Gymnosperm conservation at cuc phuong national park, vietnam I. Introduction c




Yüklə 227.34 Kb.
tarix23.04.2016
ölçüsü227.34 Kb.



GYMNOSPERM CONSERVATION AT CUC PHUONG

NATIONAL PARK, VIETNAM

RSG_ID: 24.12.07 (March 1, 2008 – February 28, 2009)

Nguyen Manh Cuong


Cuc Phuong National Park, Ninh Binh – Vietnam


GYMNOSPERM CONSERVATION AT CUC PHUONG NATIONAL

PARK, VIETNAM
I. INTRODUCTION
Cuc Phuong National Park (PNP) is a hilly, forested limestone landscape located about 120 km southwest of Hanoi, at the boundary intersection of three provinces: Hoa Binh to the northwest, Thanh Hoa to the south and southwest, and Ninh Binh to the east. The geographic location is between 105o29' E to 105o44' E longitude and between 20o14' N and 20o24' N latitude. It covers an area of 20,000 hectares and is one of the biodiversity hotspots of Vietnam, harbouring 28% of plant species recorded in the country. These include 2073 species of plants distributed in 926 genera and 249 families (Thin, 1997; Soejarto et al., 2004). Of the 2073 species, 6 belong to the gymnosperms. These six species of gymnosperms are considered at risk and are listed in the IUCN Red List: Cycas hoabinhensis K.L. Phan & T.H. Nguyen (EN A4c), Cycas dolichophylla K.D. Hill, T.H. Nguyen & K.L. Phan (VU A2c and Listed on CITES Appendix II), Cycas balansae Warb. (NT), Cycas sexseminifera F.N. Wei (LR nt), Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don (LR/lc) and Nageia fleuryi (Hickel) de Laub. (NT). They are also listed in the Endangered Flora and Fauna Catalog (Appendix 3 - CITES) according to Decision 74 /2008/QĐ-BNN June 20, 2008 (international trade on endangered wild fauna and flora), which prohibits their exploitation for commercial purposes. Thus, these gymnosperm species rank high in the conservation priority and agenda of CPNP. Consequently, their protection and long-term conservation measures at CPNP need to be implemented.
GYMNOSPERM SPECIES AT CUC PHUONG NATIOAL PARK
The descriptions of the six species mentioned above are presented below.


Fig. 1. Podocarpus neriifolius Fig. 2: Nageia fleuryi
1 Podocarpus neriifolius (Fig. 1):

Narrow in distribution at Cuc Phuong National Park. Gymnosperm conservation study team found only an isolated population occurring at CPNP. This population is on the decline due to regeneration failures. Gymnosperm Conservation study team has initiated to grow 35 individuals within the gymnosperm conservation designated sites at CPNP as part of our attempt to preserve genetic resources of threatened plant species. P. neriifolius is listed in the Endangered Flora and Fauna Catalog (Appendix 3 - CITES) according to Decision 74 /2008/QĐ-BNN June 20, 2008 (international trade on endangered wild fauna and flora, which prohibits its exploitation for commercial purposes).


2. Nageia fleuryi (Fig. 2)

This species is considered at risk in the IUCN Red List. It has a narrow distribution range at Cuc Phuong National Park, and has been the target of exploitation to satisfy timber demands. Nageia fleuryi has two populations in the park, in remote limestone locations, and their survival is at risk. Consequently, ex-situ conservation was implemented at CPNP.






Fig. 3: Cycas dolichophylla




3. Cycas dolichophylla, C. sexseminifera, C. hoabinhensis, C. Balansae (Figs. 3-6)

All these four species have a narrow distribution range at Cuc Phuong National Park. Their populations are found only in remote and isolated limestone areas. Their survival is at risk, since they are the targets of commercial exploitation to satisfy ornamental plant demands. Consequently, ex situ conservation has been implemented in the park. The conservation status of these species is listed in Appendix 2 – CITES in the Endangered and Rare Fauna and Flora Catalog according to Decree 32/2006/NĐ – CP March 30, 2006, which prohibits their exploitation for commercial purposes.




Fig. 4: Cycas hoabinhensis



Fig. 5: Cycas balansae


Fig. 6: Cycas sexseminifera
Cycas hoabinhensis is endemic to Vietnam and has a restricted distribution in CPNP and the surrounding landscape. This species is considered endangered (IUCN). A second species, Cycas dolichophylla, listed as near vulnerable globally, is considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild due to increasing commercial exploitation for ornamental uses. For the other Cycas species, there is limited information on the population size and distribution globally, and in Vietnam. The threat to these species comes from high demand for their timber and as an ornamental in commercial trades.
Cycads are traded in the Vietnamese domestic market and abroad in Asia. Due to over-exploitation as a result of illegal trade, cycad species are rapidly disappearing in parts of their range. In view of their restricted distribution and the continuing problems with illegal logging in Vietnam, this valuable and near-threatened species with high economic value may be on the way to become extinct locally.
Despite our existing knowledge described above, little field data are available that would help improve measures to set up local conservation plans and action, including measures to help increase the population sizes of these threatened species. This argument is especially true in the case of CPNP, an ecosystem of conservation priority. Therefore, this project was proposed with the purpose to search new data to fill this void. It was felt that such data would allow CPNP to set a sound gymnosperm conservation plan and action.
II. PROJECT AIM AND OBJECTIVES
1. To study plant regeneration through a 50 x 20 m plot method, and to compile a database on ecological parameters of each species.
2. To provide distribution maps of species: determine species identity, habitat, location, population size.
3. To observe and record phenology (recording dates of flowering and fruiting) of each species as much as possible in different populations.
4. To initiate ex situ conservation program of threatened and endangered gymnosperms in cooperation with protected area managers and local communities.
5. To build a living gene bank of gymnosperm species in Cuc Phuong National Park through seed and cutting propagation experiments in Cuc Phuong nursery, and to transfer them to Gymnosperm Conservation Area.
6. To establish Threatened and Endangered gymnosperms conservation zones, and to involve local people, students and volunteers as active participants in the project.
III. METHODOLOGY
The study was implemented in Cuc Phuong National Park, with the following activities.
1. To conduct field surveys. The following activities were carried out: Set up plots to study regeneration and to calculate number of individuals for each species; collected voucher herbarium specimens for deposit at the CPNP Herbarium; measured altitude, longitude and latitude using a GPS instrument; took photographs; and took field notes on biological and ecological factors, including vegetation formation type, dominant species, natural regeneration, and responses to disturbance.
2. To collect seeds and cuttings for studying the cultivation requirements through the establishment of ex situ collections, to be managed in partnership with the Muong minority communities.
3. To conduct interviews with Muong minority people to determine the current status of each species, and to compile data on the exploitation of the gymnosperm species. Data to be queried included actual species distribution in the park provided by the people. Some villagers have high familiarity with the flora of the park. Forest managers, forest rangers and interested members of village communities were invited to participate in the field work survey throughout the proposed study area and period.
4. To map species distribution in the park based on GPS readings on site where individual plants were found.
5. To build a database (excel-based matrix) on species parameters (distribution, habitat, population size, soil conditions, phenology, among others).
6. To set a plan for conservation management of gymnosperm taxa at CPNP, with the involvement of CPNP managers and village authorities.
7. To hold seminars and meetings with participation of local communities, in order to raise their awareness to conserve these threatened plant taxa, hence, to get input for action plan.
8. To disseminate findings of the study to the local Muong minority communities and to Cuc Phuong National Park, and to prepare manuscripts for publication.
IV. RESULTS
1. GYMNOSPERM COMMUNITY STRUCTURES AND REGENERATION STUDY


Fig. 7: Gymnosperm plots setup to study community structures and regenerations

Six plots each the size of 0.1 ha (20 x 50 m) were set up in different locations (Fig. 7).

The study compiled a database on ecological parameters of each species. Regeneration

studies also documented all saplings distributed inside the study plots. Result of field

studies may be summarized as follows.


1. Field study group
2. Study group on the way to set up study plots at the top of limestone hill in Thanh Yen commune – Cuc Phuong National Park
3. Numbering plants inside the study plots.
4. Regeneration study
5. Herbarium specimen collections

1. a. Podocarpus neriifolius (Thong tree)

The survey at Cuc Phuong National Park found only a single isolated population of Podocarpus neriifoliuson the peak of a limestone hill in the center of the Park (200 20.625’ N; 1050 35.470’ E). Within the survey plot (20 x 50 m = 1000 m2) at the top of the hill, the Podocarpus neriifolius population consists of 6.2% total individuals as compared to other species. The total percentages are:16.5% Calophyllum balansae; 11.3% Diospyros mollis; 10.3% Xerospermum noronhianum; 7.2% Planchonella obovata; 6.2% Podocarpus neriifolius; 5.2% Sinosideroxylon racemosum; 5.1% Eriobotrya sp.; 5.1% Schefflera pes-avis; 3.1% Decaspermum parviflorum; 3.1%

Mangifera flava; 26.9% other species.
The study also found that Podocarpus neriifolius population in this location is undergoing reduction in size: there are only 7 mature individuals in 1000 m2, with 2 dead, leaving only 5 living individuals.
Regeneration study found 25 saplings (Table 1) within 1000 m2. Of these, 5 individuals are less than 20 cm in height, 13 individuals 40 – 160 cm, and 7 individuals higher than 160 cm. It is estimated that for these saplings to reach maturity, it would take 3-5 years. It was also observed that germination rate of Podocarpus neriifolius was low. The factor that appears to affect germination rate is habitat condition, made up of 90% limestone mixed with feralite soil. It was evident that only seeds that reached feralite soil would be able to maintain their life cycle.
1. b. Nagei fleuryi – Kim giao

The field survey found some isolated populations at the peak of a limestone hill located between the Prehistoric Cave of Early Man and Dan station (200 18.032’ N; 1050 39.826’ E). The study, conducted in a plot of 20 x 50 m , found that Nagei fleuryi population occupies 5.4 % of the total individuals in this plot community: 29.7% Dredrocnide urentissima; 8.1% Streblus laxiflorus; 5.4% Trigonostemon stellaris; 5.4 % Neocinnamomum lecomtei; 5.4 % Dimocarpus longan; 5.4 % Nageia fleuryi; 5.4 % Beislchmiedia sp.; 5.4 % Trevesia palmata; 29.7% other species.


Regeneration study found 5 saplings (Table 1); no individual sapling was less than 20 – 40 cm; 2 individuals 40 – 100 cm; 2 individuals 100 - 160 cm; and 1 individual higher than 160 cm. Therefore, development of seedlings to reach maturity varies, and has apparently taken place for quite a long period. It may be noted that regeneration process is low. The causes may lie in the habitat condition, which consists of only limestone substrate with little feralite soil. Only when a seed reaches feralite soil will the plant be able to maintain their life cycle. Nagei fleuryi is dioecious plant; hence it needs both male and female individuals to reproduce sexually.
1. c. Cycas dolichophylla

The survey found two isolated populations of Cycas dolichophylla on valleys at the center of Cuc Phuong National Park (200 22. 427 N; 1050 32.743’E) at the edge of a limestone hill with soil substrate, and in the Cui commune in Lac Son district of Hoa Binh province (200 21. 694’ N; 1050 35.223’ E) and at Bua Trang valley in Bong center.


In a plot of 20 x 50 m at the edge of a limestone hill, the study found that Cycas dolichophyla population comprises 12.2 % of the individuals in this plot: 14.6% Saraca dives; 12.2% Cycas dolichophyla; 7.3% Pometia pinnata; 7.3% Ficus nervosa; 4.8% Canarium album; 4.8% Oreocnide intergrifolia; 4.8% Aglaia lawii; 4.8% Elaeocarpus apiculatus; and 39.4% others.
Regeneration study found 5 saplings (Table 1). One individual sapling was less than 20 – 40 cm in height, 2 individuals from 40 – 80 cm, and 2 individuals from 80 - 120 cm. Therefore, the development rate from seedling to maturity varies. Overall, the regeneration rate under field conditions is low.
1. d. C. sexseminifera

The field survey found two populations of C. sexseminifera on an isolated limestone hill in the park. One population is located at 200 15.564’ N; 1050 38. 686’ E at the top of the hill, on limestone-soil substrate near ranger station number 12 at Thanh Yen commune of Thach Thanh district, in Thanh Hoa province. The other (200 18.356‘N; 1050 41.341‘E) is located at Yen Quang commune of Nho Quan district, in Ninh Binh province.


A plot study (20 x 50 m) at the edge of the limestone hill found that C. sexseminifera population comprised 11.4% individuals within the plot: 44.6 % Streblus laxiflorus; 11.4 C. sexseminifera; 5 % Tarenna attenuata; 4 % Diospyros sp.; 3 % Amesiodendron chinense; 3 % Melientha suavis; 3 % Heritiera macrophylla; 2 % Walsura bonii; 2 % Xerospermum noronhianum; 2 % Decaspermum parviflorum; 2 % Phoebe lanceolata; 2 % Diospyros mollis; 2 % Mitrephora calcarea;and 14 % other species.
Regeneration study found 24 saplings (Table 1), of which 8 less than 20 cm, 11 of 20 – 40 cm, and 5 individuals of 40 – 60 cm in height. Thus, there are variations in the development rate from seedling to maturity. The regeneration progression under field conditions is low.
1. e. C. hoabinhensis:

The survey found one population of C. hoabinhensis on an isolated limestone hill (200 18.356‘ N; 1050 41.341‘ E) at the top of the hill, where the substrate is limestone with soil, in Yen Quang commune of Nho Quan district, in Ninh Binh province.


In a plot of 20 x 50 m, C. hoabinhensis population comprises 16 % of individual plants found in the plot: 46 % Dracaena cochinchinensis; 16% Cycas hoabinhensis; 6 % Glochidion gamblei; 6 % Mitrephora calcarea; 4 % Xerospermum noronhianum; 4 % Bonidendron parviflorum; 4 % Schefflera pes-avis; 4 % Tirpitzia sinensis; and 10 % other species
Regeneration study found 13 sapling individuals (Table 1), of which one was less than 20 cm high; 10 individuals up to 20 – 40 cm high; and 2 individuals reach to 40 – 60 cm in height. This reflects variable development rate from seedling to maturity. The study observed that the regeneration rate of C. hoabinhensis under field conditions is low.
1. f. Cycas balansae

The study found two populations of Cycas balansae in an isolated limestone hill: 200 18.356‘N; 1050 41.341‘E at (Yen Quang commune, Nho Quan district, Ninh Binh province).


In a plot (20 x 50 m) study at the edge of the limestone hill, we found that Cycas balansae population comprises 12.5 % individuals of the total in the community (plot):47.9 % Dracaena cochinchinensis; 12.5 % Cycas balansae; 6.3 % Glochidion gamblei; 6.3 % Mitrephora calcarea; 4.2 % Xerospermum noronhianum; 4.2 % Boniodendron parviflorum; 4.2 % Schefflera pes-avis; 4.2 % Tirpitzia sinensis; 10.5 % other species. Regeneration study found 7 sapling individuals (Table 1), consisting of 5 individuals of up to 20 – 40 cm high, and 2 individuals of 40 – 60 cm.
This reflects the variation of the development of this species in reaching maturity. Observations indicate that under field conditions the regeneration process and rate of C. balansae are low.
1. g. Forestry regeneration criteria

To assess sapling regeneration, we used standard forestry survey method as follows. First, healthy plants are defined as those in good growth condition, symmetrical in shape, not twisted, diseased or headless plants. Weak plants are those in poor growth condition, twisted, and diseased.


Hence, the study assessed sapling regeneration based on the prospect whether a sapling has or does not have the prospected to become a component of the forest structure. We applied this forestry standard inventory method in our study at Cuc Phuong National Park. Regenerating plants are divided into two height levels: <40-100 cm plants considered not having development prospect), and those >100 cm (considered to have a good prospect). This classification, however, applies only to Podocarpus neriifolius and Nageia fleuryii, and not to Cycas species.
As discussed above, regeneration study in six plots showed low percentages of Gymnosperm regenerations at Cuc Phuong (Table 1). Therefore, Gymnosperm conservation efforts in this park must utilize and apply all criteria considered above during the course of the propagation study period, with each species treated individually in the Cuc Phuong’s nursery.
Table 1: Gymnosperm regeneration studies in six plots at Cuc Phuong


No

Species

Plot locations

Total

plots


(10 x

10 m)


Subplots

with


regenera

tion


Plant number

Height category

Total

plants


Good

plants


Weak

plants


<100 cm

>100 cm

1

Podocarpus

neriifolius

N 200 20.625

E 1050 35.470



10

5

25

21

4

12

48

13

52

2

Nageia fleuryi

N 200 18.032

E 1050 39.826



10

1

5

4

1

2

40

3

60

3

Cycas

dolichophylla

N 200 21.694

E 1050 35.223



10

3

5

3

2

4

80

1

20

4

Cycas

hoabinhensis

N 200 18.377

E 1050 41.311



10

5

13

12

1

13

100

0

0

5

Cycas

sexseminifera

N 200 18.356

E 1050 41.341



10

6

24

20

4

24

100

0

0

6

Cycas balansae

N 200 15.245

E 1050 41.729



10

2

7

5

2

7

100

0

0

T

Beatles damage male corns of Gymnosperm species during reproduction season


he study observed that rate of development in the

regeneration of Cycas dolichophylla, Cycas sexseminifera,



Cycas hoabinhensis, and Cycas balansae under field

conditions is low. The factors that may have affected the

low regeneration percentages may be rationalized, as

follows.
First, habitat conditions, specifically, limestone substrate

mixed with little Feralite soil. Field observations indicate

that only seeds that are dispersed into feralite soil would

be able to complete their life cycle. Cycas are dioecious

species; two plants (male and female) are needed for

successful regeneration. As a result, it is difficult to

accomplish sexual reproduction during the pollination period

(when only male plant on one site).

Furthermore, Cycas populations have a restricted

distribution, and population sizes are small and have been

decreasing.



Second, beetles devour and damage the male cones of Gymnosperm species during the reproduction season.

Third, moths eat the young leaves and the young shoots during germination under field conditions.

Fourth, illegal exploitation of mature Gymnosperm species as a result of demands for ornamental purposes reduced the number of mature individuals to complete the life cycle. Clearly, these factors affect the longevity of gene resources under natural conditions.

Gymnosperm exploitation to satisfy demands for ornamental plants



2. DISTRIBUTION MAP OF GYMNOSPERRM SPECIES AT CUC PHUONG NATIONAL PARK.

This map provides the locations of Gymnosperm species found in Cuc Phuong National Park. Most of these species are distributed on peaks of limestone hills. The location of the study populations were recorded using a GPS instrument, and documented by collection data, that include voucher specimens, named locations, date of collection, specific habitat, plant field characters, and geographic coordinates (UTM). Additionally, field data on life form, microhabitat, number of individuals on the site, state of flowering or fruiting, dispersers and pollinators, fruit/seed collection data (if in fruiting state), phenology were also documented.
3. PHENOLOGY STUDY
Phenological observations were made on several mature female individuals of the six gymnosperm species being studied, and to collect seeds for conservation propagation. Based on forestry plant propagation criteria in the conservation and gene development, mother plants must be selected among individuals that reached maturity, good growth, and in full development. In our study, for propagation study, mother plants were selected from plants growing mainly on limestone hills at remote areas, and in forest valleys within Cuc Phuong National Park. However, for most species, enough mature mother individuals could not be found. In the first year of the gymnosperm conservation study at Cuc Phuong National Park, only 4 species were found that provided seeds for the initial Gymnosperm Conservation Research. The result of phenology observations are given in Table 2.
Table 2: Phelonogy data collections of gymnosperm conservation study at Cuc Phuong National Park


Species

Month (1 = January)




1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

C. hoabinhgensis

Lm,

Lo


Lm,

Lo


Ly,

Lm


Ly,

Lm


Ly,

Lm,


Cm

Ly,

Lm,


Cm,

Cf


Ly,

Lm,


Cf

Lm,

Fy


Lm,

Fy


Sh,

Lm,


Fm

Sh,

Lm,


Fm

Sh,

Lm,


Fm

C. dolychophylla

Lm,

Lo


Lm,

Lo


Ly,

Lm


Ly,

Lm,


Cm

Ly,

Lm,


Cm,

Cf


Lm,

Cf


Lm,

Fy


Lm,

Fy


Sh,

Lm,


Fy

Sh,

Lm,


Fm

Sh,

Lm,


Fm

Lm,

Fr


C. seximinifera

Lm,

Lo


Lm,

Lo


Sh,

Ly


Ly

Lm,

Cm


Lm,

Cf


Lm,

Fy


Lm,

Fm


Sh,

Lm,


Fy

Sh,

Lm,


Fm

Sh,

Lm,


Fm

Lm,

Fr


C. balansae

Lm,

Lo


Lm,

Lo


Sh,

Ly


Ly

Ly,

Lm


Lm,

Cm,


Cf

Lm,

C


Lm

Sh,

Lm


Ly,

Lm


Ly,

Lm


Lm

Podocarpus nerriifolius

Ml,

Lo


Ly,

Lm,


Lo

Ly,

Lm


Ly,

Lm


Ly,

Lm,


Cm

Ly,

Lm,


Cm,

Cf


Lm,

Fy


Lm,

Fy


Lm,

Fm


Lm,

Fr


Lm,

Fr


Lm

Nageia fleuryi

Ml,

Lo


Ly,

Lm,


Lo

Ly,

Lm


Ly,

Lm,


Cm

Ly,

Lm,


Cm

Lm,

Fy


Lm,

Fy


Lm,

Fm


Lm,

Fr


Lm,

Fr


Lm

Lm

Note: Abbreviation

Sh – Shoot Cm - Male cone Fm - Mature fruit Ly – Young leaf Cf - Female Cone Fr- Ripe fruit

Lm - Mature leaf Fy - Young fruit S – Seed Lo – Old leaf
4. INITIATION OF EX-SITU GYMNOSPERM CONSERVATION AT CUC PHUONG
The project set up one hectare plot as a living Gene Bank of Endangered and Threatened Gymnosperm species at Cuc Phuong National Park in line with the mission of the park, namely, to manage and to protect natural resources, and to conduct scientific research.
As a first step in the implementation of the project, 6 category E and V gymnosperm species have been planted in a one hectare conservation zone at Cuc Phuong National Park.
4. a. Propagation

Seed germination


Collected seeds of three species (Cycas dolichophylla; Cycas sexseminifera; Nageia fleuryi) were planted in the ex-situ site described above for the period of May to October, 2008. Seeds were germinated in the park’s nursery. The results to date are presented in Table 3.


Table 3: Gymnosperm seeds propagation study.


No

Species

Series

Fruit

weight

Number

(Seeds)

Exterminated

mushroom method

Sowing date

Sowing method

1

Cycas dolichophylla

I

60 fruits/kg

30

To exterminate

mushroom


before sowing

through Benlat

solution.


10/3/2008

Sand & moisture

soil (to exterminate

by Daconile for sowing

environment)



II

550

20/3/2008

2

Cycas sexseminifera

I

220 fruits/kg

35

4/4/2008

II

72

20/3/2008

3

Nageia fleuryi




98 fruits/kg

196

2/4/2008

No

Species

Series

Date of

Germination

Number

germinated

Germination

percentage

Transfer date to PE plastic bag

Mixed soil bag

1

Cycas dolichophylla

I

5/7/2008

18

60

27/10/2008

95% soil + 4 % organic fertilizer + 1 % NPK

II

15/6/2008

254

46

29/9/2008

2

Cycas sexseminifera

I

15/7/2008




60

20/10/2008

II

12/6/2008

21

85

26/9/2008

3

Nageia fleuryi




25/6/2008

139

71

29/9/2008


Cycas dolichophylla has a germination percentage of 46 – 60%; Cycas sexseminifera 60 – 85%; Nageia fleuryi 71%.
In addition, propagation experiments found harmful insects (worms of the butterfly species Chilades pandava) destroyed young leaves during the germination period from March to September. Periodic spraying of pesticide was made for two weeks (during the period of young development) with Vitashield 40 EC or Boverin product, Permecide 50 EC 1% concentration and Diazan 10 H against termites.
Stem cutting propagation
Gymnosperm cuttings gathered during field surveys and from plants confiscated from collectors for ornamental exploitation were used in the propagation study. Entire cuttings were used in the Ex-situte Gymnosperm Conservation site at Cuc Phuong National Park. The growth from cuttings showed a high percentage (Table 4).
Table 4: Cutting propagation study.


No

Species

Collection

date

Number of

Cuttings

Germination

substrate

Percentage

of Living

individuals

1

Cycas dolichophylla

5/5/2008

30

Soil

100%

2

Cycas sexseminifera

7/6/2008

25




96%

3

Cycas hoabinhensis

6/4/2008

20

95%

4

Cycas sp

5/6/2008

20

90%

Transplant of saplings

Saplings of regenerating individual plants of Nageia fleuryi and Podocarpus neriifolius were transferred to the ex-situ Gymnosperm Conservation site. The regeneration percentages are high 75% - 82% (Table 5).

Table 5: Transfer of sapling study


No

Species

Collection

date

Number of

Saplings

Percentage

of living

plants

Note

1

Nageia fleuryi

20/4/2008

230

75%

Growing in

Gymnosperm

Conservation

site


2

Podocarpus neriifolius

17/4/2008

80

82%

Gymnosperm seed collection

To support a long-term gymnosperm conservation effort, small amounts of seeds of gymnosperm species were collected from sites of the gymnosperm populations and are grown in Cuc Phuong National Park’s nursery.


No

Species

Collection

date

Amount (kg)

Preservation

conditions

Note

1

Cycas dolichophylla

20/12/2008

3

Dry

Seeds to support

conservation

propagation at

CPNP in the

future.


2

Cycas sexseminifera

24/12/2008

1.5

3

Cycas hoabinhensis

26/12/2008

1.5

4

Nageia fleuryi

30/12/2008

2.5


4. b. Planting Activities in Gymnosperm Conservation Area
The project implemented ground-breaking and cleanup of a 1-hectare area near the headquarters of Cuc Phuong National Park. The project included the preparation of a small nursery to receive propagules (cuttings, transplants, and seeds for germination). This activity is part of Cuc Phuong’s effort to conserve rare, vulnerable, and endangered Gymnosperm species found in the park.
Gymnosperm conservation is focused on protecting threatened and endangered gymnosperm species at Cuc Phuong National Park and Vietnam.
• It is the first Ex situ conservation effort of rare genetic pools of Gymnosperm species found in the park;
• The study involved local people, students and volunteers as active participants in the Gymnosperm Conservation program at Cuc Phuong National park. Study was initiated by planting 6 Gymnosperm species in the Gymnosperm Conservation Area. Individual plants developed well under care in controlled conditions, free of harmful insects. The next step was to transfer strong individual plants to the Gymnosperm Conservation site (Fig. 8).

Fig. 8: Gymnosperm species planted in the Gymnosperm Conservation Area


Gymnosperm Conservation Area & Collection Conservation Section at Cuc Phuong National park


Gymnosperm Ex-situte conservation has found encouraging support and enthusiasm from Youth members of Cuc Phuong’s Youth Union and the local people. To date, 60 individuals of Podocarpus neriifolius, 200 individuals of Nageia fleuryi (from seed propagation and transferred saplings), and 95 individuals from cuttings of 4 Cycas species are already established at the Collection Conservation Section. Gymnosperm Conservation project has helped encourage biodiversity conservation activities among minority communities who live in areas surrounding Cuc Phuong National Park. The study has also helped in increasing conservation awareness on Threatened and Endangered species and in conservation management at Cuc Phuong National Park.
V. PARTICIPATION OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES IN THE PROJECT
Activities of the Gymnosperm Conservation Study included interviewing local people, managers, rangers, and scientists on the distributions and conservation status of gymnosperm species at Cuc Phuong National Park (Figs. 9 – a,b,c,d ).

Figs. 9 (a,b,c,d): Interviewing local people, managers, rangers, and scientists on

the distributions and conservation status of gymnosperm species at Cuc Phuong National

Park
58 local people who currently grow ornamental plants have been interviewed 41.5 % of them have collected C dolychophylla for ornamental purposes. We told them that this species is rarely found in nature. 8.6 % of the people have collected hoabinhensis, 40 % have collected C seximinifera,, and 8.6 % have collected Cycas spp. A 3.4 % have collected other species that are rare in nature (see Fig. 10).


Interview showed that Nageia fleuryi has been previously collected for timber use purposes for building house and to make chopsticks. Fortunately, at present this activity has stopped. On the other hand, local people said that Podocarpus neriifolius has never been seen in nature at Cuc Phuong National Park.

Fig. 10: Gymnosperm species are threatened by the demands of human ornamental



Exploitation
VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This study indicates the presence of 6 gymnosperm species at CPNP, whose populations are currently decreasing in number. Low regeneration rate has clearly impacted in the maintenance of the population size of these species in their natural conditions. Consequently, it is compelling to take action to propagate and to maintain mature female plants in their natural conditions, as well as in ex-situ setting
Gymnosperm conservation should maintain and evaluate species in ex-situ conditions as a long-term effort. Working in this project with the participation of local people will build conservation managers who can assist in gathering information on the conservation status of gymnosperm species.
Meanwhile, investments in in-situ and ex-situ gymnosperm conservation should be strengthened not only at Cuc Phuong National Park, but throughout Vietnam as well. Staff of CPNP should continually be trained to develop better expertise in biodiversity conservation work, which will help supervise special projects, such as mapping the distribution of endangered gymnosperm in Cuc Phuong National Park.
Investments to upgrade facilities of the gymnosperm collection conservation areas will ensure the survival of these species in North of Vietnam. Cooperation and coordination in research on gene conservation with local and international organizations, as well as with private stakeholders should be initiated to define future gymnosperm conservation targets at Cuc Phuong National Park.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I wish to express sincere thanks and appreciation to Dr. Soejarto who kindly made comments and suggestions on this report and offered useful criticisms. Thanks also expressed to the Vietnam Forest Protection Department, Cuc Phuong National Park for permission to undertake the field study. Research for this study gymnosperm conservation program has been supported by a grant (RSG_ID: 24.12.07) from Rufford Foundation Small Grant Program, which is greatly acknowledged and thanked.
REFERENCE
IUCN. 2008. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species www.iucnredlist.org Soejarto, D.D., Hiep, N.T., Loc, P.K., Cuong, N.M., Bien, L.K., Dai, T.D., Jack R. (2004) Seed Plants of Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam. A Documented Checklist. Published by Cuc Phuong National Park, Ninh Binh, Vietnam. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi, Vietnam, pp. i-xxxiv, 1-760, plates IXCIX.
Thin, N. N. (1997). The Vegetation of Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam. Sida 17(4): 719-759.


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azrefs.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə