House Resolution N




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Poland demanded Lithuania establish diplomatic relations by March 31. (Because of frontier incident March 11. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 705. "The Polish Government can not accept the conditions proposed by the Lithuanian side March 14, these conditions do not sufficiently guarantee security.

"The sole. means of settling the incident is, according to the Polish government, to establish normal and direct diplomatic relations, and that without preliminary conditions which is the only way to avoid dangers threatening peace." [Translation.] Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 302.)

Secretary of State Hull repeated the fundamental principles of international relations enunciated July 16, 1937, supra, and denounced isolation. (Because of "the rising tide of lawlessness, the growing disregard of treaties, the increasing reversion to the use of force: and the numerous other ominous tendencies which are emerging in the sphere of international relations. . . . Those who contend that we can and should abandon and surrender principles in one half of the world clearly show that they have little or no conception of the extent to which situations and developments in any part of the world of to day inevitably affect situations and conditions in other parts of the world. The triumph of this seclusionist viewpoint would inescapably carry the whole world back to the conditions of medieval chaos, con­ditions toward which some parts of both the Eastern and the Western worlds are already moving. . . . It would mean a break with our past, both internationally and domestically. It would mean a voluntary abandonment of some of the most important things that have made us a great nation. It would mean an abject retreat before those forces which we have, throughout our whole national history, consistently opposed. It would mean that our security would be menaced in proportion as other nations came to believe that, either through fear or through unwillingness, we did not intend to afford protection to our legitimate national interests abroad, but, on the contrary, intended to abandon them at the first sign of danger. Under such conditions, the sphere of our international relationships–economic, cultural, intellectual, and other–would necessarily shrink and shrivel, until we would stand practically alone among the nations, a self constituted hermit State. Thrown back upon our own resources, we would find it necessary to reorganize our entire economic and social structure. The process of adaptation to a more or less self-­contained existence would mean less production and at higher costs, lower living standards, regimentation in every phase of life, economic distress to wage earners and farmers, and to their families, and the dole on an ever increasing scale." Ibid., pp. 398., 403 f., Cf. Peace, pp. 408 f., 416.)
March 18. President Lazaro Cardenas of Mexico issued decree expropriating oil companies.

("Whereas it is of public knowledge that the oil companies operating in the country and which were ordered to establish new working conditions on December 18 last by Group Number Seven of the Federal Board of Conciliation and Arbitration have expressed their refusal to abide by the Award rendered, notwith­standing the recognition of its constitutionality by the Supreme

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Court of Justice of the Nation, without adducing reasons for said refusal other than an alleged financial incapacity, which has brought about as a necessary consequence the application of Article 123, Fraction XXI, of the General Constitution of the Republic, to the effect that the competent authority declare the labour contracts derived from the said Award to be terminated; and

"Whereas this fact produces as an inevitable result the total suspension of activities in the oil industry and in these circum­stances it is urgent that the Public Power take adequate steps to prevent serious internal disturbances that would make the satis­faction of collective needs and the furnishing of necessary con­sumption goods to all centres of population impossible in view of the resulting paralysis of the means of transportation and of the productive industries, as well as to provide for the protection, conservation, development, and exploitation of the wealth con­tained in the petroleum deposits and to adopt measures tending to prevent damages to the properties, to the detriment of the community, all of which circumstances being considered sufficient to decree the expropriation of the properties engaged in petroleum production; . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, pp. 435 f.)


March 19. Lithuania yielded to Polish ultimatum. (Cf. March 17, supra.) (". . . These demands were presented to us amid an unprecedented atmosphere of excitement and anti Lithuanian manifestations, . . . The Lithuanian Government was obliged to take this decision although it was aware that the entire nation was ready to defend its independence to the last . . ." Ibid., p. 303.)

Chancellor Hitler announced plebiscite for Germany and Austria on April 10. (For approval of Anschluss and new elec­tions. Ibid., pp. 214 f.)


March 22. Germany reassured Hungary on respect for her frontier. (German, No. 337, p. 360. Cf. March 16, supra.)
March 24. Britain refused Russian conference proposal. (Britain could not accept "mutual undertakings in advance to resist ag­gression." Such action would "aggravate the tendency toward the establishment of exclusive groups of nations which must . . . be inimical to the prospects of European peace." Lee, pp. 303 f. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, pp. 47 f.) ". . . the decision as to whether or not this country should find itself involved in war would be automatically removed from the discretion of His Majesty's Government, and the suggested guarantee would apply irrespective of the circumstances by which it was brought into operation, and over which His Majesty's Government might not have been able to exercise any control. This position is not one that His Majesty's Government could see their way to accept in relation to an area where their vital interests are not con­cerned in the same degree as they are in the case of France and Belgium; it is certainly not the position that results from the Covenant. For these reasons His Majesty's Government feel themselves unable to give the prior guarantee suggested." Ibid., Vol. II, p. 122.)

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March 28. Premier Milan Hodza of Czechoslovakia promised a new Nationality statute. Cf. Feb. 20, supra. "The time has come to embody in one comprehensive statute all existing minority measures, whether contained in the basic laws of the Consti­tution in the Language Act, or in other detailed legislative and administrative measures, so as to form a systematic whole. We are entitled to say that we in Czechoslovakia have the relatively most perfect system of minority rights; but because we have not yet codified them, ill wishers are able to suggest to the uninformed world at large that our minorities cannot breathe freely–or if they can, only since February 18, 1937. It is therefore right and meet that the valuable work of our minorities policy should now be completed from the point of view of form." Ibid., p. 125.)
March 29. Slovak Clerical, Hungarian, and Polish deputies in Czechoslovakia supported Sudeten demand for autonomy. (Because of success of Anschluss. Lee, pp. 313 f.; Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 694.)
March 31. Britain, France, and United States invoked escalator clause of 1936 naval treaty. ("The above action is motivated by the fact that upon the receipt of reports to the effect that Japan is constructing or has authorized the construction of capital ships of a tonnage and armament not in conformity with the limitations and restrictions of the Treaty, the Government of the United States addressed an inquiry to the Japanese Govern­ment and the Japanese Government did not choose to furnish information with regard to its present naval construction or its plans for future construction." State Release 1938, No. 44, p. 437. Cf., p. 438.)
April 1. Czechoslovakia prohibited public meetings. (To prevent trouble. Cf. March 29, supra. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 694.)
April 10. Austria approved the Anschluss in plebiscite. (99.73 per­cent of the Austrian ballots were affirmative. Ibid., p. 235.)

Edouard Daladier formed a new French Cabinet. (Glum re­signed April 8 after being refused plenary powers to impose a capital tax and limited exchange control. Ibid., p. 116.)


April 13. Premier Daladier granted plenary powers. (To stimulate production and defend the franc. Ibid., p. 116.)
April 16. Anglo Italian pact signed in which Britain agreed to promote recognition of Italian conquest, and Italy agreed to withdraw volunteers from Spain. (". . . animated by the desire to place the relations between the two countries on a solid and lasting basis and to contribute to the general cause of peace and security. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 141.)

Czechoslovakia proclaimed amnesty for political offenders. (Appeasement policy. Lee, p. 319. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 695.)


April 24. Henlein rejected the charter of liberties proposed by Czecho­slovakia. ("If there is to be peaceful development in the Czecho­slovak State, . . . it is necessary that the following constitutional and legal order should be established:

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"1. Establishment of full equality of rights and of status between the German national group and the Czech people in the State.

"2. Recognition of the Sudeten German national group as a legal personality in guarantee of this equality of status in the State.

"3. Determination and recognition of the German inhabited territory.

"4. Setting up of a German autonomous administration in the German inhabited territory for all departments of public life in so far as the interests and affairs of the German national group are concerned.

"5. Enactment of legal measures for the protection of those citizens of the State who live outside the defined limits of the territory inhabited by their nationality.

"6. Removal of injustices inflicted upon Sudeten Germans since, 1918 and reparation of the damage suffered owing to these injustices.

"7. Recognition and application of the principle: German pub­lic officials in the German territory.

"8. Full freedom to profess German nationality and the German political philosophy (Weltanschauung)." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 136.)


April 25. Anglo Irish agreement on defense provisions and land an­nuities signed. (". . . being desirous of promoting relations of friendship and good. understanding between the two countries, of reaching a final settlement of all outstanding financial claims of either of the two Governments against the other, and of facili­tating trade and commerce between the two countries, . . ." Ibid., Vol. I, p. 177.)
April 27. Poland and Britain signed naval agreement. (Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 706.)

Greece and Turkey signed a treaty of friendship, neutrality, conciliation, and arbitration. (". . . animated by the desire to develop even more the ties which so happily unite them, and desirous of concluding an additional treaty without the latter casting any aspersion whatever on the treaties, agreements, and mutual arrangements, bilateral and multilateral, which bind them, . . ." [Translation.] Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 286.)


April 28 29. Anglo French accord reached. (For "defense not only of their common interests but also those ideals of national and international life which have united their two countries." Lee, p. 308.)

Germany reassured Yugoslavia that her frontier would be respected. ("German policy has no aims beyond Austria." German, No. 337, p. 360.)


May 5. China notified League of imminent Japanese use of poison gas. (Japanese had sent chemical units to China., Survey 1938, Vol. I, pp. 547, 694.)
May 6. Emil Krofta, Czech Foreign Minister, rejected Sudeten de­mands. (Outright concession would have been disastrous. Lee, p. 314.)

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May 7. Britain and France promised help for peaceable solution of Sudeten problem. (To obtain peace in the West. Ibid., p. 316. ­Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 139.)
May 11. Czech Polish minority demanded autonomy. (Inspired by Sudeten success. Cf. April 24, supra. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 695.)
May 12. Britain took the initiative in inspiring League Council to pass resolution permitting recognition of Italian conquests. (Cf. April 16, supra. "His Majesty's Government does not think that the various steps which the League has taken in the course of the Italo Ethiopian dispute can be held to constitute any binding obligation upon Member States to withhold recognition until a unanimous decision has been taken . . . the question of the recognition of Italy's position in Ethiopia is one for each Member of the League to decide for itself in the light of its own situation and its own obligations." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, pp. 165, 169.)

Lord Halifax told the League Assembly that Britain would not rigidly uphold League principles if they stood in the way of a practical victory for peace. ("But when, as here, two ideals are in conflict–on the one hand the ideal of devotion, unflinching but unpractical, to some high purpose; on the other, the ideal of a practical victory for peace–I cannot doubt that the stronger claim is that of peace. . . ." L. N. 0. J., May June 1938, p. 335.)

Switzerland won admission of League Council to her right to revert to her pre League status of neutrality. (As result of debate on British resolution on Ethiopia. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 152.)

Hull defends the United States neutrality and embargo. "In August 1936 . . . it became evident that several of the great powers were projecting themselves into the struggle through the furnishing of arms and war materials and other aid to the con­tending sides, thus creating a real danger of a spread of the conflict into a European war, with the possible involvement of the United States . . . In view of all these special and un­usual circumstances, this Government declared its policy of strict noninterference in the struggle and at the same time announced that export of arms from the United States to Spain would be contrary to such policy. . . . any proposal which at this junc­ture contemplates a reversal of our policy of strict noninterfer­ence which we have thus far, so scrupulously followed . . . would offer a real possibility of complications." (Secretary Hull to Senator Pittman; Peace, pp. 419 20.)

Portugal recognized the Nationalists as the government of Spain. (Ibid., p. 350.)

France announced increased naval program. (Cf. March 31, supra. Ibid., p. 700.)

Britain announced expanded air program. (Cf. March 10, supra. Ibid., p. 702.)

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May 18. Mexico broke relations with Britain. ("As the object of the note under reply is to require the immediate payment of the above­mentioned sum, I abstain from considering the various references which the said note contains in respect of the state of the internal and external debt of Mexico, references which do not take into account, on the one hand, that the Government of your Excellency lacks all right to analyse the interior situation of Mexico, and, on the other, the complex circumstances which are present and which explain, and even justify, the attitude of my Government; references, moreover, which do not stop short, as might have been expected, from transgressing the limits of what are clearly the internal affairs of my country. I take the liberty, considering it pertinent, to call your Excellency's attention to the fact that even powerful States and those who have ample resources cannot pride themselves on the punctual payment of all their pecuniary obligations." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 471.)
May 14. League Council passed resolution condemning Japanese use of gas. Cf. May 5, supra. (". . . Having heard the statement by the representative of China on the situation in the Far East and on the needs of the national defense of China: . . ." Ibid., p. 370.)
May 18. Lord Halifax told House of Lords practical victory for peace was a question of political judgment. (". . . you have to choose between the unpractical devotion to the high purpose that you know you cannot achieve except by a war you do not mean to have, and the practical victory for peace that you can achieve. I cannot hesitate between these two when both my conscience and my duty, to my fellow men impel me directly in the direction of peace. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 64.)
May 20. Sudetens refused to negotiate unless order was maintained. (Because of crisis. Lee, p. 319.)

Czechoslovakia garrisoned the German border. (Rumor of troop movements by Germany on their border. Ibid., p. 319.)


May 22. Turkey protested to League French propaganda in Syria. [About Sanjaq] (Attitude of French authorities had been such as to deprive part of the population of its freedom of voting by systematic arrests. Survey 1938, Vol. I, pp. 486, 712.)

Henlein's Sudeten party polled 82 85 percent of German vote in municipal election in Czechoslovakia. (Lee, p. 320.)


May 25. Alexander Antonovich Troyanovsky, Russian Ambassador to the United States, said Russia was "ready with France to defend Czechoslovakia in the event of aggression." (". . . though our country does not appear to be menaced by immediate danger, we cannot wash our hands of the present European situation. We have our principles and are tied by our treaties. We will be faithful to those principles and those treaties. . . . We do not want to be isolated in international affairs. A firm stand against the aggressors is the fundamental solution of the present international tension." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 315.)

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May 26. Britain announced food storage plans. (For national de­fense. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 702.)

Mexico offered money to United States for expropriated oil properties. (Because of American protest March 28. Ibid., p. 706.)


May 29. Chancellor Hitler ordered expansion of Army and Air forces and completion of western fortifications. ("A great Power cannot accept a second time such a mean assault." Cf. May 20, supra. Lee, p. 320.)
June 1. France announced increased air force. (Rearmament. Cf. April 28, May 12, supra. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 700.)
June 3. Secretary of State Hull again denounced isolation. ("At­tempts to achieve national isolation would not merely deprive us of any influence in the councils of nations, but would impair our ability to control our own affairs. . . . There is a desperate need in our country, and in every country, of a strong and united public opinion in support of a renewal and demonstration of faith in' the possibility of a world order based on law and inter­national cooperative effort." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 409.)
June 7. Sudetens asked autonomy for minority groups and drastic decentralization of government. (Revision of Karlsbad demands of April 24 at suggestion of British. Cf. those of Slovak Peoples and the United Magyar parties. Lee, p. 321. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, pp. 151 162.)
June 11. Secretary of State Hull condemned sales of planes for bombing of civilians. (". . . this Government does condemn the bombing of civilian populations or its material encourage­ment." Peace, p. 421.)
June 13. French Spanish frontier sealed. (At Italian and British request. Survey 1938, Vol. I, pp. 320 ff.)
June 22. Germany conscripted labor for short term work. (For na­tionally urgent tasks because labor reserves were exhausted. Ibid., pp. 86 f.)
June 23. Czech Sudeten conference on Nationalities Statute. (Cf., June 7, supra. "The members of the Sudeten German Party informed the political Ministers of their views concerning the new settlement of relations between the nationalities, and gave full explanations concerning the demands which the Sudeten Party is laying before the Government." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 164.)
June 30. France, Britain, and United States agreed to increase max­imum size for battleships. ("Following the refusal of Japan to furnish information with regard to its naval construction, or its plans for future construction, . . ." State Release 1938, No. 457, p. 10. Cf. March 31, supra.)

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Germany and Britain signed new naval protocol. (Cf. March 31, supra. "Whereas by Article 4 (1) of the Anglo German Naval Agreement signed in London on the 17th July, 1937, it is provided that no capital ship shall exceed 35,000 tons (35,560 metric tons) standard displacement;

"And whereas by reason of Article 4 (2) of the said Agreement the maximum calibre of gun carried by capital ships is 16 in. (406 mm.);

"And whereas on the 31st of March, 1938, the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland gave notice under paragraph (2) of Article 25 of the said Agreement of its decision to exercise the right provided for in paragraph (1) of the said Article to depart from the limitations and restrictions of the Agreement in regard to the upper limits of capital ships of subcategory (a);

"And whereas consultations have taken place as provided in par­agraph (3) of Article 25, with a view to reaching agreement in order to reduce to a minimum the extent of the departures from the limitations and restrictions of the Agreement; . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs, 1938, Vol. I, p. 516.)


July 1. The Department of State notified 148 aircraft manufacturers and exporters of the opposition of the Government to the sale of airplanes and aeronautical equipment to aid bombing of civilians. (". . . the United States is strongly opposed to the sale of air­planes or aeronautical equipment which would materially aid or encourage that practice in any countries in any part of the world." Peace, p. 422. Cf. June 11, supra.)
July 4. Franco Turkish treaty of friendship signed. (". . . animated by the desire to reaffirm, in the common interest of the two coun­tries, the bonds of sincere friendship . . ." [Unofficial translation]. Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 515.)
July 5. Non Intervention Committee adopted plans for repatriation of foreign troops in Spain. (France, Britain, Germany, and Italy consented to contribute to maintenance of "volunteers" in Spain after their withdrawal from the field. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 324.)

Italian Manchukuo friendship pact signed. (Ibid., p. 704.)


July 6. Russia and Britain signed hew naval protocol. (Because of reported Japanese naval construction. Cf. March 31, supra. Ibid., p. 707.)
July 11 13. British troops sent to Palestine. (Arab uprising and terrorist activities. Ibid., p. 707.)
July 12. Germany suspended purchases from Brazil. (Bank of Brazil had stopped purchase of German clearing marks June 22. Ibid., p. 693.)

France declared "solemn engagements undertaken towards Czechoslovakia were indisputable and sacred." ("The whole French Government is indeed inspired by two sentiments equally strong and which, I am sure the men of all countries equally

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attached to peace and honor understand: the desire of not having to fulfill these engagements and the will of never repudiat­ing our word, if, by misfortune, this hope should come to be deceived. [Unofficial translation.] Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 216.)
July 18. Captain Fritz Wiedemann, Hitler aide, visited Halifax in London.
July 21. Chaco peace pact ended war between Bolivia and Paraguay (". . . with the intention of consolidating peace definitively and to put an end to the differences which gave rise to the armed con­flict of the Chaco; inspired by the desire to prevent future dis­agreements; keeping in mind that between states forming the American community there exist historical brotherly bonds which must not disappear by divergencies, or events which must be considered and solved in a spirit of reciprocal understanding and good will; in execution of the undertaking to concert the definitive peace which both Republics assumed in the peace protocol of June 12, 1935, and in the protocolized act of January 21, 1936; Treaty Inf. 1938, No. 106, p. 256.)

The United States proposed arbitration to Mexico. ("The whole structure of friendly intercourse, of international trade and commerce, and many other vital. and mutually desirable rela­tions between nations indispensable to their progress rest upon the single and hitherto solid foundation of respect on the part of governments and of peoples for each other's rights under international justice. The right of prompt and just compensa­tion for expropriated property is a part of this structure. It is a principle to which the Government of the United States and most governments of the world have emphatically subscribed and which they have practiced and which must be maintained. It is not a principle which freezes the status quo and denies change in property rights but a principle that permits any country to expropriate private property within its borders in furtherance of public purposes. It enables orderly change without violating the legitimately acquired interests of citizens of other countries.

"The Government of Mexico has professed its support of this principle of law. It is the considered judgment, however, of the Government of the United States that the Government of Mexico has not complied therewith in the case of several hundred sepa­rate farm or agrarian properties taken from American citizens. This judgment is apparently not admitted by your Government." State Release 1938, No. 460, p. 52. Cf., March 19, May 26, supra.)
July 22. Britain rejected Neville Henderson's proposal for four power settlement of Sudeten problem. (Difficulty of excluding Russia. Lee, p. 321.)
July 25. Britain sent Lord Runciman to Czechoslovakia as official British adviser and mediator. (As alternative to international action. Ibid., p. 321.)

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July 31. Balkan entente signed treaty of nonaggression with Bulgaria. ("Taking into consideration: That Bulgaria is devoted to the policy of strengthening peace in the Balkans and is animated by the desire of entertaining with the Balkan States good neighbor relations and those of trustful collaboration; and

"That the Balkan States are inspired toward Bulgaria with the same pacific spirit and the same desire of cooperation." . . . [Unofficial translation.] Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 287.)


August 3. Mexico refused arbitration in the expropriation dispute. (See July 21, supra. "Mexico has never refused to submit its international differences to the jurisdiction of a court to judge according to law either acts or attitudes toward foreigners, nor has it raised objections to the decisions which have been unfavor­able to it. Nevertheless she considers that arbitration should be reserved, as the same treaty of Washington establishes, for cases of irreducible differences in which the juridical principle under dis­cussion or the act giving origin to the arbitration are of such a character that the two peoples at variance do not find any more obvious way of coming to an agreement. Such is not the present case; for while it is true that Mexico does not consider that pay­ment of an indemnification for properties which the state expro­priates on grounds of public utility is an invariable and universal rule of international law, it is also true that article 27 of her Constitution ordains payment in such cases, and, therefore, the Mexican Government has never denied such obligation. There is no subject matter, therefore, for the arbitration proposed." State Release 1938, No. 465, p. 138.)
August 15. Extensive German army maneuvers, authorization to requisition civilian goods and services, calling of reservists. (Partial mobilization for settlement by force. Lee, p. 323.)
August 16. Secretary of State Hull again repeated the fundamental principle of an international order. ("We are convinced that this programme offers to all nations the maximum of possible advan­tage and the fullest possible opportunity to safeguard and promote their own welfare and with it that of the World community of which they are members. We are also convinced that no other programme can in the long run check and reverse the present ominous drift toward international anarchy and armed conflict on a gigantic scale which, if it comes, will destroy not only the material achievements of past centuries but the precious cultural and spiritual attainments of our modern civilization." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 414; State Release 1938, No. 464, p. 119.)
August 17. German naval, program including two new battleships announced. (Rearmament policy. Cf., June 30, supra: Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 701.)
August 18. Britain inquired about Italian intervention in Spain. (Spanish Embassy in London stated 17,000 men had left Italy for Spain with large quantities of war material. Ibid., p, 329.)

President Roosevelt said the United States would defend Canada against attack. ("We in the Americas are no longer a far away continent, to which the eddies of controversies beyond

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the seas could bring no interest or no harm. . . . we can assure each other that this hemisphere at least shall remain a strong citadel wherein civilization can flourish unimpaired. The Dominion of Canada is part of the sisterhood of the British empire. I can give assurance to you that the people of the United States will not stand idly by if domination of Canadian soil is threatened by any other empire." State Release 1938, No. 464, p. 124.)
August 21. Czechoslovakian Government conferred with Sudeten leaders on new basis for negotiations. (Through efforts of Lord Runciman, following break of Aug. 17. Lee, p. 323.)
August 23. Little Entente council announced provisional, nonaggres­sion pledge from Hungary in return for. recognition of her right to equality in armament. (". . . inspired by the common desire to rid their mutual relations of everything which could impede the development of good neighbourliness. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs, Vol. I, p. 284.)
August 27. Czechoslovakia presented a third plan for minority reforms. (Determined to be conciliatory. Ibid., p. 323.)

Sir John Simon. warned that Britain might be involved in a Czechoslovakian war; British Foreign Office praised conciliatory attitude of Czechs. (Warning to Germany; encouragement to Czechs. Lee, p. 323. "For in the modern world there is no limit to the reactions of war." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 91.)


August 31. Ambassador Neville Henderson warned Germany of British attitude if the latter were to attack Czechoslovakia. (Particularly if France were compelled to intervene. . . . Lee, p. 324.)

Germany announced naval maneuvers for North Sea in Sep­tember. (In answer to similar British plans. Ibid., p. 323.)


September 1. Ambassador Henderson repeated warning of Aug. 31. (To remove any doubt or misconception. Ibid., p. 324.)
September 2. Sudetens and Czechoslovakia discussed third minority plan. (Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 695.)
September 4. Georges Bonnet reaffirmed French pledge to Czecho­slovakia. (Because of the "threatening clouds that hang over central Europe." [Unofficial Translation.] Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 178.)
September 5. Sudetens at Eger demanded immediate realization of the Karlsbad program. (After conference of Henlein and Hitler September 1 2. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 696.)
September 6. Czechoslovakia presented her fourth plan granting minority participation in State offices to Sudetens, loans to aid distressed areas, complete equality of minority languages with the Czech in official affairs, system of cantonal government with complete local control except in matters affecting unity and
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security of the state. (". . . the Plan, applying almost com­pletely the so called Eight Carlsbad Points from the statement made by Konrad Henlein, has been drafted upon pressure from the British and French diplomatic representatives." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 178.)

Paris newspapers argued Sudeten issue should not be allowed to precipitate a general war, one recommending ceding fringe of alien population to Germany to make Czechoslovakia a more homogeneous state. (Wishes of population should be decisively important element in any permanent solution. Cf. article in the London Times Sept. 7, infra. Indication that France would not prevent a forcible solution of Sudeten question despite pledge. Lee, p. 326.)


September 7. Sudeten party broke off negotiations with Czechs. (As protest against alleged attack on party deputy by Czech Police in Moravská-Ostrava. Ibid ., p. 325. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 178. ". . . because of the well known plans of the Berlin Government and of Henlein's and his Party aims. . . ." ,Cf. Ibid, p. 219.)

A London Times editorial recommended partition of Czecho­slovakia, resembling language of Chamberlain speech of May 10 referring to right of self determination, Nazi concept of race. (Argument for appeasement not officially inspired. Lee, p. 325.)


September 9. Negotiations resumed by Sudetens. (British advice. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 696.)
September 11. Russia told France she would live up to the mutual assistance treaty with Czechoslovakia. (To stiffen France in support of the latter. Lee, p. 326; International News, Sept. 24, 1938, p. 54.)

Rumania said she would not resist transit of Russian planes to aid Czechoslovakia. (She had permitted them before without protest. Ibid., p. 326.)

Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain spoke of the probability "in certain eventualities of . . . going to the assistance of France." (To stress ties uniting them. Ibid., p. 326.)

China asked League Council to apply Art. 17 immediately. ("The League of Nations . . . adopted a number of resolutions, all of which, in their principal provisions, however, remain unexecuted or ineffective.

"But the hostilities which Japan started against China fourteen months ago have not only seen no abatement but, on the con­trary, are being pursued on an ever extending scale and with increased intensity and ruthlessness. It is the firm conviction of the Chinese Government that, in the interest of the League itself and the general cause of peace, as well as in justice to China, the provisions of Article 17 of the Covenant should be applied to the present situation in the Far East without further delay." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, pp. 370 f.)

France belittled potential support and emphasized weakness of French position. (Because of division in French Cabinet. Lee, p. 326.)

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British Cabinet despite division, ordered precautionary naval measures. (Could do no more because the attitude of France was negative. Lee, pp. 326 f.) Henderson tried to impress all Nazi leaders but Hitler that Sir John Simon and Prime Minister Chamberlain were serious. (Ibid., p. 326.)
September 12. Both Britain and France failed to warn Chancellor Hitler before his speech. (Because of Cabinet divisions. Cf. Sept. 11, supra. Lee, p. 327.)

Chancellor Hitler said oppression of Sudeten Germans must end. (They were victims of democratic conceptions of the state and objects of intolerably oppression. ". . . if these tortured creatures cannot obtain rights and assistance by themselves, they can obtain both from us." Ibid., p. 327. . Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 193.)


September 13. Czechoslovakia took steps to preserve order in Sudeten district. (Henleinists precipitated riots anticipating help of German Army on repeal of martial law. Lee, p. 328. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 198.)

Henlein broke off negotiations. (". . . in view of the events of the last forty eight hours, and as the demands put forward by the Sudeten German Party have not been met, the conditions necessary for a continuation of the negotiations in the spirit of the mandate previously conferred on the delegation no longer exist." Ibid., pp. 198 f.)


September 14. British ordered fleet on alert. (Expected crisis. Lee, p. 329.)

Germany ordered troop concentration. (After quarrel between Hitler and army officers who opposed war. Ibid., p. 329.)


September 15. Henlein demanded cession to Germany then fled to Germany. (To escape arrest Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 696.)

Prime Minister Chamberlain flew to visit Hitler at Berchtes­gaden. (". . . because the present situation seems to me to be one in which discussions between him and me may have useful consequences.

"My policy has always been to try to ensure peace, and the Führer's ready acceptance of my suggestion encourages me to hope that my visit to him will not be without results." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 205.)

Chancellor Hitler demanded self determination for Sudetens and their return to Germany at risk of world war; promised to refrain from hostilities until after Chamberlain's consultation with British Cabinet. (The Prime Minister had no authority to make commitments. Lee, p. 330.)


September 16. Lord Runciman presented his report on Czechoslovakia to the British Cabinet. (Cf. July 25, supra. Ibid., pp. 330 f.)

Sharp division in British and French cabinets as to yielding to Hitler. (Split also in attitude of French armed forces; public in both countries pacifistic. Ibid., pp. 331 f.)

162 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
Polish press demanded return of Teschen. (Irredenta. Ibid., p. 332.)

Russian troop concentration reported in Ukraine. (Wished France to stand firm. Ibid., p. 332; Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 696.)


September 18. Britain and France agreed to Hitler's demands and urged Czechoslovakia to give Sudeten areas to Germany. (". . . the point has now been reached where the further maintenance within the boundaries of the Czechoslovak State of the districts mainly inhabited by Sudeten Deutsch cannot in fact continue any longer without imperiling the interests of Czechoslovakia herself and of European peace . . . the maintenance of peace and the safety of Czechoslovakia's vital interests cannot effectively be assured unless these areas are now transferred to the Reich . . . either by direct transfer or as a result of a plebiscite." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 213.)

Czechoslovakia declared state of emergency. (". . . tumult was let loose." Ibid., p. 209.)

Sudeten Freikorps attacked Czech frontier posts. (To create incidents. Lee, pp. 332 f, International News, Sept. 24, 1938, p. 820.)
September 19. League Council invited Japan to sit with League to settle dispute with China. ("The Council, having before it a formal request from the Chinese Government for the application to the Sino Japanese dispute of the provisions of Article 17 of the Covenant relating to disputes between a Member of the League of Nations and a non Member State, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 376.)

France had to support British proposals for partition of Czecho­slovakia. (Britain refused to commit herself to definite support of France if she kept her pledge to defend Czechoslovakia, unless the integrity of France were directly menaced. Cf. Sept. 16, supra. Lee, p. 334.)

Russia gave unequivocal pledge of loyalty to Czechs if French did help. (". . . the Czechoslovak Government addressed a formal inquiry to my Government as to whether the Soviet Union is prepared in accordance with the Soviet Czech pact, to render Czechoslovakia immediate and effective aid if France, loyal to her obligations, will render similar assistance, to which my Government gave a clear answer in the affirmative." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 225.) Russia warned Poland not to attack Czechoslovakia. (Lee, p. 340; Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 696.)

Czechoslovakia received Anglo French partition proposals. (Cf. Sept. 18, supra. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 213.)


September 20. Czechoslovakia indicated her willingness to arbitrate matter with Germany. (Under treaty of 1925.) (". . . they are prepared to accept any sentence of arbitration which might be pronounced. This would limit any conflict. It would make possible a quick, honourable solution which would be worthy of all interested States." Ibid., p. 216.)

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September 21. Poland and Hungary demanded same rights for their minorities as the Sudetens. ("These minorities have, however, consistently demanded similar treatment to that accorded to the Sudeten minority, and the acceptance of the Anglo French proposals, involving the cession of the predominantly Sudeten German territories, has led to a similar demand for cession of the territory predominantly inhabited by Polish and Hungarian minorities." Ibid., p. 282.)

Czechoslovakia agreed to Sudeten concession. (". . . forced by circumstances, yielding to unheard of pressure and drawing the consequences from the communication of the French and British, Governments of September 21, 1938, in which both Governments expressed their point of view as to help for Czecho­slovakia in case she should refuse to accept the Franco British proposals and should be attacked by Germany.". . . Ibid., p. 217.)


September 22. The Hodza, Government resigned. Because of general strike against capitulation. Lee, p. 336.)

General Jan Syrovy formed Government of national defense. (At demand of the people. Ibid., p. 336.)

Polish troops concentrated on Czech frontier. (Cf. Sept. 21, supra., Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 686.)

Prime Minister Chamberlain refused Hitler's Godesburg demands, i.e.: Immediate occupation of Sudeten without guarantee of frontiers until other minority claims were satisfied. (". . . it was a profound shock to me when I was told at the beginning of the conversation that these proposals were not acceptable, and that they were to be replaced by other proposals of a kind which I had not contemplated at all." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 284.)

Japan refused League invitation to settle her dispute with China. (Opposed to third party intervention. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 548.)

Czechoslovakia mobilized. (Fear of invasion; British and French would no longer advise for or against it. Lee, pp. 339 f. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 233.)

Prime Minister Chamberlain wrote Chancellor Hitler suggest­ing Sudeten Germans be allowed to police themselves as alterna­tive to immediate occupation. ("In the event of German troops moving into the areas as you propose, there is no doubt that the Czech Government would have no option but to order their forces to resist, and this would mean the destruction of the basis upon which you and I a week ago agreed to work together, namely, an orderly settlement of this question rather than a settlement by the use of force." Ibid., p. 228.)

Chancellor Hitler said he was interested only in getting the Sudeten. (". . . the realization which both puts an end in the shortest time to the sufferings of the unhappy victims of Czech tyranny, and at the same time corresponds to the dignity of a Great Power." Ibid., p. 229.)


164 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
September 23 24. Chancellor Hitler demanded cession of Sudeten­land by Oct. 1 and immediate military occupation, endorsed by a plebiscite before November 25, 1938, of those resident October. 28, 1918. ((`Reports which are increasing in number from hour to hour regarding incidents in the Sudeten and show that the situation has become completely intolerable for the Sudeten German people and, in consequence, a danger to the peace of Europe." Ibid., p. 232.)
September 24. Czechoslovakia rejected Hitler's Godesburg terms. (They were "a de facto ultimatum of the sort usually presented to a vanquished nation. . . .The proposals go far beyond what we agreed to in the so called Anglo French plan. They deprive us of every safeguard for our national existence. We are to yield up large proportions of our carefully prepared defences, and admit the German armies deep into our country before we have been able to organize it on the new basis or make any preparations for its defence. Our national and economic independence would automatically disappear with the acceptance of Herr Hitler's plan. The whole process of moving the population is to be reduced to panic flight on the part of those who will not accept the German Nazi regime. They have to leave their homes without even the right to take their personal belongings or, even in the case of peasants, their cow.

"My Government wish me to declare in all solemnity that Herr Hitler's demands in their present form are absolutely and uncon­ditionally unacceptable to my Government. We rely upon the two great Western democracies, whose wishes we have fol­lowed much against our own judgment, to stand by us in our hour of trial." Ibid., p. 236.)


September 25. Czechoslovakia agreed to negotiate with Poland on Teschen. (To avoid war. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 696.)

South Africa said it would carry out League obligations at all cost. (Anger of British public at German disregard of Czech willingness to negotiate and German determination to force cruel, humiliating terms on the Czech Government. Lee, p. 340.)

France ordered partial mobilisation. (Cabinet decided to op­pose Hitler's demands. Ibid., p. 340.)
September 26. President Roosevelt urged Chancellor Hitler and Presi­dent Benes to came to terms and appealed to Britain and France to avoid war. ("The fabric of peace on the continent of Europe if not throughout the rest of the world, is in immediate danger. The consequences of its rupture are incalculable. Should hostili­ties break out, the lives of millions of men, women, and children in every country involved will most certainly be lost under circumstances of unspeakable horror.

"The economic system of every country involved is pertain to be shattered. The social structure of every country involved may well be completely wrecked. . . .

"The supreme desire of the American people is to live in peace. But in the event of a general war they face the fact that no nation can escape some measure of the consequences of such a world catastrophe.

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 165


"The traditional policy of the United States has been the furtherance of the settlement of international disputes by pacific means. It is my conviction that all people under the threat of war today pray that peace may be made before, rather than after, war.

"It is imperative that peoples everywhere recall that every civilized nation of the world voluntarily assumed the solemn obli­gations of the Kellogg Briand Pact of 1928 to solve controversies only by pacific methods. In addition most nations are parties to other binding treaties obligating them to preserve peace. Further­more, all countries have today available for such peaceful solution of difficulties which may arise, treaties of arbitration and concilia­tion to which they are parties." State Release 1938, No. 470, pp. 219 f. Cf. Peace, p. 425.)

Chancellor Hitler refused to moderate terms, said he would enter Czechoslovakia the next day. (The Sudetenland . . . had always been German and . . . its inhabitants after the destruc­tion of the Hapsburg monarchy, had unanimously declared their desire for annexation to the German Reich. Thus the right of self determination, which had been proclaimed by President Wilson as the most important basis of national life, was simply denied to the Sudeten Germans. But that was not enough. In the treaties of 1919, certain obligations, with regard to the Ger­man people, which according to the text, were far reaching, were imposed on the Czechoslovak State. These obligations also were disregarded from the first. State Release 1938, No. 470, pp. 222 f. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, pp. 264 f.)

Benes states that his country will negotiate. ("Although Czechoslovakia has already made greatest sacrifices which touch the country's vital interests, it does not break off negotiations, desirous of seeing the conflict solved by peaceful means by agreements. Czechoslovakia has also signed a treaty of arbitration with Germany, has already proposed to settle the present dispute under its terms and is ready to renew this offer." Presi­dent Benes to President Roosevelt. State Release, Oct. 1, 1938, p. 221.)

Britain sent Sir Horace Wilson to Berlin. (To propose British mediation between Germany and Czechoslovakia. Lee, p. 341. ". . . as a last effort to preserve peace." Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. 11, p. 286.)

British Foreign Office announced France would be bound to aid Czechs if Germany attacked and that Britain and Russia would certainly stand by France. ("It is still not too late to stop this great tragedy and for the peoples of all nations to insist on settlement by free negotiation." Ibid., p. 261.)

In Sportspalast speech, Chancellor Hitler said he sought no further territorial acquisitions in Europe. ("It is the last terri­torial claim which I have to make in Europe. . . . When this problem is solved, there will be no more territorial problems for Germany in Europe . . . from the moment Czechoslovakia solves its problems . . . peacefully, without oppression, I shall no longer be interested in the Czech state. . . . And this I guarantee, we don't want any Czechs at all." French, p. 7. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 259.)
166 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
Hungary again demanded equal treatment with Sudetens for Hungarian minority in Czechoslovakia. (Cf. Sept. 21, supra. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 696. "The Hungarian Government would regard any differentiation in the practical application of the right of self determination of nationalities and of the principle of equality of rights, if made to the disadvantage of the Hungarian nationality, as an unfriendly attitude." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 344.)
September 27. President Roosevelt again cabled Hitler. ("The conscience and the impelling desire of the people of my country demand that the voice of their government be raised again and yet again to avert and avoid war." State Release 1938, No. 470, p. 224. Cf. Peace, p. 429.)

Poland sent to Czechoslovakia plan for cession of Teschen. (Cf. Sept. 25, supra. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 697.)

Prime Minister Chamberlain repudiated the British Foreign Office announcement of Sept. 26. (". . . we cannot in all circumstances undertake to involve the whole British Empire in war simply on her [Czechoslovakia's] account." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 271.)
September 28. Prime Minister Chamberlain proposed conference of Czechoslovakia, France, Italy, and Britain with Germany. ("I feel certain that you can get all essentials without war and without delay. . . . I feel convinced we could reach agreement in a week. . . . I cannot believe that you will take responsibility of starting a world war which may end civilization far the sake of a few days' delay in settling this long standing problem." Ibid., p. 272.)

Chancellor Hitler consented to wait 24 hours. (Premier Mussolini telegraphed such advice. Lee, p. 344. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, pp. 306, 311, 319.)

Chancellor Hitler invited Chamberlain, Mussolini, and Daladier to come to Munich. (Italy and Germany had arranged to hold conference at Munich Sept. 29 for political and military collabo­ration. Premier Mussolini advised four power conference. Lee, pp. 343 f. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 288.)
September 29. Four Powers agreed to cession of Sudetenland. (". . . taking into consideration the agreement already reached in principle for the cession of the Sudeten German territory . . ." French, No. 12, p. 11. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 289.)

Britain and France offered to guarantee new boundaries of Czechoslovakia against external aggression. Ibid., p. 290; ". . . as a contribution to the pacification of Europe." Ibid., p. 214.)


September 30. Prime Minister Chamberlain and Chancellor Hitler signed reciprocal pledge for consultation. ("We are determined to continue efforts to remove possible sources of difference and thus contribute to assure the peace of Europe." Lee, p. 346. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 93, and Ibid., Vol. II, p. 291.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 167


Poland sent ultimatum to Czechoslovakia to get Teschen area by October 2. (A few thousand, Poles dwelt within Czechoslo­vakia; desire to prevent Germany from acquiring a region of great strategic and economic value. Lee, p. 354; Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, pp. 343 f.)

Czechoslovakia accepted Munich agreement. (". . . in the knowledge that the nation will be preserved, and that no other decision is possible today." Ibid., p. 326.)

League Council adopted a resolution for investigation of alleged use of poison gas by Japan. (Cf. May 14, supra.); also one declaring that members might individually adopt measures against Japan under Art. 16. ("In view of Japan's refusal of the invitation extended to her, . . ." Ibid., Vol. I, p. 377.)
October 1. German troops occupied Sudetenland. (Cf. Sept. 29, supra. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 697.)

Alfred Duff Cooper resigned as First Lord of Admiralty. (Protest against, appeasement at Munich. Lee, p. 347.)


October 2. Hungarians agreed to arbitrate about minorities. (Cf. Sept. 26, supra. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 697. ". . . in the spirit of the Munich decisions." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 346.)

Poles entered Teschen. (Cf. Oct. 1, supra. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 697; Lee, p. 354.)


October 3. Japan threatened counter measures to sanctions. (". . . the adoption by the Council of the report concerning sanctions against Japan has made clear the irreconcilability between the positions of Japan and the League, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs, 1938, Vol. I, p. 378.)

Slovakia presented ultimatum demanding full autonomy. (Cf. Mar. 29, supra. Survey 138, Vol. I, p. 697.)


October 5. Eduard Benes resigned as President of Czechoslovakia. ("I simply desire to facilitate the healthy development of the State and nation in home and foreign affairs." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 330.)
October 6. America protested to Japan on discriminatory practices in China. ("The Government of the United States has had frequent occasion to make representations to Your Excellency's Govern­ment in regard to action taken and policies carried out in China under Japanese authority to which the Government of the United States takes exception as being, in its opinion, in contravention of the principle and the condition of equality of opportunity, or the `Open Door' in, China. . . . The Government of the United States is constrained to observe, however, that notwithstanding the assurances of the Japanese Government in this regard viola­tions by Japanese agencies of American rights and interests have persisted." State Release 1938, No. 474, p. 283.)

Slovak Congress wished autonomy within a federally organised Czechoslovakia. (To preserve economic advantages. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 697. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 342.)


168 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
October 7. Germany concluded agreement for loan to Turkey. (To finance exploitation of natural resources and development of rail, motor road, and river transportation. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 701; Lee, p. 357.)
October 8. Czechoslovakia promised autonomy to Slovakia and Ruthenia. (Minority demands. Cf. Mar. 29, supra. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 697.)
October 9. Britain sent further troops to Palestine. (Increasing dis­order caused by riots of Arab nationalists against the mandatory power and Jewish community: Cf. July 11 13, supra. Ibid., pp. 418 ff. Civil Administration outside Jewish areas and larger towns almost paralyzed. Ibid., p. 419.)

Italy announced 10,000 Italians would be evacuated from Spain. (To fulfill conditions for making effective Anglo Italian agreement. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 33. Cf. Apr. 16, supra.)


October 13. Plebiscite abandoned in remaining Czech areas. (". . . the final delimitation of the Sudeten German territory to be ceded to Germany can be made on the basis of the line fixed by the Commission on October 5, with whatever alterations the Commission may recommend in accordance with the text of Article 6 of the Munich Agreement." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, pp. 339 f.)

Hungary mobilized. (". . . the counter proposals which were handed to us this morning concerning our new frontiers differ so greatly from our views that the gap between the standpoints of the two delegations regarding the new settlement is so wide that we are convinced there can be no hope of bridging it by these negotiations." Ibid., p. 347.)


October 24. Germany proposed return of Danzig, extraterritorial railroad and motor road across Corridor; extraterritorial road, railway and free port in Danzig for Poland; guaranteed market for Poland; mutual guarantee of common frontiers; prolongation of German Polish treaty 10 25 years; consultative clause added. (". . . it was time to make a clean sweep of all existing sources of friction between Germany and Poland." German, No. 197, p. 200.)
October 28. Germany arrested thousands of Polish Jews and rushed them over the Polish border. (Retaliation for Polish exclusion law. Cf. Ibid., No. 120, pp. 132 f.; Lee, p. 359.)
November 1. Czech Polish settlement added 419 square miles to the territory of the latter. (Cf. Oct. l. supra. Ibid., p. 354.)

Secretary of State Hull made an urgent appeal for a return to the ways of peace. ("If the nations continue along this road [to autarchy], . . . they will be marching toward the final catastrophe of a new world war, the horror and destructiveness of which pass human imagination. . . . The program which we advocate offers the only practicable alternative to a drift toward the anarchy of economic warfare, with all its disastrous conse­quences for the peace and progress of man." Peace, pp. 436, 438.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 169
November 2. Hungarian arbitration minority award made by Italo-­German commission. ("On the basis of the request addressed to the German and the Royal Italian Governments by the Royal Hungarian and Czechoslovak Governments to arbitrate in the dispute between them concerning the districts to be ceded to Hungary, and on the basis of the notes which were accordingly exchanged between the Governments concerned on October 30, 1938, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 351.)

Anglo Italian agreement of April 16 became effective. (Pre­mier Mussolini promised to withdraw remaining forces as soon as British plan for withdrawal went into operation; promised to send no more troops to Spain nor additional aircraft. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 161.)

Japan gave formal notice of withdrawal from League's social and technical organs. (They had been "slandering at every turn Japan's activities in China." Ibid., p. 548.)
November 3. Japan said establishment of new order was ultimate purpose of military campaign. ("This new order has for its foundation a tripartite relationship of mutual aid and coordina­tion between Japan, Manchukuo, and China in political, eco­nomic, cultural, and other fields. Its object is to secure inter­national justice, to perfect the joint defense against Communism, and to create a new culture and realize a close economic cohesion throughout East Asia." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 350; Japan, Vol. I, p. 478.)

Premier Fumimaro Konoye said Japan was eager to see a new order established in East Asia. (". . . China heretofore has been a victim of the rivalry between the Powers, whose imperial­istic ambitions have constantly imperiled her tranquility and independence. Japan realizes the need of fundamentally recti­fying such a state of affairs . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 349. Cf. Japan, Vol. I, p. 480.)


November 4. Japanese Foreign Office said Nine Power Treaty was obsolete. (Because of plans for new order. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 496.)
November 7. Herschel Grynszpan shot Ernst vom Rath, German diplomat in Paris. (Protest for deportation of Polish Jews. Lee, p. 361.)
November 9. British abandoned Palestine partition plan (rejected Partition Commission plans because of impracticability. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 43 7); planned parallel conferences of Arabs and Jews in London. ("It is clear that the surest foundation for peace and progress in Palestine would be an understanding between the Arabs and the Jews, and His Majesty's Government are prepared in the first instance to make a determined effort to promote such an understanding." Ibid., p. 437.)
November 10. Nazi pogrom. (Retaliation for vom Rath murder. Lee, p. 361.)

170 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II


November 12. Mexico agreed to compensate the United States for expropriations. ("The Government of Mexico, in its turn, while reaffirming its conviction that it has not acted contrary to the rules and principles of international law, of justice and equity, by the enactment and application of its agrarian legis­lation, is in agreement with the plan presented and takes pleasure in recognizing that the sentiments of cordial friendship which unite our two countries have in the end prevailed over differences of a technical and juridical order." State Release 1938, No. 477, p. 341. Cf. Mar. 19, May 26, July 21, Aug. 3, supra.)
November 14. The United States recalled its Ambassador from Berlin. ("With a view to gaining a first hand picture of the situation in Germany . . ." Ibid., p. 338. Cf. Peace, p. 439.)
November 16. Britain recognized the Italian Empire de jure. ("Where­as a protocol between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Italian Government, regarding questions of mutual concern, was drawn up on the 16th April, 1938; and

"Whereas the Agreements and Declarations annexed to the said Protocol, and more particularly described therein, were on that date signed by the plenipotentiaries of the said Governments; and

"Whereas it is provided in the Protocol that the said instru­ments shall take effect on such date as the two Governments shall together determine; . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 174.)
November 17. Germany rejected legal liability for Austrian indebted­ness. (". . . after a careful study of the pertinent procedures and principles based on international law, . . . supported by his­torical procedures . . . since they were brought about in order to support the incompetent Austrian state artificially created by the Paris treaties." State Release 1938, No. 479, p. 376; Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. II, p. 102.)
November 18. Japan rejected United States protest. ("The Japanese Government, with every intention of fully respecting American rights and interests in China, have been doing all that could pos­sibly be done in that behalf. However, since there are in progress at present in China military operations on a scale unprecedented in our history, it may well be recognized by the Government of the United States that it is unavoidable that these military operations should occasionally present obstacles to giving full effect to our intention of respecting the rights and interests of American citizens.

"Japan at present is devoting her energy to the establishment of a new order based on genuine international justice throughout East Asia, the attainment of which end is not only an indispensable condition of the very existence of Japan, but also constitutes the very foundation of the enduring peace and stability of East Asia.

"It is the firm conviction of the Japanese Government that in the face of the new situation, fast developing in East Asia, any attempt to apply to the conditions of today and tomorrow inapplicable ideas and principles of the past neither would contribute

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 171


toward the establishment of a real peace in East Asia nor solve the immediate issues." State Release 1938, No. 477, p. 352.)

Germany recalled its Ambassador from Washington. (To report on the United States attitude. Cf. Nov. 14, supra. Survey 1988, Vol. I, p. 701.)


November 19. France recognized the Italian Empire. (As a token of appreciation of the part played by Premier Mussolini during the Czechoslovakian crisis. Ibid., pp. 163 f.; Lee, p. 362.)

The Japanese Foreign Minister admitted that Japan would not support the open door in China. "Mr. Arita went on to say that there prevails a widespread feeling that the Japanese Government has now adopted a new policy–one of closing the open door in China. There had in fact, been no change in policy. His several predecessors had on several occasions given assurances to the American, British, and other representatives in Tokyo that Japan would respect the principle of the open door. As a matter of fact, those assurances were not intended to be unconditional, for the reason that the time had passed when Japan could give an unqualified undertaking to respect the open door in China. He was not implying that his predecessors had given the assur­ances in bad faith: on the contrary he felt certain that they were acting in the best of faith, but what they were attempting to do was to reconcile the principle of the open door with Japan's actual needs and objectives, and that could not be done. As had been previously explained, those objectives are to provide Japan with a market secure against any possible threat of economic sanctions and to acquire safe sources of necessary raw materials; but within those limits Japan was prepared to guarantee equality of opportunity. There would be given full consideration to those enterprises conducted by foreigners other than Japanese which would in no way conflict with or obstruct the carrying out of these primary objectives, and with respect to those enterprises, whether industrial, commercial, or financial, the Japanese Government was fully prepared to give unqualified guarantees. But with regard to other undertakings which overlapped the Japanese economic defence plans, it was no longer possible for Japan to extend any such guarantee." (Memorandum of conversation with Foreign Minister Arita by the Counselor of the American Embassy in Tokyo, Dooman. Japan, Vol. I, p. 801.)


November 24. Poland issued special decrees for defense of the realm. (Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 708.)
November 26. Poland and Russia renewed their nonaggression pact. (Power politics. Lee, p. 359.)
November 30. Premier Daladier broke a general strike of French labor protesting modification of Popular Front reform. (Resisted sabotage of appeasement policy. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 120.)

Italian deputies cried, "Tunisia, Corsica, Nice, Savoy." ("Spontaneous" outburst for Italian irredenta led by former secretary general of the Fascist party. Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 250.)



172 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
Japanese Emperor, Advisory Council, Army, Navy, and Privy Council were reported to have decided on policy regarding "new order in East; Asia." (Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 496.)
December 1. Unity of Czechoslovak Republic destroyed. (By grant of autonomy to Slovaks, who formed a separate government under Joseph Tiso, and grant of autonomy to Ruthenia. Lee, p. 355.)
December 3. Italian Government disclaimed responsibility for out­burst of Nov. 30. It did not express Government policy. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 166.)
December 6. France and Germany signed good neighbor pact, dis­claiming territorial designs. (". . . pacific and neighborly rela­tions between France and Germany constitute one of the essen­tial elements of the consolidation of the situation in Europe and of the preservation of general peace." French, No. 28, p. 34.)
December 9. Eighth Pan American Conference opened at Lima. (State Release 1938, No. 480, p. 423.)
December 12. Prime Minister Chamberlain said Britain had no legal obligation to assist France in the event of Italian aggression. (Commons, Vol. 342, col. 1580. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 167.)
December 13. Prime Minister Chamberlain said British relations with France were "so close as to pass beyond mere legal obligations, . . ." (". . . since they are founded on identity of interest." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 132.)
December 15. French Ambassador at Berlin, Robert Coulondre, re­ported that Germany was planning aggression in East. (Corol­lary to renunciation in the West. "The insistence with which it has been explained to me that Germany has no claims in the direction of France would have been enough to enlighten me. But I received even more explicit information; all those with whom I held conversations, with the exception of Herr Hitler, spoke to me, in different ways, and always with intentional vague­ness, of the necessity for German expansion in Eastern Europe, Herr von Ribbentrop spoke of the creation of zones of influence in the east and south east; Field Marshal Goering, of 'an essen­tially economic penetration in the south east.' " French, No. 33, pp. 40 f.)
December 16. M. Kiosseivanov, Bulgarian Prime Minister, said Poland was more threatened by Germany than southeastern Europe. (". . . M. Kiosseivanov did not consider as impossible an under­standing between the U. S. S. R. and the Reich, especially if the­ Comintern agreed to tone down its propaganda. Such had always been the dream of a section of the German General Staff. In that event, a fourth partition of Poland would allow Germany to proceed with her forceful drive eastwards." Ibid., No. 34, p. 43.)
December 17. Italy informed France that Italo French agreement of Jan. 7, 1935 (supra) must be reexamined. (Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, pp. 223 ff.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 173
December 19. Danzig Jews ordered by Nazi Government of Danzig to leave by April 1, 1939. (Danzig Government adopted Nazi racial policy Nov. 23. Survey 1938, Vol. I, p. 698.)
December 22. Japan stated extermination of Kuomintang regime in China and new order in East Asia were basic policy for adjusting relations between China and Japan. (". . . in order that their intentions may be thoroughly understood at home and abroad." Doc. Int. Affairs 1938, Vol. I, p. 353; Japan, Vol. I, p. 482)
December 24. Lima conference adopted a declaration of American soli­darity. ("Considering: That the peoples of America have achieved spiritual unity through the similarity of their republi­can institutions, their unshakable will for peace, their profound sentiment of humanity and tolerance, and through their absolute adherence to the principles of international law, of the equal sovereignty of states and of individual liberty without religious: or racial prejudices;

"That on the basis of such principles and will, they seek and defend the peace of the continent and work together in the cause of universal concord;

"That respect for the personality, sovereignty, the independ­ence of each American state, constitutes the essence of inter­national order sustained by continental solidarity, which historically has found expression in declarations of various states, or in agreements which were applied, and sustained by new declarations and by treaties in force; that the Inter American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, held at Buenos Aires, approved on December 21, 1936, the declaration of the principles of inter American solidarity and cooperation, and approved, on December 23, 1936, the protocol of nonintervention . . ." State Release 1938, No. 482, p. 474; Peace, pp. 439 f.)

Declaration of American principles. ("Whereas the need for keeping alive the fundamental principles of relations among nations was never greater than today; and

"Each state is interested in the preservation of world order under law, in peace with justice, and in the social and economic welfare of man kind . . ." State Release 1938, No. 483, p. 494; Peace, pp. 440 f.)
December 31. The United States rejected the new order in China. ("In the light of facts and experience the Government of the United States is impelled to reaffirm its previously expressed opinion that imposition of restrictions upon the movements and activities of American nationals who are engaged in philan­thropic, educational, and commercial endeavors in China has placed and will, if continued, increasingly place Japanese interests, in a preferred position and is, therefore, unquestionably dis­criminatory, in its effect, against legitimate American interests. Furthermore, with reference to such matters as exchange control, compulsory, currency circulation, tariff revision, and monopo­listic promotion in certain areas of China, the plans and practices of the Japanese authorities imply an assumption on the part of

174 EVENTS LEADING. UP TO WORLD WAR II


those authorities that the Japanese Government or the regimes established and maintained in China by Japanese armed forces are entitled to act in China in a capacity such as flows from rights of sovereignty and, further in so acting, to disregard and even to declare non existent or abrogated the established rights and interests of other countries, including the United States. . . . This government does not admit, however, that there is need or warrant for any one power to take upon itself to prescribe what shall be the terms and conditions of a `new order' in areas not under its sovereignty and to constitute itself the repository of authority and the agent of destiny in regard thereto." State Release 1938, Vol. I, No. 483, pp. 490 ff. Cf. Peace., pp. 442, 445.)

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