General index




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GENERAL INDEX

This index provides the principal access to information in the manual. It has both routine and innovative features.

Principal pages for insect species, taxonomic groups, and sub­jects of importance are designated by bold-face type. For insect species, the principal pages are the initial page of a text discus­sion and tables or text tablulations supplementing this discussion. Both the insect scientific name and its common name, if one is available, are given in the text discussion. Elsewhere in the text, use of scientific names and common names is alternated. To pro­vide access for a reader, complete pagination is listed for insects under both scientific and common names. This procedure was also followed in indexing closely related species having a group com­mon name.

In addition, pages with illustrations are marked with an aster­isk. Illustrations for an insect are designated under both scien­tific and common names. If an illustration involves an insect-related condition—e.g., blowdown, insect disease—appropriate pages are designated with an asterisk for both the insect and the subject.



Abebaea cervella, 138 subsylvella, see cervella, 138 Acanthocinus, 308 obliquus, 308

princeps, 308, 309* pusillus, 309

spectabilis, 308 Acantholyda, 434*, 435* albomarginata, 435 atrata, 435

balanata, 435 brunnicans, 435 bucephala, 435 burkei, 434, 435 verticalis, 434, 435 Acanthoscelides obtectus, 321

Acari, 55

Acariformes, 56 Acarophaenacidae, 62 Aceria, see Eriophyes, 57

Achytonix, 230 .
epipaschia, 230

praeacuta, see epipaschia, 230 Acleris, 162, 462, 469

gloverana, 6, 36, 37, 46, 163*, 164*,

202, 430, 432, 461



variana, 87, 163 Acmaeodera, 255 connexa, 255

Acmaeops proteus, 295 Acompocoris lepidus, 81

Acossus populi, 132, 133*, 313 Acrididae, 68

Acronicta, 231

americana, 231

lepusculina, 231

Actebia fennica, 232

Adelges, 102, 104, 285

abietis, 49, 103, 104

cooleyi, 81, 103*, 104, 106*, 109 funitecta, see tsugae, 107

lariciatus, 104, 106

laricis, see strobilobius, 49, 107 nordmannianae, see niisslini, 49, 106 wasslini, 49, 104, 106

oregonensis, 104, 107

piceae, 6, 24, 32, 38-40, 46, 47, 49, 81, 87, 102, 104, 106, 107, 108", 126, 129, 130, 268, 285, 415, 424*, 425, 426

strobilobius, 49, 104, 107

tsugae, 104, 107, 109*

Adelgidae, see Phylloxeridae, 102 Adelocera, see Lacon, 267

Adephaga, 243

Adoxophyes negundana, 165

Aedes, 414

A'egeria tibialis pacifica, 139 4egeriidae, see Sesiidae, 138

Aethes rutilana, 50, 161

Agathis pumila, 50, 175, 458

Agria housei, 43a

625


Agrilus, 255, 258 angelieus, 255, 256

anxius, 254*, 255-257*

arbuti, 255 burkei, 255 fulminans, 255 granulatus, 255, 256

liragus, 255 politus, 255, 257*



populi, 255 quercicola, 255 Agromyza albitarsis, 428

Agromyzidae, 427



Agronus cinerarius, 321, 336

Aglaia, 128*, 129

occidentis, 129 Air currents, 12 Alassomyia juniperi, 415

Alaus melanops, 267*

Aleuroplatus coronatus, 110, 111* Aleyrodidae, 87, 110

Aleyrodoidea, 110 Allantonema, 20

Allergy, insect-caused, 196, 217, 222,

225


Allomyia, see Alassomyia, 415 Alniphagus, 344 aspericollis, 344*

hirsutus, 345

Alsophila pometaria, 199, 201*, 213, 214, 461

Altica, 315

ambiens, 315, 316*

bimarginata, 315

populi, 316
prasina, 316
Ambrosiella, 343

brunnea, 398 ferruginea, 411 saxeseni, 413 sulcati, 381

Amitermes, 77 Ampedus, 267 Amphicerus, 274

cornutus, 274 simplex, 274 Amphipsocidae, 78*

Amylostereum, 454, 455

areolatum, 454

Anabrus simplex, 36, 69, 70* Anacampsis niveopulvella, 175 Anacamptodes, 200, 205

clivinaria profanata, 200*, 201*, Anatis, 283

rathvoni, 283

Andricus californicus, 470* Aneflomorpha lineare, 298

Anelastes druryi, 267

Anisandrus, see Xyleborus dispar, 412 Anobiidae, 268

Anobiids, 269, 273

626

Anobium punctatum, 48, 269 Anoetidae, 64

Anopheles freeborni, 414

Anoplodera, 295

canadensis, 295

chrysocoma, 295

Anoplonyx, 445

canadensis, 445

laricivorus, 445

luteipes, 445

occidens, 445

Ant 


California harvester, 476

Owyhee harvester, 475

red harvester, 476

western harvester, 475



Anthaxia, 256

aeneogaster, 257

expansa, 254*, 257

Antheraea polyphemus, 192, 198 Anthocoridae, 80

Anthomyiidae, 428

Antibiotics, 32

Ants, 18, 71, 433, 472

carpenter, 22, 39, 41, 43, 95*, 96, 472, 473*-475

harvester, 475

velvet, 476

white, 71



Aonidia shastae, 115

Apanteles, 458, 459*

aristoteliae, 459

californicus, 459

fumiferanae, 459

solitarius, 50, 230, 459

starki, 459

Apatides fortis, 274

Apechthis ontario, 461, 462*

Aphelinus mali, 97, 466

Aphid 


American maple, 100

balsam twig, 99, 100*

balsam woolly, 6, 24, 32, 38-40, 46, 47, 49, 81, 87, 102, 104, 106, 107, 108,* 126, 129, 130, 268, 285, 415, 424*, 425, 426

bow-legged fir, 96

boxelder, 101

California maple, 100

Colorado maple, 100

common birch, 94, 99

Cooley spruce gall, 81, 103*, 104, 106*, 109

eastern spruce gall, 49, 103, 104 European birch, 49, 94, 99 European elm leaf curl, 49, 98 European maple, 49, 101

giant willow, 99

green spruce, 96

hemlock woolly, 104, 107, 109*

Aphid-Continued

larch woolly, 49, 104, 107

Monterey pine, 99 Norway maple, 49, 100

painted maple, 96

pine bark, 49, 105, 110

poplar leaf, 95 poplar petiolegall, 99

spruce, 49, 96, 97* sugarbeet root, 99

western larch woolly, 104, 107 woolly apple, 97, 98, 466

woolly elm, 98* woolly elm bark, 98 woolly pear, 98

woolly pine needle, 102

Aphididae, 94



Aphidius, 459

Aphidoidea, 94



Aphidoletes thompsoni, 49, 107, 415, 416*

Aphids, 7, 35, 37-40, 42, 43, 87, 94, 102, 283, 415, 424, 426

bark, 102

gall, 40, 94, 102

giant conifer, 95*, 99, 459, 474 woolly, 97

Aphrophora, 89, 90* canadensis, 89 permutata, 89, 90* saratogensis, 90 Apidae, 477

Apion, 48

fuscirostre, 48 ulicis, 48

Apis mellifera, 476 Apocrita, 433, 458 Apoidea, 476

Arachnida, 54

Aradidae, 85

Aradoidea, 85



Aradus, 85

cinnamomeus, 85* Aranae, 54

Arceuthobium vaginatum, 79 Archippus, 165

alberta, 165

packardianus, 165 tsuganus, 165

Archips, see also Choristoneura, 165,

168, 432, 460 argyrospilus, 165 cerasivoranus, 165, 166*

negundanus, 165 rosanus, 50, 166 Archostemata, 242 Arctiidae, 216

Arge, 438

clavicornis, 439 pectoralis, 438 Argidae, 438

Argyresthia, 140 arceuthobiella, 141 columbia, 141

cupressella, 140, 141*, 145

flexilis, 141

franciscella, 141 laricella, 141 libocedrella, 141 picea, 142

pilatella, 140, 142 pseudotsuga, 142 trifasciae, 142 tsuga, 142

Argyrotaenia, 166, 459, 460

citrana, 166 dorsalana, 166 occultana, 166 pinatubana, 167 provana, 166 tabulana, 167*

Arhopalus, 3, 291*, 293

asperatus, 291 foveicollis, 291 productus, 291, 292*

rusticus montanus, 291 Armadillidiidae, 53 Armadillidium vulgare, 53

Armillaria mellea, 16, 373

Aroga, 175, 459 websteri, 175 Arthropleona, 66 Arthropoda, 51, 65 Asemum, 285, 291

atrum, see striatum, 292

caseyi, 292

mokelumne, see nitidum, 292 nitidum, 292

striatum, 292 Aseminae, 290 Asilidae, 422, 423 Asiloidea, 422

Aspidiotus, see Nuculaspis, 117 and Quadraspidiotus, 118

Associated insects, 17 Asterolecaniidae, 112 Asterolecanium 49, 112



minus, 112

Astigmata, 64 Atanycolus, 460 anocomidis, 460 longifemoralis, 460'



Atimia, 292

confusa, 292

confusa dorsalis, 292

confusa maritima, 292

gannoni, 293 helenae, 293

hoppingi, 293 huachucae, 293 vandykei, 293 Attidae, 54*

627
Auchenorhynchi, 87



Augomonoctenus libocedrii, 440 Aulonium longum, 285

Bacillus thuringiensis, 18, 31 Bacteria, 18, 215

Bagworm, 137*



Bankia setacea, 52

Barbara colfaxiana, 34, 143, 144*, 147, 181, 279, 468

Bark beetles, 10, 15, 38, 339 losses caused, 4

major outbreaks, 6 Bassettia ligni, 470* Bearer 

filament, 209, 210* madrone shield, 131 * Bearers, shield, 131

Bears, 15

Bears, woolly, 216

Bee, honey, 476

Bees, 433, 477

bumble, 298, 477

carpenter, 477*

leaf cutting, 477

stingless, 477

Beetle 

alder bark, 344*



alder flea, 315, 316* Allegheny spruce, 353, 359 American aspen, 318 Apache pine cone, 377 aspen leaf, 317

bamboo powderpost, 274 birch bark, 380

blue-black stag, 246 California willow, 318 charcoal, 262

cottonwood leaf, 317* convergent lady, 284 deathwatch, 48, 272

Douglas fir, 6, 11, 13*, 14, 20, 32,

46, 64, 278, 339, 357, 358*, 360,

362, 372, 408, 423, 427, 460* Douglas fir pole, 372, 373`, 408, 409 dry-rot, 269, 271

drugstore, 48, 272 eastern ash bark, 366 eastern larch, 357, 361 elm leaf, 48, 319, 320* European lyctus, 48, 276

fir root bark, 333, 371*, 372 , foureyed spruce, 370 furniture, 48, 269 gray willow leaf, 319 Japanese, 47, 48, 250

Jeffrey pine, 46, 64, 352, 355, 388 Klamathweed, 48, 316 larger Mexican pine, 348 limber pine cone, 377

628
Beetle-Continued

lion, 297, 298*

lodgepole cone, 377

lodgepole pine, 353, 359, 360 Monterey pine cone, 376, 377 mountain mahogany bark, 345, 346* mountain pine, 6, 10, 13, 27, 28, 32,

45, 46, 64, 278, 280, 282, 285, 286,

309, 339, 341, 348, 351-353, 354*,

356*, 387, 388, 391, 396, 423, 427,

461


mountain pine cone, 376, 377

native elm bark, 364

noble fir bark, 372

oak ambrosia, 398

old world lyctus, 48, 276

olive bark, 366

Oregon ash bark, 366*

Pacific powderpost, 270, 271*, 275, 278

Pacific willow leaf, 319

pine ladybird, 284

pinon cone, 377

ponderosa pine cone, 376, 377

red turpentine, 15, 351, 362, 363*, 390 redwood bark, 56, 279, 368, 369 roundheaded pine, 46, 347, 348, 351 rugose stag, 256

shrub bark, 382

silver fir, 56, 372, 374* singleleaf-pinon cone, 377

smaller European elm bark, 16, 47, 48, 63, 365, 403-405*, 406

sour sap, 365

southern lyctus, 276

southern pine, 349, 351

spruce, 6, 11, 13, 21, 27, 45, 46, 339, 341, 353, 357, 359, 360*, 374, 393, 423, 424*, 461

striped ambrosia, 45, 46, 381, 411* sugar pine cone, 376*, 377

tenlined June, 250, 251* twicestabbed lady, 284

western ash bark, 366

western balsam bark, 379, 380 western cedar bark, 56, 367, 369* western lyctus, 276

western oak bark, 402, 403*

western pine, 3, 6, 10-14, 21, 22*, 32, 46, 64, 245, 246, 277, 280, 282, 285, 289, 308, 339, 341, 348, 349*, 350*, 352, 354, 357, 397, 398

whitemarked spider, 276

Beetles, 7, 35, 242

ambrosia, 21, 41, 338, 342, 343*, 380, 410, 412

ash bark, 3, 365

bark, 3-5*, 10, 14, 16, 18, 22, 25*, 28, 31, 37-39, 43, 240, 339 bostrichid, 273

cedar bark, 367, 369*

Beetles—Continued
checkered, 277

clerid, 277

click, 266

cone, 45, 269, 375, 398 cypress bark, 368, 369* darkling, 282

deathwatch, 268

dermestid, 268

drugstore, 268

engraver, 15

eyed click, 267*

false powderpost, 268, 273 flat bark, 285

flea, 315 ground, 17, 243

hister, 245

lady, 98*, 283

leaf, 315 longhorned, 286

May, 247, 248, 252

oak bark, 402

pill, 252

powderpost, 41, 268, 275 rain, 12, 249*

rove, 245 sap, 286 scarab, 247

seed, 321 snout, 321 spider, 276 stag, 246

toothneck fungus, 268

twig, 15, 401

whitelined June, 250, 251* Besbicus mirabilis, 470*, 471 Birds, 21, 31

Biston cognataria, 202 Black-check, 425 Blastobasidae, 174

Blastothrix sericea, 112, 465 Blattaria, 67

Blotchminer, aspen, 135 Blowdown, 13*, 28 Bole-infesting insects, 38 Bombycoidea, 186 Bombyliidae, 422, 423 Booklice, 77 Bonomoia, 64 Borer

amethyst cedar, 304, 305* ash, 139

banded alder, 304, 305* banded ash, 302 blackhorned pine, 299 black spruce, 292 blazed-tree, 281*

boxelder twig, 152

bronze birch, 254*, 255-257* bronze poplar, 255

Borer-Continued

California flatheaded, 262*, 351, 352, 398

cedartree, 304

cottonwood, 312

cottonwood crown, 139 European shothole, 48, 412

firtree, 305, 306*

flatheaded appletree, 260 flatheaded cedar, 260 flatheaded cone, 261*, 293 flatheaded fir, 254*, 263, 264*, 460 flatheaded pine, 264, 460 flatheaded pinon, 264 giant palm, 273, 274 giant root, 289

hairy pine, 290

juniper twig, 306* leadcable, 274, 275*, 279 locust, 301, 302*

mesquite, 300

newhouse, 291, 292* northern spruce, 294* oak cordwood, 307* oldhouse, 300, 301 *

Pacific flatheaded, 254*, 260

pole, 287

ponderosa pine bark, 308, 309* ponderous, 288, 289*, 290 poplar, 313, 315

poplar-and-willow, 48, 321, 322* poplar branch, 311, 312* poplar butt, 307, 313 poplar gall, 314

redheaded ash, 302 ribbed pine, 297*

roundheaded cone, 278, 279, 293, 472 roundheaded fir, 293, 409 sculptured pine, 254*, 259 shothole, 48, 404, 406 spruce limb, 303

western ash, 279, 302

western cedar, 254*, 265, 266* western larch, 294 western pineshoot, 147* western sycamore, 139 wharf, 48, 282*

Borers, 34, 38, 40, 42

flatheaded, 3, 12, 41, 252, 253*, 287 marine, 41, 51, 52

metallic wood, 252 pinhole, 410

roundheaded wood, 3, 22, 41, 286 Bostrichidae, 268, 273 Bostrichids, 269, 273 Bostrichoidea, 268

Brachycera, 413, 422



r,tBrachyrhinus, see Otiorhynchus, 328 rachyptera, see T aenionema, 66 Bracon, 460

politiventris, 440

629
Braconidae, 458

Braconids, 458

Bradynotes obesa opima, 68 Branch-infesting insects, 37 Bristletails, 65

Brochymena, 86

affinis, 86

Brothylus, 298

conspersus, 298

gemmulatus, 298

Bruchidae, 321



Bruchus pisorum, 321

Bucculatrix, 136

albertiella, 136

canadensisella, 137

Bud-infesting insects, 37

Budworm 

blackheaded, 87, 163

jack pine, 169, 172

Modoc, 129, 169, 173

spruce, 10, 31, 168, 169, 171, 172 two-year, 169, 170

western blackheaded, 6, 36, 37, 46,



163*, 164*, 202, 430, 432, 461
western spruce, 6, 24, 25, 32, 37, 45,

46, 54, 148, 168-170*, 171, 173,

430-433, 459-462, 463*, 464*, 469*

Budworms, 10, 12, 18, 37

Bug 

alder lace, 83



Arizona ash lace, 83

black grass, 81

boxelder, 83, 84*

leaf-footed, 84

oak lace, 83

pine flat, 85

Say stink, 86

spined soldier, 87

sycamore lace, 83

western boxelder, 84

western conifer seed, 84, 85* western sycamore lace, 82* 83 western willow lace, 83

Bugs 


assassin, 82

bed, 80

coreid, 84

flat, 85

flower, 80

grass, 43, 81

lace, 82

long-horned, 80

minute pirate, 80

plant, 81

rough plant, 86

soldier, 86

stink, 86

true, 7, 18, 35, 42, 79, 80*

Buprestid, golden, 254*, 256*, 257-259* _ Buprestidae, 252, 254*

630
Buprestis, 257, 261, 265, 285, 453 adjecta, 258



aurulenta, 254*, 256*, 257-259* confluenta, 258

connexa, 258 fremontiae, 258 gibbsi, 258

intricata, 258 laeviventris, 258 langi, 258, 259 lecontei, 258, 259 nuttalli , 258 prospera, 258

rusticorum. see lecontei, 258, 259 subornata, 258

viridisuturalis, 258

Buprestoidea, 252 Burning,

for control, 24 Butterflies, 7, 130, 237

brushfooted, 238 swallowtail, 239 sulfur, 240

whites, 240 Butterfly

California tortoiseshell, 238, 239* mourning cloak, 238*

pine, 6, 36, 46, 240, 241*, 430, 465 Byrrhidae, 252

Byrrhoidea, 252 Byrrhus, 252



Cacotemnus, see Hemicoelus, 270 Cactopinus, 375

desertus, 375 hubbardi, 375 koebeli, 375

pini, 375

Cadelle, 48, 280



Calaphis betulaecolens, 94, 99 Callidium, 298 antennatum hesperum, 299 cicatricosum, 299 hoppingi, 299 juniperi, 299 pseudotsugae, 299

sempervirens, 299

sequoiarium, 299 texanum, 299

Callimome, see Torymus, 467 Callimomidae, see Torymidae, 467 Calliphora, 430

Calliphoridae, 430 Callirhytis perdens, 471



Caloptilia, 134 negundella, 50, 134

syringella, 50, 134

Calopus angustvs, 281

Calosoma, 243

frigidum, 191, 243

sycophanta, 243

Calvolia furnissi, 64

Cameraria, see also Lithocolletis, 135 agrifoliella, 135

Camisiidae, 65



Camnula pellucida, 68

Camponotus, 22, 39, 41, 43, 95*, 96, 472, 473*-475

herculeanus modoc, 473, 474 laevigatus, 473

noveboracensis, 474*

vicinus, 473

Camptomyia pseudotsugae, 415 Cankerworm 

fall, 199, 201*, 213, 214, 461

spring, 213, 214

Cankerworms, 87

Carabidae, 17, 243

Carcelia yalensis, 226, 431

Caripeta, 202

aequaliaria, 202

angustiorata, 202

divisata, 202

Carpenterworm, 132, 134*

aspen, 132, 133*, 313

pine, 132



Carphoborus, 345

carri, 345

pinicolens, 345

vandykei, 345

Carulaspis juniperi, 115*

Casebearer, larch, 32, 46, 47, 50, 174, 176*, 458, 466

Casemaker, oak ribbed, 136 Caterpillar 

mirrorback, 236

range, 196

redhumped, 236

uglynest, 165, 166*

variable oakleaf, 235

walnut, 235, 236*

yellownecked, 235

Caterpillar, tent 

forest, 6, 12, 187-189, 190*, 191, 243 Pacific, 187, 188, 191

Sonoran, 187, 191

southwestern, 187, 191

western, 187-189*, 191, 243 Caterpillars, 34, 37., 42, 130

tent, 18, 31, 36, 43, 46, 186, 430-432, 461, 465, 466, 469, 472

woolly bear, 216

Catorama, see Tricorynus,. 272 Cecidomyia, 415

piniinopis, 415, 417*

reeksi, 416

resinicoloides, 416

Cecidomyiidae, 415, 467



Centrodera, 295
spurca, 295

Cephalcia, 434, 436 californica, 436 fascipennis, 436 hopkinsi, 436

provancheri, 436 Cerambycidae, 281, 286 Cerambycinae, 298 Ceratocystis 

dryocoetidis, 380 fagacearum, 286, 402

minor, 64, 350, 352 montia, 355

ulmi, 365, 405 Ceratopogonidae, 414 Cercoleipus coelonotus, 55

Cercopidae, 89

Cercopoidea, 87, 89

Ceromasia auricaudata, 431, 432* Cercomegistidae, 55 Ceruchus, 246

punctatus, 246 striatus, 246

Chaetophlepsis nasellensis, 431 Chaetophloeus, 345 fasciatus, 345

heterodoxus, 345, 346*

parkinsoniae, 345 penicillatus, 345 Chaitophorus, 94 populicola, 95 Chalcid 

Douglas fir seed, 467, 468*

fir seed, 468

pine seed, 468 spruce seed, 468 Chalcids, 34, 471 seed, 466

Chalcidoidea, 465

Chalcophora angulicollis, 254*, 259 Chamaemyiidae, 426 Chaoboridae, 414 Chaoborus astictopus, 414

Chariessa elegans, 279 Cheilosia, 425

alaskensis, 425 burkei, 425*

hoodiana, 426

Chermes, see Adelges, 102

Chermid, pine leaf, 109 Chermidae, see Phylloxeridae, 102 Chickadees, 21



Chilocorus stigma, 284

Chionaspis pinifoliae, 115, 116*, 119, 284

Chionodes, 177

periculella, 177 retiniella, 177

sabinianae, 177
Chipmunks, 21, 195

631


Chlorochroa, 86
ligata, 86

sayi, 86

uhleri, 86

Choriachus reginus, 56

Choristoneura, 165, 166, 168, 459, 460, 462, 465, 469

biennis, 169, 170

conflictana, 46, 153, 169, 171, 172*, 430

fumiferana, 10, 31, 168, 169, 171, 459 houstonana, 169, 171

lambertiana, 169, 171, 172, 173* occidentalis, 6, 24, 25, 32, 37, 45, 46,

54, 148, 168-170*, 171, 173, 430 

433, 459-462, 463*, 464*, 469* orae, 169

pinus, 169, 172 rosaceana, 169, 172

subretiniana, 169, 173

viridis, 129, 169, 173

Chramesus, 346 asperatus, 346 Chrysobothris, 260, 263, 472

caurina, 260 dentipes, 260 femorata, 260 malt, 254*, 260 nixa, 260

octocola, 260 texana, 260 trinervia, 260

Chrysocharis laricinellae, 50, 466 Chrysolina, 316

gemellata, see quadrigemina, 316 hyperici, 48, 316 quadrigemina, 48, 316

Chrysomela, 316, 318

aeneicollis, 317 crotchi, 317 mainensis, 317 scripta, 317*

Chrysomelidae, 315 Chrysomeloidea, 286



Chrysomyxa ledicola, 17

Chrysopa, 129

californica, see carnea, 129

carnea, 129 quadripunctata, 129*

Chrysophana, 261, 472

conicola, 261*, 293

placida, 254*, 261, 278

Chrysopidae, 129, 130



Chrysops, 422 Cicada, Apache, 88*

Cicadas, 87, 88* Cicadellidae, 91 Cicadelloidea, 87, 91

Cicadidae, 87, 88* Cicadoidea, 87

632
Cimbex, 439



americana, 439 americana pacifica, 439

rubida, 439

Cimbicidae, 439 Cimicoidea, 80



Cinara, 95*, 99, 459, 474

coloradensis, 96 curvipes, 96

fornacula, 96 laricifoliae, 96 occidentalis, 96 oregonensis, 96 pergandei, 96 ponderosae, 96 pseudotaxifoliae, 96 sabinae, 96

tsugae, 96

tujafilina, 49, 96 Clastoptera, 90 juniperina, 90 obtusa, 90

proteus, 90

testacea, 90

Clearwing, locust, 139



Cleis, see Mulsantina, 284

Clerid 


blackbellied, 277, 351

redbellied, 277*, 278, 356, 359 Cleridae, 17, 277 Clerids, 31, 277

Cleroidea, 277

Climatic influences, 11



Cnephasia longana, 50, 173

Coccidae, 112

Coccinellidae, 17, 283 Coccoidea,

Cochliomyia hominivorax, 33, 430 Cockroaches, 67 Coeloides, 460

brunneri, 359, 460* dendroctoni, 356, 361, 461 Coelostethus, see Hadrobregmus 269 Colaspis pini, 317 Coleophora, 174, 458

laricella, 32, 46, 47, 50, 174, 176*, 458,

466


Coleophoridae, 174 Coleoptera, 7, 242

Coleotechnites, 46, 177, 178*, 458, 465 ardas, 177

biopes, 177

canusella, 177 condignella, 177 florae, 177

granti, 177

juniperella, 177 lewisi, 177

milleri, 24, 177, 178*-180, 459, 461 moreonella, 177, 179

occidentis, 177

Coleotechnites-Continued piceaella, 177, 179

pinella, 177

stanfordia, 177, 179 starki, 177, 180, 459, 461 Colladonus, 92

beameri, 92

cachellus, 92

ponderosus, 92

tahotus, 92*

Collembola, 40, 66*



Coloradia, 192, 196

doris, 192*, 193

luski, 193

pandora, 6, 21, 36, 46, 49, 193, 194*, 195*, 459*

Colydiidae, 285



Commophila, 162

fuscodorsana, 162

macrocarpana, 162

Compsilura concinnata, 49, 431 Compsolechia, see Anacampsis, 175 Conchuela, 86

Coneworm 

fir, 181, 182, 184*

pine, 182

spruce, 183, 185

Conophthorus, 45, 269, 375, 398 apachecae, 377

cembroides, 377

contortae, 377

edulis, 377

flexilis, 377

lambertianae, 376*, 377 monophyllae, 377

monticolae, 376, 377 ponderosae, 376, 377 radiatae, 376, 377

scopulorum, 377

Contarinia, 417, 468

cockerelli, 417

coloradensis, 417

constricta, 418, 419* cuniculator, 418, 419* oregonensis, 417, 418* pseudotsugae, 417, 419* washingtonensis, 415, 417 Contortylenchus, 20

elongatus, 20*

reversus, 361

Control, 24

aerial spraying, 25, 26*, 36 biological, 18, 20, 30, 320 chemical, 29, 31, 43 exotic, 32

felling and burning, 24, 25*, 31 forest management, 26 integrated, 33

natural, 9

silvicultural, 26



Copidosoma deceptor, 465

Coptodisca arbutiella, 131*

Coptotermes formosanus, 76

Coreidae, 84 Coreoidea, 83

Corizidae, see Rhopalidae, 83 Corrodentia, see Psocoptera, 77 Corticeus, 282, 461

substriatus, 282

Coryneum cardinale, 149, 369 Corythucha, 82 arcuata, 83

ciliata, 83

confraterna, 82*, 83

elegans, 83 padi, 83

pergandei, 83 salicata, 83 Cossidae, 132 Cossoidea, 132 Cossonus, 321, 334 crenatus, 321 ponderosae, 321 quadricollis, 321

Creepers, 21



Cremifania nigrocellulata, 49, 426 Cricket

Mormon, 36, 69, 70*

snowy tree, 69 Crickets, 68, 69 tree, 69

Criocephalus, see Arhopalus, 291 Croesus latitarsus, 445

Cronartium, 181-183

comandrae, 40, 325, 333

Crossidius, 299 hirtipes, 299 Crustacea, 51, 52 Cryphalus, 377 pubescens, 377 ruficollis, 377 Cryptocercidae, 67

Cryptocercus punctulatus, 67* Cryptorhynchus lapathi, 48, 321, 322* Cryptostigmata, 65

Crypturgus, 341, 378

borealis, 378 Ctenophora vittata, 414

Cucujidae, 285 Cucujoidea, 283 Cucujus flavipes, 286



Culex tarsalis, 414 Culicidae, 414 Culicoidea, 414 Culicoides obsoletus, 414

Cupedidae, 242 Curculio, 322 occidentis, 322, 323*



uniformis, see occidentis, 322 Curculionidae, 321, 339 Curculionoidea,*321

633
Cutworm 

black army, 232

variegated, 233* Cutworms, 39, 42, 87, 230 Cyclorrhapha, 413, 423 Cylindrocopturus, 38, 45, 157, 323



dehiscens, 325

deleoni, 325

eatoni, 33, 38, 323, 324*, 327 furnissi, 324, 327 Cymatodera ovipennis, 279

Cynipidae, 469

Cynipids, 467, 469 Cynipoidea, 469 Cytilus, 252

Dachnonypha, 130

Daddylonglegs, 54

Damping-off, 429



Dasineura, 418

abiesemia, 419

canadensis, 419

rachiphaga, 418

Dasychira, see Parorgyia, 227

Datana, 235

integerrima, 235, 236*

ministra, 235

Defoliator, sagebrush, 175

Defoliators, 10, 34

losses caused, 4

major outbreaks, 6

Degrade, 343



Dendrobiella aspera, 274

Dendrocoris pini, 86

Dendroctonus, 12, 38, 56, 64, 81, 246, 262, 277-279, 285, 286, 339-341, 344, 346, 378, 383, 386, 388, 391, 393, 394, 400, 469

adjunctus, 46, 347, 348, 351 approximatus, 348

arizonicus, see frontalis, 351

barberi, see brevicomis, 348

borealis, see rufipennis, 359 brevicomis, 3, 6, 10-14, 21, 22*, 32,

46, 64, 245, 246, 277, 280, 282, 285,

289, 308, 339, 341, 348, 349*, 350*,

352, 354, 357, 397, 398 convexifrons, see adjunctus, 347 engelmanni, see rufipennis, 359 frontalis, 349, 351



jeffreyi, 46, 64, 352, 355, 388 johanseni, see punctatus, 359 monticolae, see ponderosae, 353 murrayanae, 353, 359, 360

obesus, see rufipennis, 359 parallelocollis, see approximatus, 348 ponderosae, 6, 10, 13, 27, 28, 32, 45,

46, 64, 278, 280, 282, 285, 286, 309,

339, 341, 348, 351-353, 354*, 356*,

387, 388, 391, 396, 423, 427, 461

634
Dendroctonus-Continued

pseudotsugae, 6, 11, 13*, 14, 20, 32,

46, 64, 278, 339, 357, 358*, 360,

362, 372, 408, 423, 427, 460* punctatus, 353, 359

rufipennis, 6, 11, 13, 21, 27, 45, 46, 339, 341, 353, 357, 359, 360*, 374, 393, 423, 424*, 461

simplex, 357, 361

valens, 15, 351, 362, 363*, 390 Dendrolaelaps quadrisetus, 56 Deretaphrus oregonensis, 285 Dermacentor andersoni, 56, 57* Dermestidae, 268

Dermestoidea, 268



Derobrachus geminatus, 288 Derodontidae, 268

Desmocerus auripennis, 296 Desmococcus, 124

captivus, 121

sedentarius, 124

Dialeurodes chittendeni, 49, 110 Diapause, 12, 195, 434, 438-440, 442­444, 451, 461, 467

Diapheromera femorata, 69, 70* Diaspididae, 114

Diaspidiotus ehrhorni, 116

Diaspis, see Carulaspis, 115

Dibrachys cavus, 466

Dicentrus bluthneri, 299

Dicerca, 261, 264

horni, 262

prolongata, see tenebrica, 262

tenet rica, 262

tenebrosa, 254*, 262

Diceroprocta apache, 88*

Dichelonyx, 247

backi, 247, 248*

crotchi, see backi, 247

testaceipennis, see backi, 247 truncata, 247

valida, 247

valida vicina, 247

Dichomeris marginella, 50, 180 Dictyoptera, 67

Digamasellus, see Dendrolaelaps, 56 Digamasellidae, 55

Dinapate wrightii, 273, 274

Dinoderus minutus, 274

Dioptidae, 220



Dioryctria, 181, 183*, 432, 459, 460, 462 abietella, see abietivorella, 181 abietivorella, 181, 182, 183* albovittella, 182

auranticella, 182

banksiella, 182

baumhoferi, 182

cambiicola, 182

contortella, 182

monticolella, 182



Dioryctria—Continued



okanaganella, 182

pentictonella, 182

ponderosae, 182, 184

pseudotsugella, 182, 185

reniculella, see reniculelloides, 185 reniculelloides, 183, 185

rossi, 183 tumicolella, 183

xanthoenobares, see auranticella, 182 zimmermani, 181

Diplotaxis, 247 Diprion, 18, 439 hercyniae, 439 similis, 439 Diprionidae, 439 Diptera, 7, 18, 413

Diseases


identification of, 18

insect, 18 tree, 16

Ditrysia, 130, 132

Ditylus quadricollis, 282 Dolichopodidae, 423

Dolurgus pumilus, 378

Donisthorpea, see Lasius, 475 Dorytomus, 325 Drepanaphis acerifoliae, 96 Dromaeohts basalis, 268

Drought, 11, 349, 387, 409 Dryocoetes, 45, 378, 379*, 409



affaber, 378 autographus, 378

betulae, 380 caryi, 380 confusus, 379, 380

pseudotsugae, see autographus, 378 sechelti, 380

Dust, 16, 118

Dutch elm disease, 365, 404-406 Dwarf mistletoe, 79, 348, 387 Dyslobus, 325

granicollis, 326

Dysmicoccus, 125 aciculus, 125 ryani, 125

Earomyia, 426, 427* abietum, 426

barbara, 426 '

Ectropis crepuscularia, 46, 202, 203* Edwardsiana rosae, 93 Ehrhornia cupressi, 125 Elater, see Ampedus, 267•

Elateridae, 266

Elateroidea, 266 Elatobia, 138

fuliginosella, 138

martinella, see fuliginosella, 138

Elatobium, 45, 96 abietinum, 49, 96, 97*

Elytroderma deformans, 17 Empidoidea, 423 Encyrtidae, 465 Endocronartium, 181, 182

harknessii, 182 Endomycetales, 269 Enemies, natural, 17 Engraver 

Douglas fir, 64, 372, 404, 405, 408, 409 fir, 20, 46, 63, 64, 293, 313, 373, 404, 406, 409, 410*, 460

hemlock, 404, 407, 408*

larch, 403, 405

pine, 46, 54, 63, 64*, 351, 352, 383*,

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