Hist of Women in us, Cott. Vol 6: Working on the Land




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184: Paper:

How did those attitudes change between 1850-1870? based on gender? based on uphill/downhill? based on town of origin? based on profession?

Book notes
Hist of Women in US, Cott. Vol 6: Working on the Land

Faragher:


“Indeed, abundant evidence demonstrates that from colonial times through the nineteenth century, Euro-American women engaged in from one-third to more than one-half of all the food production on family farms.” (p. 6)

“In short, before 1850s and the market revolution in prairie and Great Lakes agriculture, class relations of the production were not the most salient features of rural midwestern society.” (p. 13)

Most farms were similar in size, people were working for a sustainable competance, as in Vermont. So, question: when the midwest begins to be seen as commercial agriculture (and does this drive a re-visioning of how VT sees it’s agriculture??) does the image/idea of Vermont change. Is it cast in a more nostalic light because of the type of agriculture/life lived there? Is this a no duh?
Mentions Joan Jensen: With These Hands as saying women have always been present in nearly equal force to men, working the land. Thus, without their labor, farms would not be possible.
“Men were free to pursue the work of the public world precisely because the inequitable division of labor at home made them the beneficiaries of women’s and child’s labor. . . Men were freed from labor, in theory, to participate in the work of the larger social process.” (p. 16)
“Women were powerfully aware of the inequities of their lot and in private and woman-to-woman communication expressed their views on the subject deeply and often bitterly. But most of the energy women expended was not in the direction of resisting, but of accommodating to and shaping family order.” (p. 17) (and he refers to his other paper “Women and Men on the Overland Trail”

So, here’s an idea: the different is the image of Vermont for women? Mrs. Ladd writing to Elizabeth about their work…do transplanted women Vermonters see or describe Old Vermont or do they see their situation in the west as similar: family and work. For men, the land is different and that drives changes: commercial ag, tenants, laborers. but for women, the similarities might mean they don’t see the changes driven by commercial ag in time to respond to them.
Matrilinieal kin networks: elder sons inherit but other sons move away, usually while still single. Women marry near to home, thus daughters/sisters living near mothers/fathers. “These kin networks were important vehicles for sharing work, especially the care of children.” also “These kin networks were a social foundation for a strong and important female cultural tradition.” (p. 19)
After women’s work in ag production is altered by commercialization, women’s practice of accommodation turns into: “women’s self-assertion found vehicles of protest and resistance. The woman suffrage and temperance movements not only spoke directly to the needs of women for inclusion in the public world and for domestic reform, but struck directly at the male social solidarities of the poll and the cup.” (p. 22)

Susan Armitage “Women and Men in Western History: A Stereoptical Vision” from Cotts’s Hist of Women in US 6. Working on the Land pp. 286-


“The virtual omission of women from western history was a result of Turner’s fundamental insight that the story of the frontier was the struggle with the physical environment. Following Turner, historians havfe believed that although women were present in the West, they did not participate in the making of its history because they “hidden in the household”—engrossed in domestic chores and childrearing. The “real” life of the West—the subduing of the environment—was men’s work that went on in public spaces, away from the household.” (p. 288)

She footnotes this with T.A. Larson (women did not lead expeditions, command troops, etc.) “Women’s Role in the American West” Montana the Magazine of Western History, XXIV Summer 1972 2-11.


p. 289: women see themselves in groups

Roxana’s Children (CT 274.W375 B66
p. 25: “The part of the West which most temmpted Vemronters by the 1830s was the virgin region of southern Michigan, norther Illinois, and southeastern Wisconsin. Travel to these areas became easier in the 1840s as the water route opened all the way to Chicago, and highways such as the Ohio-Mississippa route imrpoved, opening up southern and central Illinois. By the 1850s regionds farther wes—Minnesota, Iowa, and Kansas—were the stopping places.”
p. 25: “Often before the wells were dug and the log cabins were replaced with more substantial structures, women pushed for the building of churches and schools in order to bring their New England civilization to their new home.”
p. 25-26: As part of the New England heritage, men and women took with them their Yankee traditions of hard work and frugality. The only thing they bought readily was acreage, and land speculation was rampant. New settlers often bought more land than they could use, hoping to sell the unneeded land for profit in a few years. Although the early emigrants began by clearing the land and harvesting crops, as if agriculture were their permanent calling, it was not long before they jumped at the chance to start a mill or a general store or a horse-breeding business in order to earn more money and free themselves from working the soil. Yankee ingenuity served them well as more and more Vemronters entered business and the professions.”
Tilden Family Letters (CS71.t55) compiled by Farwell T. Brown

Henry Huntington, Ames Iowa to George G. Tilden, Rochester, Vermont

January 28, 1869
“We have been blessed with a large revival here this month . . .It is certainly very pleasant to know that though one is far away from home and friends that we can look to the same God.” (p. 3)
George G. Tilden Mechaniscville, Iowa to Lydia C. Tilden, Rochester, Vermont

April 26, 1869

“Sometimes I am most pursuaded to take a trip to Missouri—and then I feel as though I do not wish to lengthen the distance from my old native state. Sam says it is harder for him to forget his associations at Rochester than all the others of his life. I know that I shall always have a love for Rochester and her people. Each day of my life my mind wanders back there…” (p. 13)
George G. Tilden Mechaniscville, Iowa to Lydia C. Tilden, Rochester, Vermont

June 4, 1869

“I purchased a residence building lot this P.M. on Douglass Avenue of Esq. Turner. It is between his lot and Mr. Stewart, a lumber dealer here late of Vermont. It is nearly half a mile from the store. The nearest neighbors are Vermont people. All came here this spring.” (p. 26)
Ellen M. (Emerson) Morris, Racine, Wisc Terr. to Mary Ann (Emercon) Cooper, Rochester, Vt

March 20, 1845

“The weather for the last week has been exceedingly warm. We like May better than March. There is not a speck of snow to be found in the thickest woods – the frost is nearly all out of the ground, and many of the prairie flowers are already in bloom. Can you say that of Vermont? I think not. But yet this country is prefereable to others in many respects. Yet there are objections to settling in Wisconsin – and one very prominent one is a want of society. That in many parts of our country is either very poor or none at all. In our settlement we have preaching once in two weeks.” (p. 101)
“It seems considerably like Vemront here now. There are so many of our relatives and acquaintances near. . .[Lyman] is very much pleased with the country – so much so that he says that he shall never go to Vermont to live again any length of time.” (p. 102)
“I should like to take a trip to my native land and once more behold the faces of those that are still dear although separated so great a distance.” (p. 102)

Stowe, VT History and Genealogy (F59.s75 s76)

Searls:


T.D.S Bassett: The Growing Edge

Paul says: “traces Vt’s retreat from the growth and ferment of Jacksonian…no iother book has attempted to synthesize…


p. 19: Rather than in declien, life in rural New England was genuinely stable and viable. .”

rise of pastoral identity has not been analyzed enough…


Lipsett, Linda Otto, Pieced from Ellen’s Quilt

CT275 .R3533 L57

Freund, Barbara. Among the Things that Were

Quarto F48 .F74


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