Geographic expansion of invaders database system (awarded 2003) 6/30/2005

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(awarded 2003)

Peter M. Rice

Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana

Summary 2

INVADERS Database System Background 2

User Statistics 4

Expanding To Cover Utah and Nevada 6

Expanding To Cover Nine States/Provinces (UT, NE, CO, AZ, NM, BC, ALB, YT, AK) 7

Expanding To Cover Ten States/Provinces Including California (UT, NE, CO, AZ, NM, BC, ALB, YT, AK, & CA) 8

Foundation Funding Search 10

Appendix A: Herbaria by State/Province 11

Appendix B: Nevada Exotics 24

Appendix C: Utah Exotics 41

Appendix D: Utah/Nevada Budget Detail 64

Appendix E: Nine States/Provinces Budget Detail 68

Appendix F: Nine States/Provinces Plus CA Budget Detail 72

Appendix G: INVADERS Website User Statitics 76

Appendix H: Foundation Letters of Inquiry 83

William and Flora Hewlett Foundation 83

Doris Duke Charitable Foundation 85

George S. and Dolores Dore Eccles Foundation 87


A three tiered proposal work plan has been developed for expansion of the geographic coverage provided by the INVADERS Database System. The current version of the INVADERS Database System covers the five northwest states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. The minimal goal is to expand INVADERS Database System to include Utah and Nevada. The second level of effort is to add nine western states and provinces. These are Utah, Nevada, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, British Columbia, Alberta, Yukon Territory, and Alaska. The third level of effort is to include California with the other nine. An economy of scale and significant improvements in the user interface and services are obtained by including additional states beyond Utah and Nevada in the revision of the program code, database structure, and species lists. Letters of inquiry, that is preprosals meeting the potential sponsor’s guidelines, have been prepared for submittal to three foundations (Appendix H). A letter of inquiry for submittal to the George S. and Dolores Dore Eccles Foundation for expanding coverage to Utah and Nevada. Letters of inquiry have also been written for William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation to cover all ten additional western states and provinces. The University of Montana Foundation and the University of Montana Division of Biological Sciences administration are reviewing the work plan, budgets, and letters of inquiry to develop a final stategy for approaching potential sponsoring foundations.



# Exotic


















9 + CA





INVADERS Database System Background

The INVADERS Database System < > currently contains 122,212 historic distribution records for invasive plants in the five Pacific Northwest states (WA, OR, ID, MT, WY). The records, starting in 1873, all include year of observation and at least county as the minimum spatial resolution. These distribution data cover the 847 exotic plants that are known and confirmed to have established self-maintaining populations in the five state region.
The distribution data are obtained from herbaria specimens, university based weed identification labs, federal and state land management agencies, state and county weed management agencies, scientific journals, and private plant collectors. A specific listing of sources can be viewed at Most of the data from herbaria were obtained by going through the collection cases. Data from most other sources is obtained as paper records or computer files. Taxonomically qualified collectors can submit their data via a web entry format. Raw data is processed to a standard format with species, year of collection, and county-state as minimum requirements for all records. Collector name, collector number, day and month of collection, locale statements (placename or geocoordinate), site factors, associated vegetation, and other ecological or management comments are available from the original records at varying constancy and reformatted to fill optional fields. All submitted species names are converted to Hitchcock and Cronquist “Flora of the Pacific Northwest” (1973) nomenclature. Species introduced after 1973 are named based on Kartesz and Meacham “Synthesis of the North American Flora (1999). Alternate binomials in current use are included as searchable synonyms. All distribution records are identified by a source code and a unique number. This tracing number, such as a herbarium accession number, may be assigned by the collection source or assigned by the INVADERS Database if the source does not maintain unique identifiers. Approximately 80% of the records are vouchered, primarily as herbarium specimen sheets. The database manager requests identification confirmation for new reports that represent disjunct populations.
Standard queries can be run by any user through the web interface at Major graphic and tabular outputs include county resolution maps of current distribution, time lapse maps of geographic range expansion, spread rate graphs, exotic or noxious species lists by area, and record details for each species. Other output services include species indexed links to ten thousand plus web pages with additional information, state/provincial noxious weed lists, and a number of minor services. Custom queries or subsets of the data can be provided on a fee basis or as part of special cooperative projects.
The INVADERS Database system has essentially all the available historic data on non-native (origin outside North America) vascular plants that have established persistent populations in the five state region. The data is continuously updated. However observation and data collection lags regional invasive plant spread. The data represent year of collection or observation, population establishment year likely pre-dates year of record in most cases. There are about 150 exotics listed in regional flora for which there are no collection date, location information, nor vouchers. These may represent initial establishments of species which did not persist. The spatial data represents presence, gaps in continuous ranges do not represent absence.

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