Holland 1732 Consolidated income group




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Holland 1732



Consolidated income group

Weighted number of households

Percentage of population

Per capita income

(in guilder per annum)



Income in terms of per capita mean


1

220

7.11

5

0.07

2

192

6.20

6

0.09

3

472

15.25

15

0.22

4

292

9.42

24

0.35

5

336.75

10.88

25

0.37

6

277.125

8.95

35

0.52

7

144.125

4.66

45

0.66

8

277

8.96

48

0.71

9

75.125

2.43

55

0.81

10

42.375

1.37

65

0.96

11

176

5.70

72

1.06

12

31.5

1.02

75

1.11

13

23.25

0.75

85

1.25

14

27

0.87

95

1.40

15

77

2.48

96

1.42

16

26.75

0.86

110

1.62

17

56

1.82

120

1.77

18

23.5

0.76

130

1.92

19

32

1.05

144

2.12

20

24.75

0.80

150

2.21

21

17

0.54

168

2.48

22

11.25

0.36

170

2.51

23

16.125

0.52

190

2.80

24

19

0.62

192

2.83

25

10

0.31

216

3.19

26

26.25

0.85

225

3.32

27

10

0.31

240

3.54

28

5

0.16

264

3.89

29

25

0.81

275

4.06

30

2

0.08

288

4.25

31

17.25

0.56

325

4.79

32

11.75

0.38

375

5.53

33

12.625

0.41

425

6.27

34

30

0.97

450

6.64

35

12.5

0.40

475

7.01

36

5.5

0.18

525

7.74

37

5.125

0.17

575

8.48

38

4.625

0.15

625

9.22

39

4.75

0.15

675

9.95

40

5.5

0.18

750

11.06

41

5.625

0.18

850

12.54

42

3.875

0.13

950

14.01

43

4

0.13

1150

16.96

44

1.75

0.06

1400

20.65

45

1.75

0.06

1750

25.81

46

0.25

0.01

2250

33.18

Total

3095

100

67..8

1



Income distribution data: The income distribution data are derived from taxes on dwelling rents. The rental values of all dwellings (including the poor) were taxed. We know that dwelling rents were highly correlated with income (Williamson 1985; van den Berg and van Zanden, 1988: pp. 193-215), but we also know that the elasticity of rents to income was less than one (between 0.72 and 0.75 in 1852-1910 Britain: Williamson 1985, p. 225). Thus, income inequality should be understated by rental values. With that understood, the source of the Dutch data is van Zanden (1995).
The consolidated Holland data for 1732 are obtained as a weighted average of distributions of household income for five regions: Amsterdam (with the weight of 25 percent), Delft (12.5 percent), countryside (37.5 percent), townships (12.5 percent) and Leiden (12.5 percent). The first four regions have the same income groups (with income ranges varying between 5 and 2250 guilders). Leiden’s distribution has different income ranges, going from 6 to over 400 guilders. The data in the table give a consolidated all-Holland distribution. The data for five regions were kindly provided by Jan Luiten van Zanden.
Population and area: Population is interpolated between 1500 and 1600 (983,176), and between 1700 and 1820 (2,002,783), from Maddison (2001). We use the area of modern Holland (21,680 km2).
Urbanization rate: From de Vries (1985).
Mean income in $PPP: GDP per capita in 1990 international dollars interpolated between 1500 and 1600, and between 1700 and 1820, from Maddison (2001: p. 264).
REFERENCES
de Vries, Jan (1985), “The Population and Economy of the Preindustrial Netherlands,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History XV, 4 (Spring): 661-85.

Maddison, Angus (2001), The World Economy: A Millennial Perspectives, Paris: OECD Development Centre.

van den Berg, W. J. and J. L. van Zanden (1988), “Vier eeuwen welstandlijkheid in Alkmaar, ca 1530-1930,” Tijdschrift voor Sociale Geschiedenis 19: 193-2

van Zanden, Jan Luiten (1995), “Tracing the beginning of the Kuznets curve: western Europe during the early modern period,” Economic History Review XLVIII, 4: 643-64.



Williamson, Jeffrey G. (1985), Did British Capitalism Breed Inequality? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


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