PROPOSAL FOR DRAFT 02 SERIES OF AMENDMENTS
TO REGULATION No. 66
Submitted by the expert from Germany
The text reproduced below is a consolidated version of Regulation No. 66 including the modification introduced by ECE/TRANS/WP.29/GRSG/2009/5. The modifications to the existing text of Regulation No. 66 are marked in bold characters.
Regulation No. 66
UNIFORM TECHNICAL PRESCRIPTIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF LARGE PASSENGER VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE STRENGTH OF THEIR SUPERSTRUCTURE
2. Terms and Definitions
3. Application for approval
5. General specifications and requirements
6. Modification and extension of approval of a vehicle type
7. Conformity of production
8. Penalties for non-conformity of production
9. Production definitely discontinued
10. Transitional provisions
11. Names and addresses of technical services responsible for conducting approval tests, and of administrative departments
Annex 1 - Communication concerning vehicle type with regard to the strength of its superstructure, pursuant to Regulation No. 66
Annex 2 - Arrangement of the approval mark
Annex 3 - Determination of the centre of gravity of the vehicle
Annex 4 - Viewpoints on the structural description of the superstructure
Annex 5 - Rollover test as the basic approval method
Annex 6 - Rollover test using body sections as an equivalent approval method
Annex 7 - Quasi-static loading test of body sections as an equivalent approval method
Appendix 1 – Determination of the vertical movement of the centre of gravity during rollover
Annex 8 - Quasi-static calculation based on testing of components as an equivalent approval method
Appendix 1 – Characteristics of plastic hinges
Annex 9 - Computer simulation of rollover test on complete vehicle as an equivalent approval method
1.1. This Regulation applies to single-deck rigid or articulated vehicles belonging to categories M2 or M3, Classes II or III 1 or B.
1.2. At the request of the manufacturer, this Regulation may also apply
to single-deck to double deck rigid or articulated vehicles belonging to categories other than M2 or M3, Classes II or III 1 or B.
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Regulation, the following terms and definitions are used:
2.1. Units of measurement
The units of measurement shall be:
Dimensions and linear distances metres (m) or millimetres (mm)
Mass or load kilograms (kg)
Force (and weight) Newton (N)
Moment Newton-metres (Nm)
Energy Joules (J)
Gravitational constant 9.81 (m/s2)
2.2. "Vehicle" means a bus or coach designed and equipped for transportation of passengers. The vehicle is an individual representative of a vehicle type.
2.3. "Vehicle type" means a category of vehicles produced with the same design technical specification, main dimensions and constructional arrangement. The vehicle type shall be defined by the vehicle manufacturer.
2.4. "Family of vehicle types" means those vehicle types, proposed in future as well as existing now, which are covered by the approval of the worst case, in respect of this Regulation.
2.5. "Double deck vehicle" means a vehicle where the provided spaces for passengers are arranged, at least in one part, in two superimposed levels and spaces for standing passengers are not provided in the upper deck.
2.6. "Worst case" means the vehicle type, among a group of vehicle types, least likely to withstand the requirements of this Regulation in respect of the strength of superstructure. The three parameters which define the worst case are: structural strength, reference energy and the residual space.
2.7. "Approval of a vehicle type" means the whole official process in which the vehicle type is checked and tested to prove that it meets all the requirements specified in this Regulation.
2.8. "Extension of approval" means the official process in which a modified vehicle type is approved on the basis of an earlier approved vehicle type, by comparison of structure, potential energy and residual space criteria.
2.9. "Articulated vehicle" means a vehicle which consists of two or more rigid sections which articulate to one another, the passenger compartments of each section intercommunicate so that passengers can move freely between them; the rigid sections are permanently connected so that they can only be separated by an operation involving facilities which are normally only found in a workshop.
2.10. "Passenger compartment(s)" means the space(s) intended for passengers' use excluding any space occupied by fixed appliances such as bars, kitchenettes or toilets.
2.11. "Driver's compartment" means the space intended for the driver's exclusive use and containing the driver's seat, the steering wheel, controls, instruments and other devices necessary for driving the vehicle.
2.12. "Occupant restraint" means any device which connects a passenger, driver or crew member to his seat, during a rollover.
2.13. "Vertical longitudinal central plane" (VLCP) means the vertical plane which passes through the mid-points of the front axle track and the rear axle track.
2.14. "Residual space" means a space to be preserved in the passengers', crew and driver's compartment(s) to provide better survival possibility for passengers, driver and crew in case of a rollover accident.
2.15. "Unladen kerb mass" (Mk) means the mass of the vehicle in running order, unoccupied and unladen but with the addition of 75 kg for the mass of the driver, the mass of fuel corresponding to 90 per cent of the capacity of the fuel tank specified by the manufacturer, and the masses of coolant, lubricant, tools and spare wheel, if any.
2.16. "Total occupant mass" (Mm) means the combined mass of any passengers, crew who occupy seats fitted with occupant restraints.
2.17. "Total effective vehicle mass" (Mt) means the unladen kerb mass of the vehicle (Mk) combined with the portion (k = 0.5), of the total occupant mass (Mm), considered to be rigidly attached to the vehicle.
2.18. "Individual occupant mass" (Mmi) means the mass of an individual occupant. The value of this mass is 68 kg.
2.19. "Reference energy" (ER) means the potential energy of the vehicle type to be approved, measured in relation to the horizontal lower level of the ditch, at the starting, unstable position of the rollover process.
2.20. "Rollover test on a complete vehicle" means a test on a complete, full-scale vehicle to prove the required strength of the superstructure.
2.21. "Tilting bench" means a technical device, an arrangement of tilting platform, ditch and concrete ground surface, used in the rollover testing of a complete vehicle or body sections.
2.22. "Tilting platform" means a rigid plane which can be rotated around a horizontal axis in order to tilt a complete vehicle or body section.
2.23. "Body work" means the complete structure of the vehicle in running order, including all the structural elements which form the passenger compartment(s), driver's compartment, baggage compartment and spaces for the mechanical units and components.
2.24. "Superstructure" means the load-bearing components of the bodywork as defined by the manufacturer, containing those coherent parts and elements which contribute to the strength and energy absorbing capability of the bodywork, and preserve the residual space in the rollover test.
2.25. "Bay" means a structural section of the superstructure forming a closed loop between two planes which are perpendicular to the vertical longitudinal central plane of the vehicle.
A bay contains one window (or door) pillar on each side of the vehicle as well as side wall elements, a section of the roof structure and a section of the floor and underfloor structure.
2.26. "Body section" means a structural unit, which represents one part of the superstructure for the purposes of an approval test. A body section contains at least two bays connected by representative connecting elements (side, roof, and underfloor, structures).
2.27. "Original body section" means a body section composed of two or more bays of exactly the same form and relative position, as they appear in the actual vehicle. All connecting elements between the bays are also arranged exactly as they appear in the actual vehicle.
2.28. "Artificial body section" means a body section built up from two or more bays but not in the same position, nor at the same distance from each other as in the actual vehicle. The connecting elements between these bays need not be identical with the real body work structure but shall be structurally equivalent.
2.29. "Rigid part" means a structural part or element which does not have significant deformation and energy absorption during the rollover test.
2.30. "Plastic zone" (PZ) means a special geometrically limited part of the superstructure in which, as the result of dynamic, impact forces:
- large scale plastic deformations are concentrated
- essential distortion of the original shape (cross section, length, or other geometry) occurs
- loss of stability occurs, as a result of local buckling,
- kinetic energy is absorbed due to deformation.
2.31. "Plastic hinge" (PH) means a simple plastic zone formed on a rod-like element (single tube, window column, etc).
2.32. "Cantrail" means the longitudinal structural part of the bodywork above the side windows including the curved transition to the roof structures. In the rollover test the cantrail (in the case of a double deck coach, the cantrail of the upper deck) hits the ground first.
2.33. "Waistrail" means the longitudinal structural part of the bodywork below the side windows. In the rollover test the waistrail (in the case of a double deck coach, the waistrail of the upper deck) may be the second area to contact the ground after initial deformation of the vehicle cross-section.
3. APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL
3.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to the strength of its superstructure shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative to the Administrative Department.
3.2. It shall be accompanied by three copies of each of the undermentioned documents and by the following particulars:
3.2.1. The main identifying data and parameters of the vehicle type, or group of vehicle types;
18.104.22.168. General layout drawings of the vehicle type, its bodywork and its interior arrangement with the main dimensions. Seats which have passenger restraints shall be clearly marked and their positions in the vehicle shall be accurately dimensioned;
22.214.171.124. The unladen kerb mass of the vehicle and the associated axle loads;
126.96.36.199. The exact position of the unladen vehicle's centre of gravity together with the measuring report. To determine the centre of gravity position the measuring and calculation methods described in Annex 3 shall be used;
The total effective vehicle mass, and the associated axle loads.
188.8.131.52. The exact position of the centre of gravity of the total effective mass of the vehicle, together with the measuring report. To determine the centre of gravity position, the measuring and calculation methods described in Annex 3 shall be used.
3.2.2. All the data and information which are needed to evaluate the worst case criteria in a group of vehicle types:
184.108.40.206. The value of reference energy (ER) which is the product of the vehicle mass (M), the gravity constant (g) and the height (h1) of centre of gravity with the vehicle in its unstable equilibrium position when starting the rollover test (see figure 3)
M = Mk, the unladen kerb mass of the vehicle type if there are no occupant restraints, or,
Mt, total effective vehicle mass when occupant restraints are fitted, and
Mt = Mk + k Mm, where k = 0.5 and Mm the total mass of the restrained occupants (see paragraph 2.15.),
h0 = the height (in metres) of the vehicle centre of gravity for the value of mass (M) chosen
t = perpendicular distance (in metres) of the vehicle centre of gravity from its longitudinal vertical central plane.
B = perpendicular distance (in metres) of the vehicle's longitudinal vertical central plane to the axis of rotation in the rollover test
g = gravitational constant
h1 = the height (in metres) of the vehicle centre of gravity in its starting, unstable position related to the horizontal lower plane of the ditch
220.127.116.11. Drawings and detailed description of the superstructure of the vehicle type or group of vehicle types according to Annex 4.
18.104.22.168. Detailed drawings of the residual space according to paragraph 5.2. for every vehicle type to be approved.
3.2.3. Further detailed documentation, parameters, data depending on the approval test method chosen by the manufacturer, as detailed in Annex 5, Annex 6, Annex 7, Annex 8 and Annex 9.
3.2.4. In case of an articulated vehicle, all of this information shall be given separately for each section of the vehicle type, except for paragraph 22.214.171.124. which is related to the complete vehicle.
3.3. On request of the technical service a complete vehicle (or one vehicle from each vehicle type, if approval is requested for a group of vehicle types) shall be presented to check its unladen kerb mass, axle loads, position of the centre of gravity and all other data and information which are relevant to the strength of superstructure.
3.4. According to the approval test method chosen by the manufacturer, appropriate test pieces shall be submitted to the technical service upon its request. The arrangement and number of these test pieces shall be agreed with the technical service. In case of test pieces which have been tested earlier, the test reports shall be submitted.
4.1. If the vehicle type or group of vehicle types submitted for approval to this Regulation meets the requirements of paragraph 5. below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted.
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each vehicle type approved. Its first two digits (at present 01 corresponding to the 01 series of amendments) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another vehicle type.
4.3. Notice of approval or of refusal or extension of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation, by means of a communication form (see Annex 1) and of drawings and diagrams supplied by the applicant for approval, in a format agreed between the manufacturer and the technical service. Paper documentation shall be foldable to A4 (210 mm x 297 mm) format.
4.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation an international approval mark consisting of:
4.4.1. a circle surrounding the letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which has granted approval;2
4.4.2. the number of this Regulation, followed by the letter "R", a dash and the approval number to the right of the circle prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1.
4.5. The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible.
4.6. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate affixed by the manufacturer.
4.7. Annex 2 to this Regulation gives an example of the approval mark.
5. GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS
The superstructure of the vehicle shall have the sufficient strength to ensure that the residual space during and after the rollover test on complete vehicle is unharmed. That means:
5.1.1. no part of the vehicle which is outside the residual space at the start of the test (e.g. pillars, safety rings, luggage racks) shall intrude into the residual space during the test. Any structural parts, which are originally in the residual space (e.g. vertical handholds, partitions, kitchenettes, toilets) shall be ignored when evaluating the intrusion into the residual space.
5.1.2. no part of the residual space shall project outside the contour of the deformed structure. The contour of the deformed structure shall be determined sequentially, between every adjacent window and/or door pillar. Between two deformed pillars the contour shall be a theoretical surface, determined by straight lines, connecting the inside contour points of the pillars which were the same height above the floor level before the rollover test (see Figure 1).
Figure 1 - Specification of the contour of the deformed structure
5.2. Residual space
The envelope of the vehicle's residual space is defined by creating a vertical transverse plane within the vehicle which has the periphery described in Figures 2(a) and 2(c), and moving this plane through the length of the vehicle (see Figure 2(b)) in the following manner:
5.2.1. the SR point is located on the seat-back of each outer forward or rearward facing seat (or assumed seat position), 500 mm above the floor under the seat, 150 mm from the inside surface of the side wall. No account shall be taken of wheel arches and other variations of the floor height. These dimensions shall also be applied in the case of inward facing seats in their centre planes.
5.2.2. If the two sides of the vehicle are not symmetrical in respect of floor arrangement and, therefore, the height of the SR points are different, the step between the two floor lines of the residual space shall be taken as the longitudinal vertical centre plane of the vehicle (see Figure 2(c));
5.2.3. the rearmost position of the residual space is a vertical plane 200 mm behind the SR point of the rearmost outer seat, or the inner face of the rear wall of the vehicle if this is less than 200 mm behind that SR point.
The foremost position of the residual space is a vertical plane 600 mm in front of the SR point of the foremost seat (whether passenger, crew, or driver) in the vehicle set at its fully forward adjustment.
If the rearmost and foremost seats on the two sides of the vehicle are not in the same transverse planes, the length of the residual space on each side will be different;
5.2.4. The residual space is continuous in the passenger, crew and driver compartment(s) between its rearmost and foremost plane and is defined by moving the defined vertical transverse plane through the length of the vehicle along straight lines through the SR points on both sides of the vehicle. Behind the rearmost and in front of the foremost seat's Sr point the straight lines are horizontal.
5.2.5. The manufacturer may define a bigger residual space than is required for a given seat arrangement, to simulate a worst case in a group of vehicle types to allow for future design development.
5.3. Specification of rollover test on a complete vehicle as the basic approval method
The rollover test is a lateral tilting test (see Figure 3), specified as follows:
5.3.1. The complete vehicle is standing on the tilting platform, with blocked suspension and is tilted slowly to its unstable equilibrium position. If the vehicle type is not fitted with occupant restraints it will be tested at unladen kerb mass. If the vehicle type is fitted with occupant restraints it will be tested at total effective vehicle mass;
5.3.2. The rollover test starts in this unstable vehicle position with zero angular velocity and the axis of rotation runs through the wheel-ground contact points. At this moment the vehicle is characterized by the reference energy ER (see paragraph 126.96.36.199. and Figure 3);
5.3.3. The vehicle tips over into a ditch, having a horizontal, dry and smooth concrete ground surface with a nominal depth of 800 mm;
5.3.4. The detailed technical specification of the rollover test on a complete vehicle as the basic approval test is given in Annex 5.
Figure 3 - Specification of the rollover test on a complete vehicle showing the path of
the centre of gravity through the starting, unstable equilibrium, position
5.4. Specifications of equivalent approval tests
Instead of the rollover test on a complete vehicle, at the discretion of the manufacturer, one of the following equivalent approval test methods can be chosen:
5.4.1. Rollover test on body sections which are representative of the complete vehicle, in accordance with the specifications of Annex 6.
5.4.2. Quasi-static loading tests of body sections in accordance with the specifications of Annex 7.
5.4.3. Quasi-static calculations based on the results of component tests in accordance with the specifications of Annex 8.
5.4.4. Computer simulation - via dynamic calculations - of the basic rollover test on a complete vehicle in accordance with the specifications of Annex 9.
5.4.5. The basic principle is that the equivalent approval test method must be carried out in such a way that it represents the basic rollover test specified in Annex 5. If the equivalent approval test method chosen by the manufacturer cannot take account of some special feature or construction of the vehicle (e.g. air-conditioning installation on the roof, changing height of the waist rail, changing roof height) the complete vehicle may be required by the technical service to undergo the rollover test specified in Annex 5.
5.5. Testing of articulated
In the case of an articulated vehicle, each rigid section of the vehicle shall comply with the general requirement specified in paragraph 5.1. Each rigid section of an articulated vehicle may be tested separately or in combination as described in Annex 5, paragraph 2.3, or in Annex 3, paragraph 2.6.7.
5.6. Direction of rollover test
The rollover test shall be carried out on that side of the vehicle which is more dangerous with respect to the residual space. The decision is made by the technical service on the basis of the manufacturer's proposal, considering at least the following:
5.6.1. the lateral eccentricity of the centre of gravity and its effect on the reference energy in the unstable, starting position of the vehicle, see paragraph 188.8.131.52;
5.6.2. the asymmetry of the residual space, see paragraph 5.2.2
5.6.3. the different, asymmetrical constructional features of the two sides of the vehicle, and the support given by partitions or inner boxes (e.g. wardrobe, toilet, kitchenette). The side with the lesser support shall be chosen as the direction of the rollover test.
6. MODIFICATION AND EXTENSION OF APPROVAL OF A VEHICLE TYPE
6.1. Every modification of the approved vehicle type shall be advised to the Administrative Department which granted the type approval. The Administrative Department may then either,
6.1.1. agree that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable effect and that in any case the modified vehicle type still complies with the requirements of this Regulation and constitutes part of a family of vehicle types together with the approved vehicle type; or
6.1.2. require a further test report from the technical service responsible for conducting the tests to prove that the new vehicle type complies with the requirements of this Regulation and constitutes part of a group of vehicle types together with the approved vehicle type; or
6.1.3. refuse the extension of approval and require a new approval procedure to be carried out.
6.2. The decisions of the Administrative Department and the technical service shall be based on the threefold criteria of the worst case:
6.2.1. the structural criterion means whether the superstructure is changed or not (see Annex 4). If no change, or the new superstructure is stronger, this is favourable.
6.2.2. the energy criterion means whether the reference energy is changed or not. If the new vehicle type has the same or smaller reference energy than the approved one, this is favourable.
6.2.3. residual space criterion is based on the envelope surface of the residual space. If the residual space of the new vehicle type is everywhere within the approved case residual space, this is favourable.
6.3. If all three criteria described in paragraph 6.2. are changed favourably, the extension of the approval shall be granted without further investigation.
If all of three answers are unfavourable, a new approval procedure is required.
If the answers are mixed, further investigations (tests, calculation, structural analysis, for example) will be required. These investigations shall be determined by the technical service cooperating with the manufacturer.
6.4. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be notified by the procedure specified in paragraph 4.3. above to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation.
6.5. The Administrative Department issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number to each communication form drawn up for such an extension.