Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes Ecoregion Associated Maps




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Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes Ecoregion
Associated Maps
Ecoregions of Texas………………...1

Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes……3


Associated Tables
The Texas Priority Species List…….1
Priority Species

Group

Species Name

Common Name

State/Federal Status

Birds

Aimophila aestivalis

Bachman's Sparrow

ST




Aimophila cassinii

Cassin's Sparrow

SC




Amazilia yucatanensis

Buff-bellied Hummingbird

SC




Ammodramus henslowii

Henslow's Sparrow

SC




Ammodramus leconteii

Le Conte's Sparrow

SC




Ammodramus maritimus

Seaside Sparrow

SC




Ammodramus nelsoni

Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow

SC




Ammodramus savannarum

Grasshopper Sparrow

SC




Anas acuta

Northern Pintail

SC




Anas fulvigula

Mottled Duck

SC




Anthus spragueii

Sprague's Pipit

SC




Arenaria interpres

Ruddy Turnstone

SC




Athene cunicularia

Burrowing Owl

SC




Aythya affinis

Lesser Scaup

SC




Aythya americana

Redhead

SC




Aythya valisineria

Canvasback

SC




Botaurus lentiginosus

American Bittern

SC




Buteo albicaudatus

White-tailed Hawk

ST




Buteo lineatus

Red-shouldered Hawk

SC




Buteo swainsoni

Swainson's Hawk

SC




Calcarius mccownii

McCown's Longspur

SC




Calidris canutus

Red Knot

SC




Calidris himantopus

Stilt Sandpiper

SC




Calidris mauri

Western Sandpiper

SC




Cardinalis sinuatus

Pyrrhuloxia

SC




Chaetura pelagica

Chimney Swift

SC




Charadrius alexandrinus

Snowy Plover

SC




Charadrius melodus

**Piping Plover

FT/ST




Charadrius wilsonia

Wilson's Plover

SC




Chloroceryle americana

Green Kingfisher

SC




Chondestes grammacus

Lark Sparrow

SC




Chordeiles minor

Common Nighthawk

SC




Circus cyaneus

Northern Harrier

SC




Cistothorus platensis

Sedge Wren

SC




Coccyzus americanus

Yellow-billed Cuckoo

SC




Colinus virginianus

Northern Bobwhite

SC




Contopus virens

Eastern Wood-Pewee

SC




Coturnicops noveboracensis

Yellow Rail

SC




Dendrocygna bicolor

Fulvous Whistling-Duck

SC




Dendroica cerulea

Cerulean Warbler

SC




Dendroica discolor

Prairie Warbler

SC




Dendroica dominica

Yellow-throated Warbler

SC




Dryocopus pileatus

Pileated Woodpecker

SC




Egretta caerulea

Little Blue Heron

SC




Egretta rufescens

Reddish Egret

ST




Egretta thula

Snowy Egret

SC




Egretta tricolor

Tricolored Heron

SC




Elanoides forficatus

Swallow-tailed Kite

ST




Empidonax virescens

Acadian Flycatcher

SC




Eremophila alpestris

Horned Lark

SC




Falco columbarius

Merlin

SC




Falco mexicanus

Prairie Falcon

SC




Falco peregrinus tundrius

Arctic Peregrine Falcon

ST




Falco sparverius

American Kestrel (Southeastern)

SC




Gallinago delicata

Wilson's Snipe (formerly Common Snipe)

SC




Grus americana

**Whooping Crane

FE/SE




Haematopus palliatus

American Oystercatcher

SC




Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Bald Eagle

SC




Helmitheros vermivorum

Worm-eating Warbler

SC




Hylocichla mustelina

Wood Thrush

SC




Icterus cucullatus

Hooded Oriole (both Mexican & Sennett's)

SC




Icterus graduacauda

Audubon's Oriole

SC




Icterus spurius

Orchard Oriole

SC




Ictinia mississippiensis

Mississippi Kite

SC




Ixobrychus exilis

Least Bittern

SC




Lanius ludovicianus

Loggerhead Shrike

SC




Laterallus jamaicensis

Black Rail

SC




Limnodromus griseus

Short-billed Dowitcher

SC




Limnothlypis swainsonii

Swainson's Warbler

SC




Limosa fedoa

Marbled Godwit

SC




Limosa haemastica

Hudsonian Godwit

SC




Melanerpes aurifrons

Golden-fronted Woodpecker

SC




Melanerpes erythrocephalus

Red-headed Woodpecker

SC




Mycteria americana

**Wood Stork

ST




Myiarchus crinitus

Great Crested Flycatcher

SC




Numenius americanus

Long-billed Curlew

SC




Numenius phaeopus

Whimbrel

SC




Nyctanassa violacea

Yellow-crowned Night-Heron

SC




Oporornis formosus

Kentucky Warbler

SC




Parabuteo unicinctus

Harris's Hawk

SC




Passerina ciris

Painted Bunting

SC




Pegadis chihi

White-faced Ibis

ST




Pelecanus erythrorhynchos

American White Pelican

SC




Pelecanus occidentalis

**Brown Pelican

FT/SE




Picoides borealis

**Red-cockaded Woodpecker

FE/SE




Picoides scalaris

Ladder-backed Woodpecker

SC




Platalea ajaja

Roseate Spoonbill

SC




Pluvialis dominica

American Golden-Plover

SC




Podiceps nigricollis

Eared Grebe

SC




Porphyrio martinica

Purple Gallinule

SC




Protonotaria citrea

Prothonotary Warbler

SC




Rallus elegans

King Rail

SC




Rallus longirostris

Clapper Rail

SC




Recurvirostra americana

American Avocet

SC




Rynchops niger

Black Skimmer

SC




Scolopax minor

American Woodcock

SC




Seiurus motacilla

Louisiana Waterthrush

SC




Setophaga ruticilla

American Redstart

SC




Sitta pusilla

Brown-headed Nuthatch

SC




Spiza americana

Dickcissel

SC




Sterna forsteri

Forster's Tern

SC




Sterna nilotica

Gull-billed Tern

SC




Sturnella magna

Eastern Meadowlark

SC




Thryomanes bewickii

Bewick's Wren (Eastern)

SC




Toxostoma longirostre

Long-billed Thrasher

SC




Toxostoma rufum

Brown Thrasher

SC




Tringa flavipes

Lesser Yellowlegs

SC




Tringa melanoleuca

Greater Yellowlegs

SC




Tringa solitaria

Solitary Sandpiper

SC




Tryngites subruficollis

Buff-breasted Sandpiper

SC




Tympanuchus cupido attwateri

**Greater Prairie-Chicken (Attwater)

FE/SE




Tyrannus forficatus

Scissor-tailed Flycatcher

SC




Tyrannus tyrannus

Eastern Kingbird

SC




Vermivora chrysoptera

Golden-winged Warbler

SC




Vireo bellii

Bell's Vireo

SC




Vireo flavifrons

Yellow-throated Vireo

SC




Vireo gilvus

Warbling Vireo

SC




White-tailed Kite

White-tailed Kite

SC




Wilsonia citrina

Hooded Warbler

SC




Wilson's Phalarope

Wilson's Phalarope

SC




Zenaida macroura

Mourning Dove

SC













Mammals

Blarina hylophaga plumblea

Elliot’s Short-tailed Shrew

SC




Dipodomys compactus compactus

Padre Island Kangaroo Rat

SC




Felis pardalis

**Ocelot

FE/SE




Geomys attwateri

Attwaters Pocket Gopher

SC




Geomys personatus

Maritime Pocket Gopher

SC




Geomys personatus personatus

Barrier Island Texas Pocket Gopher

SC




Lasiurus ega

Southern Yellow Bat

ST




Lutra canadensis

River Otter

SC




Mustela frenata

Long-tailed Weasel

SC




Nasua narica

White-nosed Coati

ST




Nyctinomops macrotis

Big Free-tailed Bat

SC




Oryzomys couesi

Coues Rice Rat

ST




Puma concolor

Mountain Lion

SC




Spilogale putorius

Eastern Spotted Skunk

SC




Sylvilagus aquaticus

Swamp Rabbit

SC




Tadarida brasiliensis

Mexican Free-tailed

SC




Taxidea taxus

American Badger

SC




Trichechus manatus

**West Indian Manatee

FE/SE













Reptiles

Alligator mississippiensis

American Alligator (4 sp.)

SC




Amphiuma tridactylum

Three-toed Amphiuma

SC




Caretta caretta

Loggerhead Sea Turtle

FT/ST




Chelonia mydas

**Green Sea Turtle

FT/ST




Deirochelys reticularia

Chicken Turtle

SC




Dermochelys coriacea

**Leatherback Sea Turtle

FE/SE




Drymarchon corais

Western Indigo Snake

ST




Drymobius margaritiferus

Speckled Racer

ST




Eretmochelys imbricate

Hawksbill Sea Turtle

FE/SE




Gopherus berlandieri

Texas Tortoise

ST




Holbrookia lacerata

Spot-tailed Earless Lizard

SC




Hypopachus variolosus

Sheep Frog

ST




Lepidochelys kempii

**Kemp’s Ridley Sea Turtle

FE/SE




Macrochelys temminckii

Alligator Snapping Turtle

ST




Malaclemys terrapin

Diamond-backed Terrapin

SC




Necturus beyeri

Gulf Coast Waterdog

SC




Nerodia clarkia

Saltmarsh Snake

SC




Notophthalmus meridionalis

Black-spotted Newt

ST




Ophisaurus attenuatus

Slender Glass Lizard

SC




Rana areolata

Crawfish Frog

SC




Rana grylio

Pig Frog

SC




Scaphiopus hurterii

Hurter’s Spadefoot

SC




Siren sp.

Rio Grande (Lesser) Siren

ST




Sistrurus catenatus

Massasauga

SC




Sistrurus miliarius

Pygmy Rattlesnake

SC




Terrapene spp.

Box Turtles

SC




Group

 

Family

Species Name

Federal Status

Invertebrates













Araneae (Arachnida)













Dictynidae

Cicurina rudimentops (Chamberlin and Ivie)

SC







Dictynidae

Cicurina sintonia

SC




Coleoptera (Insecta)













Anobiidae

Ptinus tumidus (Fall)

SC







Anobiidae

Trichodesma pulchella (Schaeffer)

SC







Anobiidae

Trichodesma sordida (Horn)

SC







Anobiidae

Trichodesma texana (Schaeffer)

SC







Anobiidae

Tricorynus texanus (White)

SC







Anthribidae

Neoxenus versicolor (Valentine)

SC







Anthribidae

Ormiscus albofasciatus (Schaeffer)

SC







Anthribidae

Ormiscus irroratus (Schaeffer)

SC







Anthribidae

Phoenicobiella schwarzii (Schaeffer)

SC







Anthribidae

Toxonotus penicellatus (Schaeffer)

SC







Brentidae

Apion aculeatum (Fall)

SC







Brentidae

Apion buchanani (Kissinger)

SC







Brentidae

Heterobrenthus texanus (Schaeffer)

SC







Buprestidae

Agrilus dollii (Schaeffer)

SC







Buprestidae

Agrilus subtropicus (Schaeffer)

SC







Buprestidae

Pachyschelus fisheri (Vogt)

SC







Buprestidae

Spectralia prosternalis (Schaeffer)

SC







Buprestidae

Trigonogya reticulaticollis (Schaeffer)

SC







Carabidae

Agra oblongopunctata oblongopunctata (Chevrolat)

SC







Carabidae

Apenes sp. UASM 11

SC







Carabidae

Calleida fimbriata (Bates)

SC







Carabidae

Galerita aequinoctialis (Chaudoir)

SC







Carabidae

Nemotarsus rhombifer (Bates)

SC







Cerambycidae

Adetus sp. EGR 1

SC







Cerambycidae

Agallissus lepturoides (Chevrolat)

SC







Cerambycidae

Ataxia tibialis (Schaeffer)

SC







Cerambycidae

Cacostola lineata (Hamilton)

SC







Cerambycidae

Callipogonius cornutus (Linsley)

SC







Cerambycidae

Desmiphora aegrota (Bates)

SC







Cerambycidae

Dihammaphora dispar (Chevrolat)

SC







Cerambycidae

Ecyrus penicillatus (Bates)

SC







Cerambycidae

Hemierana marginata suturalis (Linell)

SC







Cerambycidae

Sphaenothecus trilineatus (Dupont)

SC







Chrysomelidae

Baliosus sp. EGR 1

SC







Chrysomelidae

Brucita marmorata (Jacoby)

SC







Chrysomelidae

Chaetocnema rileyi (White)

SC







Chrysomelidae

Chlamisus maculipes (Chevrolat)

SC







Chrysomelidae

Dibolia championi (Jacoby)

SC







Chrysomelidae

Disonycha barberi (Blake)

SC







Chrysomelidae

Disonycha stenosticha (Schaeffer)

SC







Chrysomelidae

Epitrix sp. EGR 1

SC







Chrysomelidae

Heptispa sp. EGR 1

SC







Chrysomelidae

Malacorhinus acaciae (Schaeffer)

SC







Chrysomelidae

Megascelis texana (Linell)

SC







Chrysomelidae

Octotoma championi (Baly)

SC







Chrysomelidae

Pachybrachis duryi (Fall)

SC







Chrysomelidae

Pachybrachis sp. EGR 2

SC







Chrysomelidae

Pachybrachis sp. EGR 6

SC







Chrysomelidae

Parchicola sp. EGR 1

SC







Chrysomelidae

Pentispa distincta (Baly)

SC







Chrysomelidae

Plagiodera thymaloides (Stal)

SC







Coccinellidae

Diomus pseudotaedatus (Gordon)

SC







Coccinellidae

Hyperaspis rotunda (Casey)

SC







Curculionidae

Allopentarthrum sp. TAC 1

SC







Curculionidae

Allopentarthrum sp. TAC 2

SC







Curculionidae

Andranthobius sp. TAC 1

SC







Curculionidae

Apteromechus texanus (Fall)

SC







Curculionidae

Brachystylus microphthalmus (Champion)

SC







Curculionidae

Chalcodermus semicostatus (Schaeffer)

SC







Curculionidae

Chalcodermus serripes (Fahraeus)

SC







Curculionidae

Conotrachelus rubescens (Schaeffer)

SC







Curculionidae

Elleschus sp. TAC 1

SC







Curculionidae

Eubulus sp. TAC 1

SC







Curculionidae

Haplostethops sp. TAC 1

SC







Curculionidae

Notolomus sp. TAC 1

SC







Curculionidae

Notolomus sp. TAC 2

SC







Curculionidae

Platyomus flexicaulis (Schaeffer)

SC







Curculionidae

Plocetes versicolor (Clark)

SC







Elateridae

Anchastus augusti (Candeze)

SC







Languriidae

Hapalips texanus (Schaeffer)

SC







Languriidae

Loberus ornatus (Schaeffer)

SC







Languriidae

Toramus chamaeropis (Schaeffer)

SC







Mycetophagidae

Berginus sp. EGR 1

SC







Phengodidae

Cenophengus pallidus (Schaeffer)

SC







Ptilodactylidae

Lachnodactyla texana (Schaeffer)

SC







Salpingidae

Dacoderus n. sp. (Aalbu & Andrews, ms.)

SC







Scarabaeidae

Deltochilum scabriusculum scabriusculum (Bates)

SC







Scarabaeidae

Malagoniella astyanax yucateca (Harold)

SC







Scarabaeidae

Onthophagus batesi (Howden & Cartwright)

SC







Scarabaeidae

Phanaeus adonis (Harold)

SC







Tenebrionidae

Rhypasma sp. EGR 1

SC







Tenebrionidae

Strongylium aulicum (Maklin)

SC







Tenebrionidae

Strongylium championi (Gebien)

SC







Tenebrionidae

Talanus mecoselis (Triplehorn)

SC




Lepidoptera (Insecta)













Hesperiidae

Euphyes bayensis

SC







Hesperiidae

Stallingsia maculosus

SC







Saturniidae

Agapema galbina

SC







Saturniidae

Sphingicampa blanchardi

SC




Hymenoptera (Insecta)













Apoidea

Andrena (Micrandrena) micheneri (Ribble)

SC







Apoidea

Brachynomada (Melanomada) sp. A

SC







Apoidea

Colletes saritensis (Stephen)

SC







Apoidea

Perdita (Cockerellia) fraticincta (Timberlake)

SC







Apoidea

Perdita (Cockerellia) tricincta (Timberlake)

SC







Apoidea

Perdita (Perdita) crotonis decipiens (Timberlake)

SC







Apoidea

Perdita (Perdita) fidissima (Timberlake)

SC

Location and Condition of the Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes Ecoregion


Following the line of the Texas coast, and extending inland approximately 60 miles, are the Gulf Coastal Prairies and Marshes. This 9,500,000-acre swath of land traces a broad arc along the coast from the Sabine River to Baffin Bay. Elevations range from near sea level to almost 150 feet AMSL, while annual average temperatures range from 70°F to 74°F. Soils of the marshy areas include acid sands, sandy loams and clay. Soils of the Gulf Prairies contain more clay than the marsh areas and are very rich in nutrients (Simpson, 1988). The character of the coastline is shaped by the long and continuous confrontation with the sea, wind, and rain. Storms shape this ecoregion as a sculptor works clay, creating a tapestry of shallow bays, estuaries, salt marshes, dunes and tidal flats. Because of the proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, many plants are highly salt tolerant or halophytic. The Coastal Bend begins at mid-coast near Corpus Christi where the shoreline is edged by Mustang and Padre Islands, described as part of the longest chain of barrier islands in the world. Here, Island dunes are spotted with sea oats, glasswort, beach evening primrose and railroad vine, hardy colonizers of the shifting beach-head sands. Sandy soils of the Coastal Bend also support distinctive Chenier woodlands of scrub oaks, yaupon, red-bay, and wax-myrtle. Tallgrass and midgrass prairies, as well as spartina marshes, make up a major portion of the coastal vegetation. Much of the upland areas are dissected with numerous sluggish rivers, bayous, creeks, and sloughs. Between the rivers, extensive open prairies are dominated by little bluestem, Indiangrass and various sedges. At one time, the coastal river bottoms of this area were clothed in woodlands of sugarberry, pecan, elms and coastal live oaks. Few such areas remain today, as most of these prairies are farmed, or absorbed into urban areas. Much of the remaining native sod of the Coastal Prairies has been invaded by exotics such as Macartney rose and Chinese tallow or native woody species including mesquite, prickly-pear, acacias and scrub oaks (Gould, 1975). Today rich coastal prairie soils are grazed for cattle production or farmed in rice, corn, grain sorghum, and cotton, while the northeastern end of this region is intensively devoted to the oil and petrochemical industries (Winckler, 1982).
Coastal areas are rich in wildlife. Where treeless earth meets endless sky, coastal marshes harbor hundreds of thousands of wintering geese and ducks and provide critical landfall in the spring for Neotropical migratory birds. The area is home to important wildlife sanctuaries and refuges -- notably those protecting the endangered Attwater's prairie-chicken and the whooping crane. In the fall, coastal dunes serve as sentry roosts for northward-bound migrating peregrine falcons, while at any season there are lone willets, mini battalions of sanderlings, and congregations of gulls, terns and black skimmers feeding or loafing near the surf.
This ecoregion can be broken down into eight main habitat classes consisting of brushland, grassland, forest, marsh barrier island, native and introduced grasses, parkland, parkland woodland mosaic, and urban.

Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes Brushland


The Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes brushland consists of woody plants mostly less than nine feet tall which are dominant and growing as closely spaced individuals, clusters or closed canopied stands (greater than 10% canopy cover). Typically there is continuous, impenetrable cover of shrubs which are over 75% of the ground (McMahan et al. 1984, Bridges et al. 2002). Only one plant association dominates this habitat class.
The mesquite-blackbrush association comprises the following plants: lotebush, ceniza, guajillo, desert olive, allthorn, whitebrush, bluewood, granjeno, guayacan, leatherstem, Texas pricklypear, tasajillo, kidneywood, yucca, desert yaupon, goatbush, purple three-awn, pink pappusgrass, hairy tridens, slim tridens, hairy grama, mat euphorbia, coldenia, dogwood, knotweed leafflower, and two-leaved senna. This association is typically found on upland shallow, loamy or gravelly soils in the south Texas plains ecoregion, although it barely extends into the Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes ecoregion (McMahan et al. 1984). Cross-referenced communities: 1) freer mixed brush (Davis and Spicer 1965), 2) barretal (USFWS 1983), 3) blackbrush-twisted acacia (McLendon 1991), 4) blackbrush series (Diamond 1993), 5) blackbrush xerophytic brush (Bezanson 2000), and 6) blackbrush-cenizo-guajillo shrubland alliance (Weakley et al. 2000). The mesquite-blackbrush association is demonstratably secure globally and within the state of Texas (Diamond 1933). As a whole, this community is stable and common, however, there are a few plants found within this association that are rare and should have selective protection (USFWS 1983, Weakley et al. 2000). This community is considered low priority for further protection, excluding the discriminatory protection of a few rare species (Bezanson 2000).
Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes Grassland
Grasslands consist of herbs (grasses, forbs, and grasslike plants) which are dominant. Woody vegetation is lacking or nearly so (generally 10% or less woody canopy cover) (McMahan et al.1984). There are three dominant plant associations found in the Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes grassland.
The blue grama-buffalograss association is a shortgrass grassland which is most commonly found in the central and northwestern High Plains. However, there are scattered, isolated patches in the Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes ecoregion. It is recognized by dominant upland soils (McMahan et al. 1984, Diamond 1993). Common plants associated with this subclass include sideoats grama, hairy grama, sand dropseed, cholla cactus, grassland prickly pear cactus, narrowleaf yucca, western ragweed, broom snakeweed, zinnia, rushpea, scurfpea, catclaw sensitive briar, wild buckwheat, and woollywhite (Table/Appendix #) (McMahan et al. 1984). Cross-referenced communities: 1) mixed prairie climax (Rowell 1967), 2) blue grama-buffalograss (Diamond 1993), 3) blue grama-buffalograss short grasslands (Bezanson 2000), and 4) blue grama herbaceous alliance (Weakley et al. 2000). The blue grama-buffalograss community is considered secure globally. Statewide, this community is considered rare or uncommon. Non-native grasses, such as kleingrass, have been seeded on millions of acres throughout this community. Mesquite, narrowleaf yucca, juniper spp., and other brushy species have invaded these once treeless prairies. Broomweed spp., and other weedy forbs now dominate grazed pastures (Bezanson 2000). Approximately 21-100 occurrences are documented within the state (Diamond 1993). Due to these concerns, this community is considered of medium priority for further protection.
The bluestem association includes these plants: bushy bluestem, slender bluestem, little bluestem, silver bluestem, three-awn, buffalograss, bermudagrass, brownseed paspalum, single-spike paspalum, smutgrass, sacahuista, windmillgrass, southern dewberry, live oak, mesquite, huisache, baccharis, Macartney rose (McMahan et al. 1984). This community is common in loamy upland soils over most of the Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes ecoregion (McMahan et al. 1984, Diamond 1993). It is most prevalent in the grassland area of Goliad, Victoria and Refugio Counties and also the areas between Refugio and Victoria (McMahan et al. 1984). Cross-reference communities: 1) little bluestem-trichloris grassland (McLendon 1991), 2) little bluestem-brownseed paspalum series (Diamond 1993), 3) upland tall grasslands (Coastal Prairies) (Bezanson 2000), and 4) little bluestem-brownseed paspalum herbaceous (Weakley et al. 2000). The bluestem community is considered imperiled and highly vulnerable to extinction throughout its global range. Within the state, this community is considered imperiled and is highly vulnerable to extirpation due to its rare occurrences. Globally and statewide there are only 6-20 occurrences documented (Diamond 1993).
The seaoats-seacoast bluestem association includes croton spp., single-spike paspalum, Pan American balsamscale, flat sedge, sea purslane, cenicilla, bulrush, beach morning glory, goatfoot morning glory, sea rocket, and lime pricklyash (McMahan et al. 1984). This is a mid to tallgrass association which occurs on stable sand dunes and prefers excessively drained soils (Diamond 1993). These sandy coastal barrier islands are located from the high tide mark to the leeward marshes, and are also found on the mainland Gulf shoreline in patches (McMahan et al. 1984). Cross-referenced communities: 1) sea oats-bitter panicum series (Diamond 1993), 2) beaches and active coastal dunes (Bezanson 2000), and 3) cenicilla-beach morning glory series (Diamond et al. 1987), 4) railroad-vine herbaceous alliance, sea oats temperate herbaceous alliance (Weakley et al. 2000). The seaoats-seacoast bluestem community is apparently secure globally with over 100 occurrences documented. There are areas in this community’s range that it is considered rare, especially at the periphery. This community is considered rare or uncommon within the state with only 21-100 known occurrences (Diamond 1993).

Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes Forest


The Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes forest consists of deciduous or evergreen trees that are dominant in the landscape. These species are mostly greater than 30 feet tall with closed crowns or nearly so (71-100% canopy cover). The midstory is generally apparent except in managed monocultures (McMahan et al. 1984, Bridges et al. 2002). Three plant associations dominate this habitat class.
The bald cypress-water tupelo swamp association is found in acidic, hydric soils in the swampy flatlands of the Pineywoods, barely extending into the northeastern most portion of the Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes ecoregion
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