, Vol. 352, cols. 565 566: Concilia­tion, Nov. 1939, No. 354, p. 533.)
October 14. Official Russian demands–garrisons and exchange of ter­ritories–presented to Finland. ("In the negotiations with. Fin­land the Soviet Union is mainly concerned with the settlement of two questions:

" (a) Securing the safety of Leningrad.

" (b) Becoming satisfied that Finland will maintain firm, friendly relations with the Soviet Union.

"Both points are essential for the purpose of preserving against external hostile aggression the integrity of the Soviet Union coast of the Gulf of Finland and also of the coast of Esthonia, whose independence the Soviet Union has undertaken to defend." Finnish, No. 13, p. 49.)


October 19. Poland protested to Lithuania the acceptance of territory ceded by Russia. (". . . which does not belong to the said Union." Bulletin,, Vol. I, No. 17, p. 403.)

Turkey signed 15 year mutual assistance pact with France and Britain. ("Desiring to conclude a treaty of a reciprocal character in the interests of their national security, and to provide for mutual assistance in resistance to aggression, . . ." Ibid., No. 20, p. 544.)

Ambassador Joseph Grew told Japanese people American public opinion strongly resented Japan's actions in China. (". . . only through consideration of those facts, and through constructive steps to alter those facts, can Japanese American relations be improved. Those relations must be improved. . . . But the American people have been profoundly shocked over the wide­spread use of bombing in China, not only on grounds of humanity but also on grounds of the direct menace to American lives and property accompanied by the loss of American life and the crip­pling of American citizens; they regard with growing seriousness the violation of and interference with American rights by the

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Japanese armed forces in China in disregard of treaties and agree­ments entered into by the United States and Japan and treaties and agreements entered into by several nations, including Japan. The American people know that those treaties and agreements were entered into voluntarily by Japan and that the provisions of those treaties and agreements constituted a practical arrange­ment for safeguarding–for the benefit of all–the correlated prin­ciples of national sovereignty and of equality of economic oppor­tunity. The principle of equality of economic opportunity is one to which over a long period and on many occasions Japan has given definite approval and upon which Japan has frequently in­sisted. Not only are the American people perturbed over their being arbitrarily deprived of long established rights, including those of equal opportunity and fair treatment, but they feel that the present trend in the Far East if continued will be destructive of the hopes which they sincerely cherish of the development of an orderly world. American rights and interests in China are being impaired or destroyed by the policies and actions of the Japanese authorities in China. American property is being damaged or destroyed; American nationals are being endangered and sub­jected to indignities. . . . The traditional friendship between our two Nations is far too precious a thing to be either inadvertently or deliberately impaired." Ibid., pp. 513 ff.)
October 23. Finland made counterproposals to Russia. ("Finland understands the efforts which the Soviet Union is making to render the defense of Leningrad more secure. As she had re­peatedly stated before, Finland wishes her relations with the Soviet Union to remain friendly and good." Finnish, No. 14, p. 51.) Russia rejected them. (". . . in accordance with the views defined in the memorandum of the Government of the Soviet Union of October 14, the proposals advanced by them represent their minimum terms, . . ." Ibid., No. 15, p. 54.)
October 27. Poland protested German annexation of occupied territory. (". . . a new violation by the Reich of the elementary principles of international law relating to the conduct of an enemy in occu­pied territory." Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 19, p. 458.)
October 31. Foreign Commissar Molotov said Russia had not only a right but a duty to adopt serious measures to strengthen its security. ("Leningrad lies at a shorter distance from another country than is necessary in order to bombard this town with modern long range guns. On the other hand, the approaches to Leningrad by sea are also dependent to a large extent on the inimical or friendly attitude towards the Soviet Union adopted by Finland, to which country the shore of the whole northern part of the Gulf of Finland belongs, as well as all the islands lying in the central part of that gulf." Finnish, No. 16, p. 56.)
November 1. Polish territory, Posen, and Upper Silesia annexed by decree of Germany. (Cf. Sept. 28, supra. Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 19, p. 458.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 223
November 3. Russia incorporated Polish Western Ukraine and Western White Russia. (". . . owing to the collapse of the Polish State and the successful operations of our Red Army, . . ." Times, Nov. 7, 1939, p. 5.)

Finland again rejected new Russian demands and offered counterproposals. ("The Government of Finland takes its stand on the integrity and neutrality of Finland. . . . The Government of Finland, acting in the name of a unanimous people, has thus given the U. S. S. R. positive proof of its desire to understand the considerations of security to which the U. S. S. R. attaches importance, and, similarly, in its efforts to reach a satisfactory settlement of political relations, it has gone as far as its independence, security, and neutrality permit. The ­concessions which Finland agrees to make to the U. S. S. R. in order to improve neighbourly relations and ensure peace represent, a very heavy sacrifice for the Finnish people, as they affect an area which has been inhabited by a Finnish population since very ancient date, and which for centuries has formed part of Finland's political territory." Finnish, No. 18, pp. 62, 65 f.)


November 4. The United States repealed the arms embargo in favor of a cash and carry policy. Neutrality Act of 1939. (Cf. Sept. 21, supra.; 54 Stat., Pt. I, p. 4.)

President Roosevelt issued new neutrality proclamations and defined combat areas. (Under new joint resolution: H. J. Res. 306; 76th Cong., 2d sess.; 54 Stat., Pt. II, p. 2673.)


November 7. Belgium and The Netherlands offered good offices ­("At this hour of anxiety for the whole world, before the war breaks out on the Western Front in all its violence, we have the conviction that it is our duty once again to raise our voice.

"Some time ago the belligerent parties have declared they would not be unrolling to examine a reasonable and well founded basis for an equitable peace.

"It seems to us that in the present circumstances it is difficulty for them to come into contact in order to state their standpoints with greater precision and bring them nearer one another.

"As the sovereigns of two neutral States having good relation with all their neighbors, we are ready to offer them our good offices. If this were agreeable to them, we are disposed to facili­tate by every means at our disposal that they might care to suggest to us and in a spirit of friendly understanding to ascer­tain the elements of an agreement to be arrived at.

"This, it seems to us, is the task we have to fulfill for the good of our peoples, and in the interest of the whole world." Times, Nov. 8, 1939, p. 4.)
November 9. Finland again refused a military base to Russia. ("Fin­land cannot grant to a foreign Power military bases on her own territory and within the confines of her frontiers." Finnish, No. 19, p. 66; cf. No. 21, p. 69.)
November 13. Finnish Russian negotiations broken off. ('. . . we have unfortunately not succeeded in finding a basis for the pro­jected treaty between the U. S. S. R. and Finland, . . ." Ibid., No. 22, p. 70.)

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November 21. German Slovak treaty ceded to latter 225 square miles of Polish territory annexed in 1920, 1924, and 1938. (Hitler consented to the return. Times, Nov. 22, 1939, p. 8.)
November 26. Russia protested to Finland "unexpected artillery fire from Finnish territory." (". . . the concentration of Finnish troops in the vicinity of Leningrad, not only constitutes a menace to Leningrad, but is, in fact, an act hostile to the U. S. S. R. which has already resulted in aggression against the Soviet troops and caused casualties. The Government of the U. S. S. R. have no intention of exaggerating the importance of this revolt­ing act committed by troops belonging to the Finnish Army–­owing perhaps to a lack of proper guidance on the part of their superiors–but they desire that revolting acts of this nature shall not be committed in future." Finnish, No. 23, p. 71.)
November 27. Finland rejected the protest. ("It appears, on the contrary, on investigation, that there was firing on November 26th from 15.45 to 16.05 o'clock (Soviet time) on the Soviet side of the frontier in the vicinity of the village of Mainila; which you mentioned. On the Finnish side the points could be seen where the shots had fallen, close to the village of Mainila, situated not more than 800 metres from the Frontier, beyond an open field. From the explosions caused by the seven shots which were heard, it was clear that the point where the arm or arms in question were fired was at a distance of about 1 ½–2 km southeast of the place where the shots exploded. . . Finland has committed no hostile act against the U. S. S. R. such as you allege to have taken place:" Ibid., No. 24, p. 72.)
November 28. British Order in Council extended British contraband control to German experts. ("Whereas His Majesty has been compelled to take up arms against Germany in defense of the fundamental right of nations to a free and peaceful existence;

"And whereas German forces have in numerous cases sunk merchant vessels, British, Allied and neutral, in violation of the rules contained in the Submarine Protocol, 1936, to which Germany is a party:

"And whereas merchant vessels, British, Allied and neutral, have been sunk by mines laid by German forces indiscriminately and without notification, in contravention of the obligations of humanity and the provisions of the Hague Convention No. VIII of 1907 to which Germany is a party:

"And whereas the sinking of these vessels has been effected without regard to their nationality or destination or to the nature, ownership or destination of their cargoes:

"And whereas these acts already have resulted in a grave loss of noncombatant life, British, Allied and neutral:

"And whereas it is manifest that the German Government have deliberately embarked on a policy of endeavouring to destroy all seaborne trade between the Allied and other countries by a ruth­less use of the forces at their disposal, contrary to the laws and customs of war, the rights of neutrals and the obligations of humanity:


EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 225
"And whereas this action on the, part of the German Govern­ment gives to His Majesty an unquestionable right of retalia­tion:

"And whereas the Allies of His Majesty are associated with Him in steps now to be announced for restricting further the commerce of Germany: . . ." Great Britain. Statutory Rules and Orders, 1939, Vol. II, pp. 3806 3607.)

Russia denounced the Russian Finnish nonaggression treaty: ("The Finnish Government's reply to the note from the Govern­ment of the U. S. S. R., dated November 26, 1939, is a document which reflects the deep rooted hostility of the Finnish Govern­ment towards the U. S. S. R. and is the cause of extreme tension in the relations between the two countries.

"The fact that the Finnish Government deny that Finnish troops opened artillery fire on Soviet troops and caused casu­alties. . . . The refusal of the Finnish Government to with­draw the troops who committed this hostile act of firing on Soviet troops, and the demand of that Government for the simultaneous withdrawal of the Finnish and Soviet troops, a demand which would appear to be based on the principle of equality, reveals clearly the hostile desire of the Finnish Govern­ment to expose Leningrad to danger. . . . In concentrating a large number of regular troops in the immediate vicinity of Leningrad and subjecting that important vital centre of the U. S. S. R. to a direct threat, the Finnish Government have committed a hostile act against the U. S. S. R. which is incom­patible with the Treaty of Non Aggression concluded between the two States. . . . The Government of the U. S. S. R. cannot, however, admit that one of the parties should be allowed to violate the Treaty of Non Aggression, while the other party respects it." Finnish, No. 25, pp. 73 f.)


November 29. Russia broke diplomatic relations with Finland. ("At­tacks on Soviet troops by Finnish troops are known to be con­tinuing, not only on the Karelian Isthmus, but also at other parts of the frontier between the U. S. S. R. and Finland. The Govern­ment of the U. S. S. R. can no longer tolerate such a situation." Ibid., No. 26, p. 75; .cf. p. 91.

Finland asked conciliation or arbitration according to Art. 5 of nonaggression treaty. ("In order to furnish signal proof of their sincere wish to reach an agreement with the Government of the U. S. S. R., and, with the object of disproving the Soviet Government's allegation that Finland has adopted a hostile attitude towards the U. S. S. R, and is desirous of menacing the safety of Leningrad, my Government are prepared to come to an understanding with the Government of the U. S. S. R. concerning the withdrawal of the defense troops on the Karelian Isthmus, with the exception of the units of frontier guards and Customs officials, to such a distance from Leningrad that it can no longer be claimed that they threaten the security of that town." Fin­nish, No. 27, p. 76.)

Secretary of State Hull suggested good offices of the United States to Russia and Finland. ("It would view with extreme

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regret any extension of the present area of war and the consequent further deterioration of international relations." Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 23, p. 609.)
November 30. Russia invaded Finland. Mediation declined. (Finnish, No. 28, p. 77.)
December 1. President Roosevelt regretted Russian attack on Finland. ("To the great misfortune of the world, the present trend to force makes insecure the independent existence of small nations in every continent and jeopardizes the rights of mankind to self-government. The people and Government of Finland have a long, honorable, and wholly peaceful record which has won for them the respect and warm regard of the people and Government of the United States." Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 23, p. 609.)

President Roosevelt appealed to Finland and Russia to refrain from air bombing of civilians. (Cf. Sept. 1. supra. Ibid. p. 610.)

Russia set up Finnish Soviet at Terijoki. (". . . apparently under the impression that it would be able with the aid of this shadow Cabinet to entice at least some part of the Finnish people over to its side." (Finnish, No. 29, p. 79; No. 33, p. 95 n; cf. No. 33, p. 100.) ("By the will of the people, indignant at the criminal policy of the contemptible Government of Cajander, Erkko and Tanner, a new government of our country–the People's. Provi­sional Government–was formed today in Eastern Finland. [Aimo Cajander is the former Premier of Finland, Eljas Erkko the former Foreign Minister, and V. A. Tanner, the present Foreign Minister.] . . . The people already rose in various parts of the country, and proclaimed the formation of a democratic republic. Part of the soldiers of Finland's army already have sided with the new government, backed by the people." Times, Dec. 2, 1939, p. 4.)
December 3. Finland appealed to the League. (Under Arts. 11 and 15. Finnish, No. 28, p. 77.)
December 4. Russia rejected League proposals for settlement of the dispute with Finland. ("The U. S. S. R. is not at war with Fin­land and does not threaten the Finnish nation with war. Consequently reference to Article 11, paragraph 1, is unjustified. Soviet Union maintains peaceful relations with the Democratic Republic of Finland, whose Government signed with the U. S. S. R. on December 2, Pact of Assistance and Friendship. This Pact settled all the questions which the Soviet Government had fruitlessly discussed with delegates of former Finnish Government now divested of its power. By its declaration of December 1 the Government of the Democratic Republic of Finland requested the Soviet Government to lend assistance to that Republic by armed forces with a view to the joint liquidation at the earliest possible moment of the very dangerous seat of war created in Finland by its former rulers." Ibid., No. 33, p. 95 n.)
December 8. The United States protested British Order in Council of Nov. 28, supra. ("Whatever may be said for or against measures directed by one belligerent against another, they may not right­fully be carried to the point of enlarging the rights of a belligerent
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 227
over neutral vessels and their cargoes, or of otherwise penalising neutral states or their nationals in connection with their legiti­mate activities.

"Quite apart from the principles of international law thus involved, the maintenance of the integrity of which cannot be too strongly emphasized at this time when a tendency toward disrespect for law in international relations is threatening the security of peace loving nations, there are practical reasons which move my Government to take notice of the Order in-­Council here in question. In many instances orders for goods of German origin have been placed by American nationals for which they have made payment in whole or in part or have otherwise obligated themselves. In other instances the goods purchased or which might be purchased cannot readily, if at all, be dupli­cated in other markets. These nationals have relied upon such purchases or the right to purchase for the carrying on of their legitimate trade, industry, and professions. In these circum­stances, the British Government will readily appreciate why my Government cannot view with equanimity the measures con­templated by the Order in Council which if applied cannot fail to add to the many inconveniences and damages, to which innocent trade and commerce are already being subjected." Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 24, pp. 651 f.)


December 9. Finland submitted aide memorie to the League. (Cf. Dec. 3, supra, Finnish, No. 30, p. 81.)
December 10. Finland appealed to all civilized nations for help. ("The people of Finland, who have always honestly endeavoured to build up their future in mutual understanding with all other nations and on the foundation of peaceful labour, are being ruthlessly attacked by their eastern neighbour without the slightest cause on the part of Finland. The conflict was thrust upon us. We have had no choice. The Finnish people fight for their inde­pendence, their liberty, and their honour. We defend the country of our birth, our democratic constitution, our religion, our homes, and everything civilized nations hold sacred. So far we still fight alone against the enemy invader, although in actual truth the struggle denotes the defence of the welfare of all humanity. We have already given proof of our will to do our best in this battle, but we trust that the civilized world, which has already revealed its deep sympathy for us, will not leave us alone in our struggle with a numerically superior enemy. Our position as the outpost of western civilization gives us the right to expect the active resistance of other civilized nations." Ibid., No. 31, pp. 88 f.)

The United States granted Finland $10,000,000 credit for agricultural supplies. (Finland paid her debts. Times, Dec. 11, 1939; p. l.)


December 1l. Finland appealed for concrete help from the League. (". . . demonstrations of friendship, marks of encouragement, and the passing of judgment on the aggression are not enough. To be able to stand up against this treacherous aggression, the

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Finnish people have need of every possible practical support and assistance, and not merely of words of encouragement. The world's tears of indignation have gone to our hearts; Finland herself has shed tears enough in these last days. But we cannot protect the Finnish people from, the bullets, the bombs, the shrapnels, and the gas of the aggressor by international resolu­tions." Finnish, No. 32, pp. 93 f.)
December 12. Russia again rejected League appeal for armistice and mediation. (Cf. Dec. 4, supra. Ibid., No. 33., p. 95.)
December, 14. League of Nations Assembly expelled Russia and offered to coordinate world aid to Finland. ("Whereas, by the aggres­sion which it has committed against Finland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has failed to observe, not only its special agreements with Finland, but also Article, 12 of the Covenant of the League of Nations and the Pact of Paris; . . ." And whereas the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has not merely violated a covenant of the League, but has by its own action placed itself outside the Covenant;

"And whereas the Council is competent under Article 16 of the Covenant to consider what consequences should follow from this situation:" Ibid., pp. 110 f.)


December 15. The United States discouraged application for aircraft shipments to nations bombing civilians. ("In view of the policy to which the President referred [in his statement of Dec. 2, supra]. Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 25, p. 685.)
December 20. The United States embargoed "delivery to certain countries of plans, plants, manufacturing rights, or technical in­formation required for the production of high quality aviation gasoline." ("This decision has been reached with a view to conserving in this country certain technical information of stra­tegic importance as an extension of the announced policy of this Government in regard to the sale of airplanes, aeronautical equipment, and materials essential to airplane manufacture to countries the armed forces of which are engaged in unprovoked bombing or machine gunning of civilian populations from the air." Ibid., No. 26, p. 714.)
December 21. Rumania signed new economic agreement with Ger­many. (To amend exchange rate between leu and the mark. Times, Dec. 22, 1939, p. 7. Cf. Mar. 23; supra.)
December 23. Twenty one American republics protested to France, Britain, and Germany. (Because of "the naval engagement which took place on the thirteenth instant off the northeastern coast of Uruguay, between certain British naval vessels and the German vessel Graf von Spee, which, according 'to reliable re­ports, attempted to overhaul the French merchant vessel Formose between Brazil and the port of Montevideo after having sunk other merchant vessels.
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 229
"They are also informed of the entry and scuttling of the German warship in the waters of the River Plate upon the termination of the time limit which, in accordance with the rules of international law, was granted to it by the Government of the Republic of Uruguay.

"On the other hand, the sinking or detention of German merchant vessels by British vessels in American waters is publicly known, as appears–to begin with–from the recent cases of the Diisseldorf, Ussukuma, and others.

"All these facts which affect the neutrality of American waters, compromise the aims of continental protection provided for by the Declaration of Panama of October 3, 1939, . . . with a view to avoiding the repetition of further events. . . ." Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 26, p. 723.)

President Roosevelt offered to send his personal representa­tive to the Pope. (". . . in order that our parallel endeavors for peace and the alleviation of suffering may, be assisted." Ibid., p. 712.)


December 30. Chancellor Hitler resolved to continue to fight. ("But the Jewish reactionary warmongers in the capitalistic democracies have awaited this hour for years. They had prepared and were unwilling to cancel their plans for destruction of Germany. These warmongers want war. They shall have it." Times, Dec. 31, 1939, p. 4.)

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