Guide to Ancient Egypt By Stuart Wier First appeared as




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Back to Contents Biographies of Modern Figures & Personal Accounts Howard Carter, The Path to TutAnkhAmun. T.G.H James. 1992. Howard Carter Before TutAnkhAmun. Nicholas Reeves and John H. Taylor. Abrams, 1992. [DMNS Lib.] Nile Notes of a Howadji: A Bibliography of Traveler's Tales From Egypt, to 1918. Martin Kalfatovic. Metchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 19923. 427 p. Flinders Petrie: A Life in Archaeology. Margaret S. Drower. London: V. Gollancz, 1985. 500 p. Recollections of an Egyptologist, Dows Dunham, Boston, 1972. 55 p. Worked at Boston with Reisner, starting in 1914. Seventy Years in Archaeology. W. M. Flinders Petrie. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1932. 307 p. A Thousand Miles up the Nile. Amelia B. Edwards. London: Longmans, Green, 1877. 732 p. reprinted many times since. Drawings by the author. Amelia Edwards, one of the great Victorian women travelers, went to Egypt in 1873 "to get out of the rain," and ended up an enthusiast for ancient Egypt, and a leading proponent of modern archeological methods and careful preservation. Her book is more than an historical curiosity. The excellent descriptions of the ancient monuments are still exciting and fresh. This might be the book to give to a literary friend who has not yet become interested in Egypt. Everyone interested in Egypt ought to read this. Letters from Egypt, A Journey on the Nile 1849 - 1850. Florence Nightingale. London: Barrie and Jenkins. reprinted 1987. My First Hundred Years. Margaret Murray. London: Kimber, 1963. "Delightful." The first full-time woman archaeologist relates her first century. My Working Years. Alan Gardiner. London: Coronet, 1964. The great hieroglyph scholar. Bonaparte in Egypt. Herold J. Christopher. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1962. Who earned respect by bringing a bevy of scholars to Egypt, a very productive group. The World of the Pharaohs, Hans Baumann. color photographs by Albert Burges; line drawings by Hans Peter Renner. Pantheon, 1960. 256 p. recounts some of the great discoveries. "Delightful." The March of Archaeology. C. W. Ceram. NY: Knopf, 1958. 326 p. Pioneer to the Past: The Story of James Henry Breasted. Charles Breasted. Scribners, 1943, 1947. 436 pages. Biography of one of America's great Egyptologists. The Innocents Abroad. Mark Twain. Boston: Joseph Knight, 1895, and later. Includes humorous account of climbing the Pyramids. Ten Years Digging In Egypt 1881-1891. W. M. F. Petrie. NY: Fleming, 1892. Back to Contents Biographies of Ancient Figures Monarchs of the Nile. Aidan Dodson. London: Rubicon Press, 1995. 238 p. A concise account of the lives and times of some of the significant occupants of the Egyptian throne, from unification to Cleopatra. Chronicle of the Pharaohs. P. A. Clayton. Thames and Hudson, 1994(?). 224 p. 350 illus. A handy reference to all the kings, with many photos of images of the kings. Fragments of a Shattered Visage: The Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ramesses the Great. eds. R. E. Freed and E. Bleiberg. Memphis: Memphis State University, 1993. Ramses II. editors of Time-Life. Alexandria, Virginia, 1993. Another from the Lost Civilization series. Good coverage of topic with excellent color photographs. A Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. Rosalie David and Antony David. London: Seaby, 1992. 179 p. A good beginning reference on figures and sites. Who were the Pharaohs. Stephen Quirke. British Museum, 1990. 80 p. [US: Dover Publications]. Brief biography of prominent pharaohs; not a children's book. Hieroglyph name of each is shown. Cleopatra: Histories, Dreams, and Distortions. Lucy Hughes-Hallett. NY: Harper and Row, 1990. 338 pages. "Cleopatra" changes through time to support fads of the moment. And a true portrait. Hatshepsut. Amr Hussein. Elias Modern Press, Egypt, 1989. Ramses II: The Pharaoh and his time: learning resource packet for teachers, parents, and students. College of Education. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, 1985. [DMNS Lib.] Nefertiti and Cleopatra: Queen-Monarchs of Ancient Egypt. Julia Samson; introduction by H.S. Smith. London, UK: Rubicon Press, 1985. 150 p. Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramses II. K. A. Kitchen. Toronto: Benben; Warminster U.K.: Aris & Phillips, 1982. By an expert on the subject. [DMNS Lib.] Cleopatra. Michael Grant. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973. 324 p. noted popular historian Hatshepsut. Evelyn Wells. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1969. "The Search for Imhotep" Lionel Casson. Horizon magazine, Summer 1969. Lives of the Pharaohs. Pierre Montet. Cleveland: World Publishing, 1968. Pharaohs of Egypt. Jacquetta Hawkes. London: Cassell, 1967 [DMNS Lib.] Lady of the Two Lands: Five Queens of Ancient Egypt. Leonard Cottrell. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill 1967 238 p. First published in 1966 under title: Queens of the Pharaohs. Another good popularizer. Nefertiti. Evelyn Wells. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964. 300 p. Back to Contents Boats & Ships The ancient Egyptians were the first to build large vessels, even sea-going ships, and use them extensively, though this accomplishment is overshadowed by other feats. By 2500 B.C. they were transporting very large timbers by ship across the Mediterranean, and 50-ton granite blocks down the length of the Nile. Museum of Cheops Boat. Amal M. Safwat El-Alfy. Cairo: Egyptian Antiquities Organization Press, 1986. [DMNS Lib.] Ships and Seaman in the Ancient World. Lionel Casson. 2nd. ed. Princeton, 1986. Egyptian Boats and Ships. Steve Vinson. Shire Egyptology Series, Shire Publications, Church Street, Princes Risborough, Bucks HP27 9AJ U.K. A Glossary of Ancient Egyptian Nautical Titles and Terms. Dilwyn Jones. London; New York: Kegan Paul; New York, NY, USA: Distributed by Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 1988. The Royal Ship of Cheops. Paul Lipke. Greenwich: National Maritime Museum, 1984. The Boat Beneath the Pyramid. Nancy Jenkins. Thames and Hudson 1980. Ships of the Pharaohs. Bjorn Landstrom. Doubleday, 1970. The Ship. An Illustrated History. Bjorn Landstrom. Doubleday, 1961. Several paintings of how ancient Egyptian ships probably appeared, by a marine historian and skilled artist. The Cheops Boats. M. Z. Nour et al. Cairo 1960. The Navy of the Eighteenth Dynasty. T. Save-Soderbergh. Uppsala and Leipzig, 1946. Études de Nautique Égyptienne. L'Art de la Navigation en Égypte jusqu'a la Fin de l'Ancien Empire. Charles Boreux. Cairo, l'Institut Francais d'Archeologie Orientale, 1925. 569 p., 200 figures, and 3 plates. "Boreux specialized in Egyptian ships and nautical matters." Back to Contents Books, Children – Nonfiction There are many books about ancient Egypt for children, with new ones appearing all the time. Some are not always exactly correct. The first three in this list are the best general introductions to ancient Egypt I know of in print at the moment. See introductory books listed under other topics, such as Hieroglyhs, which are often good introductions for older children as well as adults. An Egyptian Pyramid, J. Morley, M. Bergin, and J. James, Peter Bedrick Books, 1991. Covers all society, not only pyramids. Best value for money in children's books. Ancient Egypt, Judith Crosher, Viking, 1992. What do we know about the Egyptians? Joanna DeFrates, Peter Bedrick Books, 1991, Cleopatra. Diane Stanley. New York: Morrow Junior Books, 1994. [DMNS Lib.] The Ancient Egyptians: Life in the Nile Valley. Viviane Koenig. Millbrook Press, 1992. 64 p. Hieroglyphs from A to Z: A Rhyming book with ancient Egyptian stencils for kids. Peter Der Manuelian. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1991. Ancient Egypt (Eyewitness Books series), George Hart, Knopf, 1990. Most of the book is some 200 excellent color photographs of actual ancient artifacts, many from everyday life. [DMNS Lib.] Ancient Egypt: Cultural Atlas for Young People. Geraldine Harris, New York: Facts on File, 1990. Into the Mummy's Tomb The Real-Life Discovery of TutAnkhAmun's Treasures, Nicholas Reeves, Scholastic, 1992. Just about the discovery; little about ancient Egypt. Reeves is an expert on Tut. The Giant Book of the Mummy, Rosalie David, Reed, 1992, 10p. and text on covers, 25 by 16 inches. More Tuttery. Despite the gimmick - huge size and stiff pages - this is really fairly good. Paintings of scenes from Tut's life (conjectural) and artifacts from the tomb. The author is an authority. Indiana Jones explores Ancient Egypt. John Malam. London: Evans Brothers Limited, 1991. "Indiana Jones, fictitious archeologist-adventurer, describes the civilization of ancient Egypt, its history, geography, dynasties, daily life, religion, art, and influences on subsequent civilizations" Only Indy could do all that in 47 pages! Pyramids of Ancient Egypt. John D. Clare; consultant editor Rosalie David. London, England: Bodley Head, 1991. 64 p. Photos use real people and reconstructed backgrounds. Language and Writing in ancient Egypt. David P. Silverman. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 1990. 48 p. The Riddle of the Rosetta Stone: Key to Ancient Egypt: illustrated with photographs, prints, and drawings. James Cross Giblin. New York: Crowell, 1990. 85 p. A Short History of Ancient Egypt. David O'Connor. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 1990. 40 p. ABC, Egyptian Art from the Brooklyn Museum. Florence Cassen Mayers. New York: Abrams, 1988. 32 p. Presents ancient Egyptian art objects from the Brooklyn Museum in alphabetical order (crocodiles, kings, mummies, pyramid, etc.). Science in Ancient Egypt. Woods, Geraldine. Watts, 1988. 92 p. Mummies Tombs, and Treasures. Lila Perl. NY: Clarion, 1987. 120 p. "Delightful." See Inside an Egyptian Town, Unstead (ed.), Barnes & Nobel 1986 Amarna period only; also a picture book plus text; about 75 p. Hieroglyphs the writing of Ancient Egypt, N. J. Katan, Antheneum NY 1981, 96p. Grades 6 - 8 or so. See also books listed under hieroglyphs. "Expedition" (a game), Whitehall Games, 1980, Newton Mass 02158. Mummies made in Egypt. Aliki. New York: Crowell, 1979. 32 p. Describes the techniques and the reasons for the use of mummification in ancient Egypt. The Mummy of Ramose: the life and death of an Ancient Egyptian nobleman. Shirley Glubok and Alfred Tamarin. New York: Harper & Row, 1978. 82 p. The Time Traveler Book of Pharaohs & Pyramids, Tony Allen, Usborne, 1977; lots of new drawings showing ancient Egyptian life. Ancient Egyptians, Pierre Miquel, Silver Burdett, 1979; both these two books similar and good; second slightly more advanced. Pyramid. David Macaulay; illustrated by the author. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975. 80 p. Text and black-and-white drawings illustrate plausible construction of Khufu's pyramid. The Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. T. G. H. James; drawings by Rosemonde Nairac. London: Bodley Head, 1972. 144 p. Egyptian Hieroglyphs for Everyone, J. and L. Scott, Harper Collins, 1968, 94 p. Grades 7 - 12? Fun with Hieroglyphs, Catherine Roehrig, Metropolitan Museum of Art, $20.00. A project kit to spell English words with hieroglyphs. Includes 24 rubber stamps of the hieroglyphs which come closest to being an alphabet. Do it yourself. Since hieroglyphs have almost no vowels, this is make-believe, but fun. Good to stimulate children's interest. The World of the Pharaohs, Hans Baumann. color photographs by Albert Burges; line drawings by Hans Peter Renner. Pantheon, 1960. 256 p. recounts some of the great discoveries. "Delightful." William and His Friends. A Group of Notable Creatures in the Metropolitan Museum of Art Herded Together. Elisabeth Naramore. Viking Press, 1936. William arrived at the Met in 1917, at age 4000, plus or minus a few years. Back to Contents Children – Fiction This section includes a selection from the article: "Ancient Egypt in Children's Fiction" by Elsa Harik in the magazine KMT, vol. 3 no. 2, Fall 1992 (KMT address listed at end of the Reader's Guide), plus other books. The Blue Faience Hippopotamus, Joan Grant, illustrations by Alexandra Day, Green Tiger Press, 1984. Beautiful pictures; delightful story. For reading to age 3 and up; reading by grades 2 or 3 and up. The Winged Cat: A Tale of Ancient Egypt. Deborah Lattimore. Harper Collins, 1992. [DMNS Lib.] The Prince who knew His Fate An Ancient Egyptian Tale translated from hieroglyphs and illustrated by Lise Manniche. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art/Philomel Books, 1981. 40 p. Retells the 3,000 year-old Egyptian tale of the prince whose fate, to die by a crocodile, a snake, or a dog, is decreed at his birth. How Djadja-em-ankh Saved the Day: a Tale from Ancient Egypt. translated from the original Hieratic with illustrations and commentary by Lise Manniche. New York: Crowell, 1977, 18 p. Third tale from Papyrus Westcar. Egyptian and English. Printed on a continuous sheet folded in accordion style. A tale of a king and his magician in Egypt 4500 years ago. The Mystery of the Pharaoh's Treasure. Janet Neavies. Lippincott, 1963. Amuny, Boy of Old Egypt. Miriam Schlein. Abelard-Schuman, 1961. 159 p. Boy of the Pyramids. Ruth Fosdick Jones. Random House, 1950. For readers in the middle grades: The Last Pharaoh. John Latimer. Thomas Nelson, 1970. Scarab for Luck. Enid Meadowcroft. Crowell - Harper -Collins 1964. Blossom Culp and the Sleep of Death. Richard Peck. Dell, 1987. The Sycamore Warrior. John Schealer. Dutton 1960. The Reluctant God. Pamela Service. Atheneum, 1988. Flash, Dog of Old Egypt. Lynn Hall. Garrard, 1973. Asterix and Cleopatra. Goscinny. 1965. Cartoon book. Silly but fun, including how the Sphinx lost its nose. All young classical history enthusiasts should meet Asterix and Obelix. Child of the Sun. Margaret Dulles. Boston: Beacon, 1939. 111 p. Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Back to Contents Young Adults – Fiction The Moon in the Cloud; The Shadow on the Sun; The Bright and Morning Star. all by Rosemary Harris. Faber and Faber (recent reprints). Mara, Daughter of the Nile. Eloise McGraw. Puffin 1985. The Lost Queen of Egypt. Lucille Morrison. Lippincott, 1937. Shadow Hawk. Andre Norton. Harcourt Brace, 1960. Honey of the Nile. Erick Berry. Oxford, 1940. 224 p. about Tut and his wife. Back to Contents Adult Fiction – Ancient Settings Murder in the Place of Anubis. Lynda S. Robinson. NY: Walker, 1994. 190 p. First novel by this author set at the end of the 18th dynasty (Amarna period). Murder at the God's Gate. Lynda S. Robinson. NY: Walker, 1995. 236 p. Second title in the series. Lord Menen, confidential advisor to King Tut, is on the case. Lots of clues and action. City of the Horizon, Anton Gill, 1991. Criminal detective mystery in Amarna. City of the Dreams, Anton Gill, 1993. City of the Dead, Anton Gill. A God Against the Gods. Allan Drury. Doubleday, 1976. 310 p. Akhenaten and Amarna. Return to Thebes. Allen Drury. Doubleday, 1977. 272 p. Sequel to A God against the Gods, including Tut and the end of Amarna. Lady of the Reeds. Pauline Gedge. Farrar Straus & Giroux. 1995. The Twelfth Transforming. Pauline Gedge. NY: Harper and Row, 1984. 407 p. Akhenaten and Amarna. "beautifully written" Mirage. Pauline Gedge. Nobleman succumbs to temptation of ancient curse. Plots relies on magic of immense power. Rather a dark novel, with no relief. You can have my copy. Child of the Morning. Pauline Gedge. NY: Dial Press, 1977. 403 p. Hatshepsut. Her-bak, The Living Face of Ancient Egypt. Isha Schwaller de Lubicz. Inner Traditions, 1978 (reprint). 344 p. Excellent, following a boy's initial education in nature and various crafts and his later introduction to the outer temple. Her-bak, Egyptian Initiate. Isha Schwaller de Lubicz. Inner Traditions, 1978 (reprint). 396 p. Continues the life of Her-bak and the teachings of the Inner Temple. King of the Two Lands. Jacquetta Hawkes. NY: Random House, 1966. 288 p. Amarna again. On a Balcony. David Stacton. NY: House and Maxwell, 1959. 256 p. Amarna, again, alas. Nefertiti Lived here. Mary A. Chubb. London, 1954. "an amusing and partly fictional book" on work at Amarna. The Egyptian. Mika Waltari. NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1949. More Amarna period. Prince of Egypt. Dorothy Wilson. 1947. The story used for deMille's second film of "The Ten Commandments," the big one. Death Comes as the End. Agatha Christie. Dodd Mead, 1944. The Egyptian setting of the XI Dynasty is correct. This is based on a real family of the Middle Kingdom, headed by the elderly priest Hekanakhte whose papers have survived by chance to the present day (see translations by T.J.H. James listed under hieroglyphs). Unfortunately not one of Christie's best stories. If you read French, try to find the novels of Christian Jacq. The following four novels and a collection of short stories by Joan Grant are strong on the spiritual or mystical angle. Some obvious errors of fact are used to promote the plots, such as chariots in the First Dynasty, but the atmosphere is very believable, and the writing is excellent. For some these novels will be very appealing; for others the historical errors and mystical elements may be a disincentive. All are still in print by a specialty publisher, from your bookstore. Winged Pharaoh, by Joan Grant. New York, London: Harper & Brothers, 1938. 382 p. First Dynasty period novel; very effective spiritual atmosphere; main character is a woman. Eyes of Horus, Joan Grant 1942. (Dynasty XI) Lord of the Horizon, by Joan Grant. London: Methuen & Co., 1943. 291p. Amenemhat I period (Dynasty XI; continuation of preceding?) So Moses was Born. Joan Grant 1952. (Dynasty XVI) The Scarlet Fish and Other Stories. Joan Grant 1942. Short stories with a moral. Back to Contents Modern Settings The Bat Flies Low. Sax Rohmer. NY: Burt, 1935. 314 p. Murder mystery involving ancient cult. The Tragedy of the Korosko. A. Conan Doyle. 1898; reprinted by Gaslight Publications 1990. A party of British and American tourists, traveling on the Nile boat Korosko, are kidnapped by rebels against the government, and the army turns out in pursuit. Sound familiar? (Sherlock Holmes does not appear in this story.) The Amelia Peabody mysteries: The Crocodile on the Sandbank, 1975. 262 p. The Curse of the Pharaohs. 1981. 285 p. The Mummy Case, 1985. 313 p. The Lion in the Valley. 310 p. The Deeds of the Disturber. 1988. 289 p. The Last Camel Died at Noon, 1991. 430 p. The Snake, the Crocodile, and the Dog. 1993. All by "Elizabeth Peters," a pseudonym for Barbara Mertz who earned a Ph.D. in Egyptology from the Oriental Institute, and who appears under her own name several times in this bibliography. These mystery and adventure novels describe the very progressive, opinionated and regrettably fictional Victorian English Egyptologist Amelia Peabody Emerson, her husband Radcliffe Emerson and her son Ramses. The setting, excavations, and historical archeologists who make brief appearances are quite correct. ("The Last Camel" has a really far-fetched plot, though it is based on an actual legend of a lost oasis; kind of a Rider Haggard African story. The others are not quite so improbable.) These combine real understanding of Egyptian history and excavations, with good yarns, funny dialog, and lively perceptions about the war between the sexes. See if you can note where Amelia and Emerson almost find Tut's tomb, by accident, twenty years before Carter. Probably best if read in order, but try any one to get started. Back to Contents Science Fiction The high-tech Manuscripts of the Richards’ Trust series are about a university Egyptologist who is also a temporal field agent. The ESS author includes lots of valuable historical details along with extraterrestrials and international intrigue. Bow Tie. The First Manuscript of the Richards’ Trust. W.J. Cherf. Createspace, 2011. Recovery. The Second Manuscript of the Richards’ Trust. W.J. Cherf. Foxbat Publishing, 2011. Children of Ptah. The Third Manuscript of the Richards’ Trust. W.J. Cherf. Foxbat Publishing, 2011. Imhotep. The Fourth Manuscript of the Richards’ Trust. W.J. Cherf. Foxbat Publishing, 2013. Back to Contents Coinage Contributed by Ted M. Snook Coinage was not minted in ancient Egypt until the Ptolemaic period. The Ptolemaic Egyptian coins are some of the finest from the ancient world; beautiful objects to see indeed. Back to Contents Ptolemaic Kings: 336 to 30 BC The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, vol. 8., SNG Copenhagen. Kromann & Morkholm, Sunrise Publications Inc., reprint of 1982. 31 p. "premier reference." Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum Italia Milano, Vol. XIII, Comune di Milano, 1989. 146 p. Written in Italian but not too difficult to use; excellent cross reference with SNG Copenhagen, listed above. Greek Coins and Their values, Vol II. Asia & Africa. David Sear, Seaby Publ., 1979. Best general overview, limited in scope, excellent introduction & history section; well illustrated. Back to Contents Roman Egypt: AD 14 to 305 Katalog Alexandrinischer Kaisermunzen der Sammlung. Angelo Geissen, Univ. Koln, WestDeutcher Verlag, 1983. 5 vols. Premier reference, written in German but very usable with the aid of a German dictionary and a little patience. Fully and beautifully illustrated. Catalog of Alexandrian Coins. J. G. Milne. Univ. of Oxford Ashmolean Museum, 1971. reprinted by Spink and Son Ltd. Excellent introduction to Roman Egyptian coins, though somewhat dated. Tetradrachms of Roman Egypt. James W. Curtis. Durst Pub. reprinted 1990 with six additional supplements. Most complete reference on tetradrachms; supplements well illustrated. Roman Coins and their values. David Sear. Seaby Pub., revised 1971. Excellent introduction and history of Roman Alexandrian coinage; limited in scope; well illustrated. Back to Contents Conservation of Artifacts In the Tomb of Nefertari: Conservation of the wall paintings. Malibu, Calif.: Bianchi and McDonald, J. Paul Getty Museum and The Getty Conservation Institute, 1992. 88 p. Art and Eternity: the Nefertari wall paintings Conservation Project, 1986-1992 Miguel Angel Corzo and Mahasti Afshar, editors. [Santa Monica, Calif.]: J. Paul Getty Trust, 1993. "A joint project of the Getty Conservation Institute and the Egyptian Antiquities Organization." Wall Paintings of the Tomb of Nefertari: scientific studies for their conservation: first progress report, July, 1987: a joint project of the Egyptian Antiquities Organization and the Getty Conservation Institute. Cairo, Egypt; Century City, Calif., The Institute, 1987. Special publication of the Annales du Service des Antiquites de l'Egypte. prefatory matter in Arabic and English. The Conservation of Ancient Egyptian Materials, Watkins and Browne, eds. 1988. Back to Contents Chronology Chronology of the Ancient World. E.J. Bickerman. 2nd ed. Cornell University Press: Ithaca, 1982. Good source for Egypt and its relations with the rest of the Mediterranean Basin. Relative Chronologies in Old World Archaeology. Robert W. Ehrich, ed. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1954. Still important. Chronologies in Old World Archaeology. Robert W. Ehrich. Ed. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1965. Still important. A Test of Time. David Rohl. London: Century, 1994. Rohl presents evidence that he claims shows that the Third Intermediate Period, which is used to establish dates in the Holy Land, actually in error by some 200 years. His evidence purports to have the 21-24 dynasties of Egypt overlapping in their reigns. Using original evidence, he presents a case for re-computing the ties between the pharaohs of Egypt and the rulers of the Biblical lands. Centuries of Darkness: A Challenge to the Conventional Chronology of Old World Archaeology. Peter James. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1993. James tries to discover why the near eastern part of the Mediterranean seems to have many cultures that have centuries of unexplained darkness. His conclusions are that these civilizations are improperly dated due to an error in Egyptian chronology that can be explained by contemporaneous rule of the 21-24 Dynasties, which moves up the Old through New Kingdoms some 300 years, supposedly removing the "centuries of darkness." Egyptian Chronology, E. Wente et al., Oriental Institute University of Chicago, 1976. The Late New Kingdom in Egypt (1300-664 B.C.) A Genealogical and Chronological Investigation. M. L. Bierbrier. School of Archaeology and Oriental Studies. University of Liverpool, Aris and Phillips, 1975. [DMNS Lib.] Chronicles of the Pharaohs. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. Peter A. Clayton. Thames & Hudson: London, 1994. Great source for quick information on a particular pharaoh. A good starting point for deeper research. The Royal Canon of Turin. Alan. H. Gardiner. Oxford: Griffith Institute, 1959. 20 p. 9 plates. Important list of Kings. History and Chronology of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Donald B. Redford. University of Toronto Press, 1967. 235 p. Seven studies plus appendices on the chronology of the dynasty. Serious study by one of the best of the period. The Reigns of the Ptolemies. Theodore Cressy Skeat. 2nd ed. Bech’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung: Munich, 1969. Vital source on the chronology of the Ptolemies.
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