General Information




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REL 440 Biblical Archaeology

HIS 490 Near Eastern Archaeology

Bibliography

General Information


Abbreviations and Sources


Abbreviation

Work

Where found

ABD

Anchor Bible Dictionary

  • Rouse Library reference

AO

Archaeology Odyssey

  • Rouse Library periodicals

  • BASarchive* (1988-2006)

BA

Biblical Archaeologist

  • Rouse Library (1966-present)

  • EBSCO° (1993-1997)

BAR

BAR

  • Rouse Library periodicals

  • BASarchive (1975-present)

BASOR

Bulletin of the American Schools or Oriental Research

  • EBSCO° (2001-present)

  • Ebrary (vols 328-336)

BR

Bible Review

  • Rouse Library periodicals

  • BASarchive (1985-2005)

NEA

Near Eastern Archaeology (continuation of Biblical Archaeologist)

  • EBSCO (1998-present)

  • Ebrary (vols 64/4-67/1)

NEAEHL

New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land

  • Rouse Library reference


NOTES: online databases are available through the WCU library “Subscription Databases” page

*Biblical Archaeology Society Online; http://www.basarchive.org/bswbLogin.asp (password avail.)

EBSCO Academic Search Premier, online at http://search.EBSCOhost.com (on campus only)

°Ebrary; http://libproxy.wmcarey.edu:2058/lib/wmcarey (offcampus; login with email info)

Basic Reference Works

Freedman, David Noel, Editor. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6 Vols. New York: Doubleday, 1992. [WCU call no. = Ref 220.3 A539f].


Myers, Eric M., Editor. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. 5 Vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. [WCU call no. = Ref 939.4 O98m].
Redford, Donald B., Editor. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford, New York : Oxford University Press, 2001. [WCU call no. = Ref 932 O98r].
Sasson, Jack M., Editor. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. 4 Vols. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1995. [WCU call no.: Ref 939.4 C582s].
Skolnik, Fred , Editor. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 16 Vols. Detroit: Macmillan Reference, 2007. [WCU call no. = REF 296.03 J92e 2007].
Stern, Ephraim, Editor. The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. 4 Vols. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. [Ref 933.003 N532s].

History of Biblical Archaeology

Required Reading


Dever, William G. “Archaeology, Syro-Palestinian and Biblical,” In The Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed. David Noel Freedman, I: 354-67. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Optional Reading
Calloway, Joseph A. “Sir Flinders Petrie: Father of Palestinian Archaeology.” BAR 6 (Nov/Dec 1980): 44-55.
♠Gitin, Seymour, “The House that Albright Built,” NEA 65/1 (March 2002): 5-10. [In an issue dedicated to the legacy of Albright; other articles may be read from this issue if desired.]
King, Philip J. “The Influence of G. Ernest Wright on the Archaeology of Palestine.” In Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation, edited by Leo G. Perdue, Lawrence E. Toombs, and Gary L. Johnson, 15-30. Atlanta: John Knox, 1987.
Mendenhall, George E. “Biblical Interpretation and the Albright School.” In Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation, edited by Leo G. Perdue, Lawrence E. Toombs, and Gary L. Johnson, 3-14. Atlanta: John Knox, 1987.
Ryan, Donald P. “Giovanni Battista Belzoni.” BA 49 (September 1986): 133-39.
Silberman, Neil Asher. “In Search of Solomon's Lost Treasures.” BAR 6/4 (July/August 1980): 31-41. [Story of a crazy and misguided project of the early years of biblical archaeology]
In Search of the Trojan War: The Legend under Siege
Brandau, Birgit. “Can Archaeology Discover Homer’s Troy?” Archaeology Odyssey 1/1 (1998): 14-25.
Heimlich, Rüdiger. “The New Trojan Wars.” Archaeology Odyssey 5/4 (July/Aug 2002): 16-23, 55-56.

Archaeological Methodology

Required Reading [QUIZ ON D2L!]


Browning, Daniel C., Jr. “Archaeological Methodology.” Unpublished paper. [Quiz on D2L].
Optional Reading
Any individual article in Benchmarks in Time and Culture, eds. Joel F. Drinkard, Jr., Gerald L. Mattingly, and J. Maxwell Miller. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1988.
Lance, Darrell. The Old Testament and the Archaeologist. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1981, 12-46. Reprinted in Introduction to the Archaeology of Palestine, edited by A. Ben-Tor, 1-18. Jerusalem: Hebrew University School for Overseas Students, 1984.
Rose, D. Glenn. “The Bible and Archaeology: The State of the Art.” In Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation, edited by L. Perdue, L. Toombs, and G. Johnson, 53-66. Atlanta: John Knox, 1987.
Shanks, Hershel. “Tom Crotser Has Found the Ark of the Covenant—Or Has He?” BAR 9/3 (May/June 1983): 66-69; idem. “The Ark That Wasn't There,” BAR 9/4 (July/August 1983): 58-61.
Stern, Ephraim. “The Bible and Israeli Archaeology.” In Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation, edited by L. Perdue, L. Toombs, and G. Johnson, 31-40. Atlanta: John Knox, 1987.
Toombs, Lawrence E. “A Perspective on the New Archaeology.” In Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation, edited by L. Perdue, L. Toombs, and G. Johnson, 41-52. Atlanta: John Knox, 1987.
Wiseman, Donald J. “The Bottleneck of Archaeological Publication.” BAR 16 (September/October 1990): 60-63.
In Search of the Trojan War: The Singer of Tales
Griffin, Jasper. “Reading Homer After 2,800 Years: Why the Iliad and the Odyssey Fascinate Us Today.” Archaeology Odyssey 1/1 (1998): 34-39.
Thomas, Carol G. “Searching for the Historical Homer.” Archaeology Odyssey 1/1 (1998): 26-33.


Biblical Criticism and Archaeology

Required Reading


Browning, Daniel C., Jr. “Pyramids and Pundits: The Scholar and Popular Theorists in the Disinformation Age.” Paper presented as the 2004 Humanities Month Lecture. William Carey College, Hattiesburg, MS, October 25, 2004.
Davis, Thomas W. “Faith and Archaeology.” BAR 19/2 (March/April 1993): 54-59.
Dever, William G. “Archaeology and the Bible—Understanding Their Special Relationship.” BAR 16/3 (May/June 1990): 52-58, 62.
Optional Reading
Cline, Eric. “Raiders of the Faux Ark.” Boston Globe (30 September 2007). Online: http://www.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2007/09/30/raiders_of_the_faux_ark. Republished online: http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/fauxark/.
de Vaux, Roland. “On Right and Wrong Uses of Archaeology.” In Near Eastern Archaeology in the Twentieth Century: Essays in Honor of Nelson Glueck, ed. J. A. Sanders, 64-80. New York: Doubleday, 1970. Reprinted in Introduction to the Archaeology of Palestine, edited by A. Ben-Tor, 33-41. Jerusalem: Hebrew University School for Overseas Students, 1984.
Miller, J. Maxwell. “Old Testament History and Archaeology.” BA 50 (March 1987): 55-63.
Moyer, James C. and Matthews, Victor H. “The Use and Abuse of Archaeology in Current Bible Handbooks.” BA 48 (September 1985): 149-61.
♠Wright, G. Ernest. “What Archaeology Can and Cannot Do.” BA 34 (1971): 70–76.

Patriarchs: the Middle Bronze Age

Required Reading [Quizes on D2L!].


Browning, Daniel C., Jr. “Before Abraham: The Near East Before 2000 bc,” and “The Patriarchal Age: The Middle Bronze Age (2000-1550 bc). Unpublished papers. [Quizes on D2L].
Optional Reading
In Search of the Trojan War: the Empire of the Hittites
“Why Troy is Troy and the Trojan War is Real: Greeks vs. Hittites.” Archaeology Odyssey 5/4 (July/Aug 2002): 24-35, 53.
The Near East Before 2000 bc: The Early Bronze Age
♠Ben-Tor, Amnon. “The Early Bronze Age,” in The Archaeology of Ancient Israel, ed. Amnon Ben-Tor, trans. R. Greenburg, 81-125. New Haven: Yale, 1992.
Gophna, Ram. “The Intermediate Bronze Age,” in The Archaeology of Ancient Israel, ed. Amnon Ben-Tor, trans. R. Greenburg, 126-158. New Haven: Yale, 1992.
♠Mazar, Amihai. “The Emergence of Cities: The Early Bronze Age (ca. 3300-2200 B.C.E.,” and “An Interlude: The EB IV/MB I Period (ca. 2300-2000 B.C.E.),” in Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E., Chaps. 4-5, 91-150. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
♠Mazar, Amihai. “An Interlude: The EB IV/MB I Period (ca. 2300-2000 B.C.E.),” in Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E., Chap. 5, 151-73. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
Millard, Alan. “Ebla and the Bible: What’s Left (If Anything)?” Bible Review 8/2 (April 1992): 18-31, 60, 62.
♠Rast, Walter E. “Bab edh-Dhra and the Origin of the Sodom Saga,” In Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation, 31-40. Atlanta: John Knox, 1987.
♠Richard, Suzanne. “The Early Bronze Age: The Rise and Collapse of Urbanism.” BA 50 (March 1987): 22-43.
Patriarchs: the Middle Bronze Age
Albright, William Foxwell. “Abram the Hebrew: A New Archaeological Interpretation.” BASOR 163 (1961): 36-54. Reprinted in Introduction to the Archaeology of Palestine, edited by A. Ben-Tor, 214-23. Jerusalem: Hebrew University School for Overseas Students, 1984.
♠Dever, William G. “The Middle Bronze Age: The Zenith of the Urban Canaanite Era.” BA 50 (September 1987): 148-77.
♠Kempinski, Aharon. “The Middle Bronze Age,” in The Archaeology of Ancient Israel, ed. Amnon Ben-Tor, trans. R. Greenburg, 159-210. New Haven: Yale, 1992.
♠Hess, Richard S. “Getting Personal: What Names in the Bible Teach Us.” Bible Review 13/6 (December 1997): 30-37.
♠Kitchen, Kenneth A. “The Patriarchal Age: Myth or History?” BAR 21/2 (March/April 1995): 52 56.
Lemaire, Andre. “Mari, the Bible, and the Northwest Semitic World.” BA 47 (June 1984): 101-109.
Malamat, Abraham. “Mari.” BA 34 (February 1971): 2-22.
♠Mazar, Amihai. “Mighty Canaanite City-States: The Middle Bronze II Period (ca. 2000-1550 B.C.E.),” in Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E., Chap. 6, 174-231. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
Pardee, Dennis & Glass, Jonathan T. “The Mari Archives.” BA 47 (June 1984): 88-99.

Exodus: the Late Bronze Age

Required Reading


Browning, Daniel C., Jr. “Egyptian Domination: The Late Bronze Age (1550-1200 bc).” Unpublished paper.
. “Why Have You Brought Us into the Wilderness to Die?: Murmurings against a Fifteenth Century Date for the Exodus,” ASOR 1999 Annual Meeting, Cambridge, MA, November 18, 1999.
Optional Reading
Gonen, Rivka. “The Late Bronze Age,” in The Archaeology of Ancient Israel, ed. Amnon Ben-Tor, trans. R. Greenburg, 211-57. New Haven: Yale, 1992.
Higginbotham, Carolyn R. “The Egyptianizing of Canaan.” BAR 24/3 (May/June 1998): 36-43, 69.
♠Leonard, Albert. “The Late Bronze Age.” BA 52 (March 1989): 4-39.
Lesko, Leonard and Barbara Lesko. “Pharaoh’s Workers.” BAR 25/1 (Jan/Feb 1999): 36-44. [The life of slaves in Ancient Egypt]
Malamat, Abraham. “Let My People Go and Go and Go and Go: Egyptian Records Support a Centuries Long Exodus.” BAR 24/1 (Jan/Feb 1998): 62-66, 85.
♠Mazar, Amihai. “In the Shadow of Egyptian Domination: The Late Bronze Age (ca. 1550-1200 B.C.E.),” in Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E., Chap. 7, 232-94. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
Millard, Alan. “How Reliable is Exodus?” BAR 26/4 (July/Aug 2000): 50-57.
♠Sarna, Nahum M. “Exploring Exodus: The Oppression.” BA 49 (June 1986): 68-81.
Steibing, William H., Jr. “Should the Exodus and the Israelite Settlement be Redated?” BAR 11 (July/August 1985): 58-69. [Responds to radical redating theories]
♠Steibing, William H., Jr. “When Civilization Collapsed: Death of the Bronze Age.” AO 4/5 (Sept/Oct 2001): 16-29, 62.
Stieglitz, Robert M. “The Lowdown on the Riffraff: Do These Figures Preserve a Memory of a Historical Exodus?” Bible Review 15/4 (August 1999): 30-33, 54.
In Search of the Trojan War: The Fall of Troy
Jansen, Hans G. “Troy: Legend and Reality.” In Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, edited by Jack M. Sasson, 2: 1,121-34. New York: Scribner’s, 1995.

The Emergence of Israel (for Thursday 27 March)

Required Reading


Browning, Daniel C., Jr. “The Hill Country is Not Enough for Us: Recent Archaeology and the Book of Joshua.” Southwestern Journal of Theology 41/1 (Fall 1998): 25-43.
Optional Reading
Finklestein, Israel. “Searching for Israelite Origins.” BAR 14 (September/October 1988): 34-45, 58.
Fritz, Volkmar. “Conquest or Settlement?: The Early Iron Age in Palestine.” BA 50 (June 1987): 84-104.
Malamat, Abraham. “How Inferior Israelite Forces Conquered Fortified Canaanite Cities.” BAR 8 (March/April 1982): 24-35.
♠Mazar, Amihai. “The Days of the Judges: Iron Age I (ca. 1200-1000 B.C.E.),” in Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E., Chap. 8, 295-367. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
Raban, Avner. “The Harbor of the Sea Peoples at Dor.” BA 50 (June 1987): 118-26.
Stager, Lawrence E. “When Canaanites and Philistines Ruled Ashkelon.” BAR 17 (March/April 1991): 24-43.
♠Ussishkin, David. “Lachish: Key to the Israelite Conquest of Canaan.” BAR 13 (January/February 1987): 18-39. [Well illustrated; good article with challenging conclusions] .
Wood, Bryant. “Did the Israelites Conquest Jericho? A New Look at the Archaeological Evidence.” BAR 16/2 (March/April 1990): 44-59.
Wood, Bryant. “The Philistines Enter Canaan—Where They Egyptian Lackeys or Invading Conquerers?” BAR 17 (November/December 1991): 44-52, 89 and Singer, Itamar. “How Did the Philistines Enter Canaan?” BAR 18 (November/December 1992): 44-46.
♠Yadin, Yigael. “Is the Biblical Account of the Israelite Conquest of Canaan Historically Reliable?” BAR 8 (March/April 1982): 17-23.
Yurco, Frank J. “3,200-Year-Old Picture of Israelites Found in Egypt.” BAR 16 (September/October 1990): 20-38. and “Scholars Disagree;” “Rainey's Challange; “ and “Yurco's Response.” BAR 17 (November/December 1991): 54-61. (Great article with lots of pictures; very important)
♠Zertal, Adam. “Has Joshua's Altar Been Found on Mt. Ebal?” BAR 11 (January/February 1985): 26-43.
Zertal, Adam. “Israel Enters Canaan--Following the Pottery Trail.” BAR 17/5 (Sept/Oct 1991): 28-47.

United Monarchy

Required Reading


Finkelstein, Israel. “State Formation in Israel and Judah: A Contrast in Context, a Contrast in Trajectory.” NEA 62/1 (March 1999): 35-52. [a stratigraphical and historical argument for later “state formation” in Israel—casting doubt on the “United Monarchy”].
**[this one is not “required,” but it would be a great optional reading, since it is a reply to Finkelstein’s article that is required] Rainey, Anson. “Stones for Bread: Archaeology Versus History.” NEA 64/3 (Sept 2001): 140-49. [a rebuttal of Finkelstein, above].
**Also, see the required reading for Israelite Religion, in the next section below
Optional Reading
♠Kitchen, Kenneth A. “How We Know When King Solomon Ruled.” BAR 27/5 (Sept/Oct 2001): 32-37, 58.
♠Mazar, Amihai. “The United Monarchy: Iron Age IIA (ca. 1000-925 B.C.E.),” in Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E., 368-402. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
♠Millard, Alan R. “Does the Bible Exaggerate King Solomon's Wealth?” and Kenneth A. Kitchen, “Where Did Solomon's Gold Go?” and “Shishak's Military Campaign in Israel Confirmed,” BAR 15 (May/June 1989): 20-34. [Well illustrated and thought provoking].
♠Na’aman, Nadav. “Cow Town or Royal Capital? Evidence for Iron Age Jerusalem.” BAR 23/4 (July/August 1997): 43-47, 67.
Shanks, Hershel. “Where is the Tenth Century?” BAR 24/2 (March/April 1998): 56-60.
♠Shanks, Hershel. “David Found at Dan.” BAR 20/2 (March/April 1994): 26-39.; Davies, Philip R. “House of David Built on Sand.” BAR 20/4 (July/August 1994): 54-55.; Rainey, Anson. “The ‘House of David’ and the Deconstructionists. BAR 20/6 (Nov/Dec 1994): 47. [Major controversy over supposed identification of the name “David” in an ancient inscription].
Lemaire, Andre, “‘House of David’ Restored in Moabite Inscription.” BAR 20/3 (May/June 1994); Shanks, Hershel. “Has David Been Found in Egypt?” BAR 25/1 (Jan/Feb 1999): 34-35. [More possible occurrences of “David” in ancient inscriptions].


Israelite Religion

Required Reading (but an optional reading review may be done for this article also)


Dever, William G.. “Folk Religion in Early Israel: Did Yahweh Have a Consort?” In Aspects of Monotheism: How God Is One, Edited by Hershel Shanks and Jack Meinhardt Washington: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1996. Available online through BASArchive at http://www.basarchive.org/bswbBrowse.asp?PubID=BSBKAM&Volume=0&Issue=0&ArticleID=3&UserID=2322

Optional Reading


♠Hestrin, Ruth. “Understanding Asherah--Exploring Semitic Iconography.” BAR 17 (September/October 1991): 50-59.
♠Lemaire, Andre. “Who or What Was Yahweh's Asherah?” BAR 10/6 (November/December 1984): 42-51.

Divided Monarchy: Ninth Century


Optional Reading
Horn, Siegfried. “Why the Moabite Stone Was Blown to Pieces: 9th Century B.C. Inscription Adds New Dimension to Biblical Account of Mesha's Rebellion.” BAR 12 (May/June 1986): 50-61. [Good review of this important find and its implications].
Kaufman, Ivan T. “The Samaria Ostraca: An Early Witness to Hebrew Writing.” BA 45 (Fall 1982): 229-39. [Semi-technichal “review . . . of one of the major inscriptional finds . . .”].
♠Mazar, Amihai. “The Divided Monarchy: Iron Age IIB-C (ca. 925-586 B.C.E.),” in Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E., Chap. 10, 403-62. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
Shiloh, Yigal. “Jerusalem's Water Supply During Siege: The Rediscovery of Warren's Shaft.” BAR 7 (1981): 24-39.
♠Shiloh, Yigal. “Underground Water Systems in Eretz-Israel in the Iron Age.” In Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation, edited by Leo G. Perdue, Lawrence E. Toombs, and Gary L. Johnson, 203-44. Atlanta: John Knox, 1987.
Yadin, Yigael. “Megiddo of the Kings of Israel.” BA 33 (September 1970): 66-96.

Divided Monarchy: Eighth Century B.C.

Required Reading


Shanks, Hershel. “Destruction of Judean Fortress Portrayed in Dramatic Eighth-Century B.C. Pictures,” and Ussishkin, David, “Defensive Judean Counter-Ramp Found at Lachish in 1983 Season.” BAR 10 (March/April 1984): 48-73. (Fabulously illustrated account of data bearing light on Sennacherib's invasion in the days of Hezekiah)
Optional Reading
♠Albenda, Pauline. “Syrian-Palestinian Cities on Stone.” BA 43 (Fall 1980): 222-29.
♠Bleibtrau, Erika. “Five Ways to Conquer a City.” BAR 16 (May/June 1990): 36-44. and “Grisly Assyrian Record of Torture and Death.” BAR 17 (January/February 1991): 52-61, 75.
Bunimovitz, Shomo and Lederman, Zvi. “Beth-Shemesh: Culture Conflict on Judah’s Frontier.” BAR 23/1 (January/February 1997): 42-49, 75-77.
Cross, Frank Moore. “King Hezekiah’s Seal Bears Phoenician Imagery.” BAR 25/2 (Mar/Apr 1999): ; and Lubetski, Meir. “King Hezekiah’s Seal Revisited.” BAR 27/4 (July/Aug 2001): 44-51, 59.
Deutsch, Robert. “First Impression: What We Learn from King Ahaz's Seal.” BAR 24/3 (May/June 1998): 54-56, 62.
Gal, Zvi. “Israel in Exile: Desrted Galilee Testifies to Assyrian Conquest of the Northern Kingdom.” BAR 24/3 (May/June 1998): 48-53.
♠Hallo, William W. “From Qarqar to Carchemish: Assyria and Israel in the Light of New Discoveries.” BA 23 (May 1960): 34-61. [Excellent review of historical events]
Kelm, George L. and Mazar, Amihai. “Excavating in Samson Country: Philistines and Israelites at Tel Batash.” BAR 15 (January/February 1989): 36-49.
King, Philip J. “The Marzeah Amos Denounces.” BAR 14 (July/August 1988): 34-45.
Mazar, Amihai. “General Aspects of the Israelite Material Culture,” in Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E., Chap. 11, 463-530. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
Mazar, Eilat. “Royal Gateway to Ancient Jerusalem Uncovered,” BAR 15 (May/June 1989): 38-51.
Stern, Ephraim. “How Bad Was Ahab?” BAR 19 (March/April 1993): 18-29. [part two in a series]
Ussishkin, David. “The Necropolis from the Time of the Kingdom of Judah at Silwan, Jerusalem.” BA 33 (May 1970): 34-46.
Wright, G. Ernest. “Samaria.” BA 22 (September 1959): 67-78.

Divided Monarchy: Seventh Century B.C.

Required Reading


Malamat, Abraham. “Caught Between the Great Powers: Judah Picks a Side . . . and Loses.” BAR 25/4 (July/Aug 1999): 34-41, 64. [Good review of archaeology and the last century of OT Judah].
Schneider, Tsvi. “Six Biblical Signatures: Seals and Seal Impressions of Six Biblical Personages Recovered.” BAR 17 (July/August 1991): 26-33.
Optional Reading
Avigad, Nahman. “Jerahmeel & Baruch: King's Son & Scribe.” BA 42 (Spring 1979): 114-118. [Identification of Biblical figures from seal impressions].
Barkai, Gabriel. “News from the Field: The Divine Name Found in Jerusalem.” BAR 9 (March/April 1983): 14-19. .
Borowski, Oded. “Yadin Presents New Interpretation of the Famous Lachish Letters.” BAR 10 (March/April 1984): 74-77. [A little technichal; a good article for those into Hebrew].
Gitin, Seymour. “Ekron of the Philistines, Part II: Olive-Oil Suppliers to the World.” BAR 16/2 (March/April 1990): 32-42.
♠Hays, J. Daniel. “From the Land of the Bow: Black Soldiers in the Ancient Near East.” BR 14/4 (August 1998): 28-33, 50-51.
♠Mazar, Amihai. “Israel's Neighbors and the Assyrian and Babylonian Domination,” in Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E., Chap. 12, 531-50. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
♠Stern, Ephraim. “Israel at the Close of the Monarchy: An Archaeological Survey.” BA 38 (May 1975): 26-54.
Yadin, Yigael. “Beer-sheba: The High Place Destroyed by King Josiah.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 222 (April 1976): 1-17.
Yamauchi, Edwin. “The Scythians: Invading Hordes from the Russion Steppes.” BA 46 (Spring 1983): 90-99. (Includes comments on identifying 'Gog' and 'Magog' with the U.S.S.R.)

Post-Exilic Period

Optional Reading


♠Ritmeyer, Leen. “Locating the Original Temple Mount.” BAR 18 (March/April 1992): 24-45, 64. [Lots of color pictures and diagrams; should be read with or in anticipation of the article by Ritmeyer, below, for the Herodian Period].
Stager, Lawrence E. “Why Were Hundreds of Dogs Buried at Ashkelon?” BAR 17 (May/June 1991): 26-42. [Ashkelon in the Persian Period].
Stern, Ephraim. “What Happened to the Cult Figurines?: Israelite Religion Purified After the Exile.” BAR 15 (July/August 1989): 22-29.
Stern, Ephraim. “The Persistence of Phoenician Culture” BAR 19 (May/June 1993): 38-49. (last of a three part series)

Herodian Period in Palestine

♠♠Browning, Daniel C., Jr. “The Strange Search for the Ashes of the Red Heifer,” BA 59/2 (June 1996): 74-90.


Avigad, Nahman. “Jerusalem Flourishing–A Craft Center for Stone, Pottery and Glass,” and “Jerusalem in Flames—The Burnt House Captures a Moment in Time.” BAR 9 (November/December 1983): 48-72. [Fabulously illustrated account of Jerusalem in A.D. 70.]
Bull, Robert J. “Caesarea Maritima–The Search for Herod's City;” and Hohlfelder, Robert L. “Caesarea Beneath the Sea.” BAR 8 (May/June 1982): 24-47. [Traditional and underwater excavation.]
♠Burrell, Barbara; Gleason, Kathryn; and Netzer, Ehud. “Uncovering Herod's Seaside Palace.” BAR 19 (May/June 1993): 38-49. [Recent discoveries at Caesarea.]
Hohlfelder, Robert L.; Oleson, John P.; Rabin, Avner; and Vann, R. Lindley. “Sebastos, Herod's Harbor at Caesarea Maritima.” BA 46 (Summer 1983): 133-43. [The harbor facilities at Caesarea.]
Nettzer, Ehud. “Search for Herod's Tomb,” “Herod's Family Tomb in Jerusalem.” BAR 9 (May/June 1983): 30-59.

The Temple Mount (arranged chronologically by publication)


Mazar, Benjamin. “The Excavations South and West of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem: The Herodian Period.” BA 33 (March 1970): 47-60.
Kaufman, Asher S. “Where the Ancient Temple of Jerusalem Stood.” BAR 9 (March/April 1983): 40-59. [Controversial view of the Temple's location; see Sporty, below]

♠Ritmeyer, Leen and Kathleen. “Reconstructing Herod's Temple Mount in Jerusalem,” “A Pilgrim's Journey,” “Quarrying and Transporting Stones for Herod's Temple Mount,” and “Reconstructing the Triple Gate.” BAR 15 (Nov./Dec. 1989): 23-53. [The best in this section—great illustrations.]


Sporty, Lawrence D. “The Location of the Holy House of Herod's Temple: Evidence from the Pre-Destruction Period,” BA 53 (December 1990): 194-204; and “The Location of the Holy House of Herod's Temple: Evidence from the Post Destruction Period.” BA 54 (March 1991): 28-35. [Evidence in support of Kaufman, above]
Jacobson, David. “Sacred Geometry: Unlocking the Secret of the Temple Mount.” Parts 1 and 2 BAR 25/4 (July/Aug 1999): 40-53, 62-63; and (Sept/Oct 1999): 54-63, 74.
Ritmeyer, Leen and Kaufman, Asher. “Where Was the Temple: the Debate Goes On.” BAR 26/2 (March/April 2000): 52-63, 69, 72. [Responses to Jacobson and additional support for Ritmeyer and Kaufman.]

The Gospels

Required Reading


Greenhut, Zvi. “Burial Cave of the Caiaphus Family;” and Reich, Ronny. “Caiaphas Name Inscribed on Bone Boxes.” BAR 18 (September/October 1992): 28-44, 76.

Optional Reading (you may also read from “Herodian Period” above for this section)


♠Bahat, Dan. “Does the Holy Sepulchre Church Mark the Burial of Jesus?” BAR 12 (May/June 1986): 26-45. (Good article; complements the Barkay article, below)
♠Barkay, Gabriel “The Garden Tomb—Was Jesus Buried Here?” BAR 12 (March/April 1986): 40-57. (Good research and explanation; continues another article by Barkay on Iron Age tombs in the same issue)
Chancey, Mark, and Meyers, Eric M. “How Jewish Was Sepphoris in Jesus’ Time?” BAR 26/4 (July/Aug 2000): 18-33, 61.
♠Kloner, Amos. “Did a Rolling Stone Close Jesus’ Tomb?” BAR 25/5 (Sept/Oct 1999): 22-29, 76.
♠Rahmani, L. Y. “Ancient Jerusalem's Funerary Customs and Tombs, Parts One-Four.” BA 44 (Summer 1981): 171-77, (Fall 1981): 229-35; 45 (Winter 1982): 43-53, (Spring 1982): 109-119. [Great survey; counts as two articles.]
♠Smith, Robert Houston. “The Tomb of Jesus.” BA 30 (September 1967): 74-90.
♠Strange, James F. and Shanks, Hershel. “Has the House Where Jesus Stayed in Capernaum Been Found?” BAR 8 (November/December 1982): 26-37.
♠Strange, James F. and Shanks, Hershel. “Synagogue Where Jesus Preached Found at Capernaum.” BAR 9 (November/December 1983): 24-31.
The Gospels : Shroud of Turin
Bortin, Virginia. “Science and the Shroud of Turin.” BA 43/2 (1980): 109-117; Rahmani, L. Y. “Polemics and Irenics: The Shroud of Turin.” BA 43/4 (1980): 197; Filas, Franis L. “Polemics and Irenics: The Shroud of Turin, Roman Coins and Funerary Customs.” BA 44/3 (1981): 135-37; and “Polemics and Irenics: Jesus, The Turin Shroud, and Jewish Burial Customs.” BA 45/1 (1982): 5-6.
Wild, Robert A. “The Shroud of Turin: Probably the Work of a 14th Century Artist of Forger.” BAR 10 (March/April 1984): 30-46; Kohlbeck, Joseph A. and Nitowski, Eugenia. “New Evidence May Explain Image on Shroud of Turin.” BAR 12 (July/August 1986): 18-29; Singer, Suzanne F. “Has the Shroud of Turin Been Dated—Finally?” BR 5/2 (April 1989): 38-39.
Vikan, Gary. “Debunking the Shroud: Made by Human Hands;” and McCrone, Walter. “The Shroud Painting Explained.” BAR 24/6 (Nov/Dec 1998): 27-29.
Bryant, Vaughn M. “Does Pollen Prove the Shroud Authentic?” BAR 26/6 (Nov/Dec 2000): 36-44, 75.

The Work of Paul

Required Reading

Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome. “The Corinth that Saint Paul Saw.” BA 47/3 (September 1984): 147-59.
Required Reading (but an optional reading review may be done for this article also)
Furnish, Victor Paul. “Corinth in Paul's Time—What Can Archaeology Tell Us?” BAR 14 (May/June 1988): 14-27.
Optional Reading
Broneer, Oscar. “Athens, 'City of Idol Worship'.” BA 21/1 (February 1958): 1-28. Reprinted in The Biblical Archaeologist Reader, 2. Edited by David Noel Freedman and Edward F. Campbell, Jr., 369-92. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964.
Broneer, Oscar. “The Apostle Paul and the Isthmian Games.” BA 25/1 (1962): 2-31. Reprinted in The Biblical Archaeologist Reader, 2. Edited by David Noel Freedman and Edward F. Campbell, Jr., 393-420. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964.
Hirschfeld, Nicolle. “The Ship of Saint Paul: Historical Background, Part I;” and Fitzgerald, Michael. “The Ship of Saint Paul: Comparative Archaeology, Part II.” BA 53/1 (1990): 25-39.
Meinardus, Otto F. A. “St. Paul Shipwrecked in Dalmatia.” BA 39 (December 1976): 145-47; and “Paul's Missionary Journey to Spain: Tradition and Folklore.” 41/2 (1978): 61-63.
Johnson, Sherman E. “Laodicea and Its Neighbors.” in The Biblical Archaeologist Reader, 2. Edited by David Noel Freedman and Edward F. Campbell, Jr., 353-68. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964.
Metzger, Bruce M. “Antioch-on-the-Orontes.” in The Biblical Archaeologist Reader, 2. Edited by David Noel Freedman and Edward F. Campbell, Jr., 313-30. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964.
Parvis, Merrill M. “Ephesus in the Early Christian Era;” and Filson, Floyd V. “Ephesus and the New Testament.” in The Biblical Archaeologist Reader, 2. Edited by David Noel Freedman and Edward F. Campbell, Jr., 331-52. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964.
Thompson, Cynthia L. “Hairstyles, Head-coverings, and St. Paul: Portraits from Roman Corinth.” BA 51/1 (March 1988): 99-115.

The Revelation

Required Reading


Frisen, Steven. “Ephesus: Key to a Vision in Revelation.” BAR 19 (May/June 1993): 24-37. [An interesting use of archaeology to explain ancient symbolism.]

Optional Reading


Collins, Adela Yarbro. “Satan’s Throne: Revelations from Revelation.” BAR 32/3 (May/Jun 2006).

Early Christianity

Required Reading


Armstrong, Gregory T. “Imperial Church Building in the Holy Land in the Fourth Century.” BA 30 (September 1967): 91-12.

Optional Reading


Bruce, F. F. “Archaeological Confirmation of the New Testament.” In Revelation and the Bible: Contemporary Evangelical Thought, edited by Carl F. H. Henry, 319-31. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1958.
Geva, Hillel, and Pixner, Bargil. “Readers Respond: Roman Jerusalem.” BAR 24/2 (Mar/Apr 1998): 14-16.
Magness, Jodi. “Illuminating Byzantine Jerusalem.” BAR 24/2 (March/April 1998): 40-47, 70-71.
♠Netzer, Ehud. “Jewish Rebels Dig Strategic Tunnel System.” BAR 14 (July/August 1988): 18-33.
♠Netzer, Ehud. “The Last Days and Hours at Masada.” BAR 17 (November/December 1991): 20-32. [A great story of archaeological detective work on an old dig.]
Ousterhout, Robert. “The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (in Bologna, Italy).” BAR 26/6 (Nov/Dec 2000): 20-35. [Overview of the Holy Sepulchre using a “look-alike” church; also demonstrates problems created by rebuilding at traditional sites.]
Pixner, Bargil. “Church of the Apostles Found on Mt. Zion.” BAR 16 (May/June 1990): 16-35, 60.



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