France, 1788 Social group




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France, 1788



Social group


Number of people

(in 000)


Percentage of population

Per capita income

( livres / annum)



Income in terms of per capita mean

Agricultural day laborers and servants

10150

36.29

39.4

0.27

Small scale farmers

5250

18.77

64.6

0.45

Workers (non agricultural)

1500

5.36

66.7

0.47

Mixed workers

1800

6.44

75.0

0.52

Servants (non agricultural)

1080

3.86

92.6

0.65

Shopkeepers and artisans

3240

11.58

150.0

1.05

Large scale farmers

2250

8.04

219.6

1.53

Bourgeoisie

2160

7.72

724.1

5.05

Nobles and clergy

540

1.93

724.1

5.05

Total

27970

100

143.3

1


Income distribution data: From Christian Morrisson and Wayne Snyder (2000). The “high income” variant for income of nobles and clergy and bourgeoisie assumed.
Population and area: Population (27.97 million) obtained directly from Morrisson and Snyder data. The current area of France assumed.
Urbanization rate: From Bairoch (1985, p. 279). The average of the estimated 11-13 percent, for the year 1800, and based on cities with more than 5,000 inhabitants.
Mean income in PPP: GDP from Maddison (2007), for year 1820 (the first year for which the data for France are available) is $1134.
REFERENCES
Bairoch, Paul (1985), De Jėricho à Mexico: villes et economies dans l’histoire, Paris: Arcades, Gallimard.

Maddison, Angus (2001), The World Economy: A Millennial Perspectives, Paris: OECD Development Centre.



Morrisson, Christian and Wayne Snyder (2000), “The income inequality of France in historical perspective”, European Review of Economic History, 4: 59-83.


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