Forest sector Development centre




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Georgia


Forest sector Development centre

Development of an Updated Forest Pest Status Report

With Priorities for an Integrated Forest Hazard

Management Program (#CS17-1)

(Development of Bark Beetles in the Spruce Stands of

Borjomi gorge (Borjomi- Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe) and

Pilot area (Oni, Ambrolauri, Tsageri, Lentekhi)

Final Report


Society of Georgian Foresters

Project Manager: Bidzina Tavadze

Tbilisi - 2002




Contents

Introduction - 3

Chapter I. Methodology and Working Instructions of Survey - 5

Chapter II. Distribution of Oriental Spruce (Picea orientalis Link./

in Georgia and its short Bioecological Description - 7




Chapter III. Pathological State of Spruce Stands in Borjomi Gorge (Borjomi-Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe) and Pilot Area (Oni, Ambrolauri, Tsageri, Lentekhi) - 8


Chapter IV. Distribution of the Bark beetles and the Pine Stem Moth in the Spruce Stands of Borjomi Gorge (Borjomi-Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe) and Pilot Area (Oni, Ambrolauri, Tsageri, Lentekhi) -19


Chapter V. Distribution of the Principal Fungal Diseases in the Spruce Stands of Borjomi Gorge (Borgomi-Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe) and Pilot area (Oni, Ambrolauri, Tsageri, Lentekhi) - 36

Conclusions - 45

General Recommendations for Monitoring and Control of Harmful Insects and Fungal Diseases in Spruce Stands in Borjomi Gorge (Borjomi-Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe) and Pilot area (Oni, Ambrolauri, Tsageri, Lentekhi) - 47


References - 50
Annex: Phytosanitary Situation of Spruce Stands in Borjomi Gorge (Borjomi-Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe) and Pilot Area (Oni, Ambrolauri, Tsageri, Lentekhi) - Photo - material of expedition

Introduction

For any country, forest protection from injurious insects, fungal diseases, and fire always has been the problem of National importance. As far as the forests are the important factor of ecological balance for any territories on the one hand, while on the other hand the forests have very big economical important for every country.

We should notice at once that the forest-fires do not have a great importance in Georgia, since large scaled fire is rarity. At the same time pest-insects and fungal diseases have great damages to the forestry of the country. It will be enough to remember the damages, done by spruce bark beetle Dendroctonus micans in 50-80s of last century.

There are many problems in the forestry of Georgia in view of forest protection from the pest-insects and fungal diseases. Those are periodical outbreak of bark beetles and defoliators, or the other groups of insects, decline of chestnut stands, degradation of oaks, decline of pine cultures and etc.

Nowadays the goal of the present project is - to investigate the contemporary state of principal bark beetles distribution- especially, to investigate distribution of most important bark beetles - Ips typographus L. and Dendroctonus micans Kug. in the spruce stands of Borjomi gorge (Borjomi-Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe) and Pilot area (Oni, Ambrolauri, Tsageri, and Lentekhi).

At the same time, the present project is one of the first steps of multilateral forest project of World Bank. Together with other subjects, its aim is to study the contemporary state of other harmful insects and fungi distribution in the forests of Georgia.

The present project aims is also to work out the “General Recommendations for Monitoring and Control of Harmful Insects and Fungal Diseases in Spruce Stands in Borjomi Gorge (Borjomi –Bakuriani, Akhaltsike) and Pilot area (Oni, Ambrolauri, Tsageri, Lentekhi)

From October17, until November 15, 2002 two field expedition were carried out. Seven specialists participated in it. One expedition took place in Pilot area (Oni, Ambrolauri, Tsageri, Lentekhi) the second in Borjomi gorge (Borjomi-Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe). Pathological investigations of the spruce stand of those regions were carried out. Its result demonstrates the present final submission.

The Main Stages of Project Implementation
September 25, 2002 – Project starting up period

October 11, 2002 – Submission of inception report

October 17-November 15, 2002 – Expeditions to Oni, Ambrolauri, Tsageri, Lentekhi, Borjomi-Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe

November 16-24, 2002 – Office procession and analysis of data, obtained through fieldwork

November 25, 2002 – Submission of interim report

November 26 – December 24, 2002 – Drafting of final report

December 25, 2002 – Submission of final report


The list of specialists who took part in the forest phytosanitary investigates:



  1. Tavadze Bidzina - Candidate of biological sciences, manager of the project, phytopathologist



  1. Supatashvili Archili – Candidate of biological sciences, entomologist



  1. Kapanadze Gota – Candidate of biological sciences, entomologist



  1. Berozashvili Togo – Candidate of biological sciences, entomologist



  1. Shavliashvili Irakli – Doctor of biological sciences, phytopathologist



  1. Lomidze Nino – Candidate of biological sciences, entomologist



  1. Davladze Gia – forester, specialist of GIS


Chapter I
Methodology and Working Instructions of

Survey
The present project is based on identification of an updated development of most important bark beetles - Ips typographus and Dendroctonus micans in the spruce stands of Borjomi gorge (Borjomi- Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe) and Pilot area (Oni, Ambrolauri, Tsageri, Lentekhi). They belong to the so-called secondary pests and they are on the one hand products of general pathological situation of the forest, while on the other hand they themselves make an influence on phytosanitary situation of the forests. At the same time, we investigated general pathological situation of spruce stands and the distribution other harmful insects and fungi without which it is almost impossible to implement the plan of spruce stand restoration management.



Hence, the following subjects were explored during of pathological research:

    1. The general pathological situation of the spruce stands;

    2. Distribution of most important bark beetles (Ips typographus, Dendroctonus micans) and other pests, especially moth (Dioryctria splendidella) that has already occupied the important ecological niche in the spruce stands of Georgia.

    3. The main injurious fungi – Phellinus pini var. abietis causing hearth rot and Armillaria mellea causing root rot;

    4. Detection of the other harmful insects and fungi.


The pathological researches of oriental spruce stands were carried out according to the methods that exist in the practice of forest pathology of the world. (Hawley, Stickel. Forest Protection. New York –London; Juravlev Forest Disease Diagnostic. M-L, 1962; Vorontsov. Forest Pathology M. 1981; Instruction for the Phytopathological Inspection of Forests USSR, M., 1983; Shevchenko. Forest Phytopathology. Kiev, 1986; Forest Protection from Diseases and Pests. Reference book, M. 1988; Methodology of Forest Insect and Disease Survey in Central Europe. Proceedings. Warszawa, 1998; Methodology of Forest Insect and Disease Survey in Central Europe. Proceedings. Prague, 2001. Journal of Forest Science, v.47, special issue 2, 2001).

During the pathological investigation of the spruce stands, the methods of visual, reconnaissance, and route -detailed submission were used.

After the visual and reconnaissance investigation we were choosing the route and make to record in details the trees according to there thickness level and by endanger to the different pathological agents.

In view of submission of pathological state, the trees were divided in to the categories as follows:


  1. Conventionally healthy trees – such trees that do not have the external signs of weakness.

  2. Trees with hollow – the trees with rotting stem;

  3. Drying trees - the trees with drying branches or top;

  4. Dead – the trees dried before or recently

The bark beetles, the other pest-insects and injurious fungi were also recorded in the special lists together with those properties of the pathological state of the trees, collecting the correspondence patterns.

Identification of distribution of injurious agents (insects, fungi) was happening from the absolute number of recorded trees - according to the healthy and endangered by some reason trees. As for population density of the bark beetles, there are the different methods.

There was a method of recording the insect on 1dm2 plot to identify the infestation density of Ips typographus. The method implies bark cleaning at the experiment plot of 50 cm length and 20 cm width (5dm X2dm = 10dm2 ) of modeling tree (recommended is 1-2 modeling tree) in to the mid-zone of the insect settlement and also recording all families that exists there. According to this method, the population density of Ips typographus is identified on 1dm2; 1-3 experience plot is to be taken at one model tree.

The infestation density of Ips typographus calculated on the 1dm2 plot according to the galleries and the number of marriage cell.

Foci is considered active if: 5-7% of trees are settled by bark beetles in the young stands, 3-5%- in middle aged; in ripening, ripe and overripe stands- 2-3%.

As for the diseases, in our concrete case of Pellinus pini var. abietis and Almillaria mellea, they are identified according to existence of their fruitbodies as well as according to the rotting types provoked by those diseases.

Sanitary clearcuts as well as sanitary selective fellings are considered as the basic forest measures against to the injurious insects and fungi in the forest pathology.

The sanitary clearcuts are when more then 30% of trees falls in stands, while at the time of sanitary selective felling - the amount of cut trees is about 30%.


Chapter II

Distribution of Oriental Spruce (Picea orientalis Link.) in Georgia and its short Bioecological Description

Of 45 species of Picea among forest species in the Northern Hemisphere, only oriental spruce (Picea orientalis link.) grows naturally in Georgia.

The tree is characterized by a compact (dense), decorative, pyramidal crown. Because of that feature, it is widely used for greenery in parks and squares of the Caucasus and Europe.

Oriental spruce is a typical “shadow” (shade tolerant0 species. Characterized by slow growth in the early years.

It requires rich soils and much humidity, which why it is distributed over a wide range in western Georgia, where the climate is mild, humid and wet. Because oriental spruce develops a horizontal root system it is not considered a wind – resistant tree.

It is tree of first size. Under the good condition for forest growth, it reaches a height of 45-50m with a diameter 1,5-2,0 m.

This spruce is wide spread forested mountains of the Georgia. Its distribution ranging from about 500m. to 2400 above level sea. The species forms the best forest at elevations of 1400-1700m. Also it forms mixed forests with fir /Abies nordmanniana/ and beech /Fagus orientalis/, or grows in solitude. Due to its positive qualities, the wood of oriental spruce is widely used in carpentry, turning, furniture and paper making, and in the hydraulic industry.

Commercial use of the wood is restricted from the ecological point of view because of its anti-erosion. Waterstoring and soil-protecting properties. Oriental spruce is relict and endemic species for Georgia and the Caucasus/Gulisashvili, 1959; 1966/

At present the total area of spruce stands is 138589 ha (5% of Georgia forested territories) (Gigauri; 2000)


Chapter III
Pathological State of Spruce Stands in Borjomi Gorge (Borjomi-Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe) and Pilot Area (Oni, Ambrolauri, Tsageri, Lentekhi)
The total area of the spruce stands of Borjomi gorge (Borjomi-Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe) and the Pilot Area (Oni, Ambrolauri, Tsageri, Lentekhi) is 35324 ha. Among them, the area of Borjomi-Bakuriani forest district is 16677 ha, Akhaltsikhe – 6994 ha, Oni- 3202 ha, Ambrolauri – 2982 ha, Tsageri – 428 ha, and Lentekhi – 5043 ha.

From above – mentioned forest districts, visual, reconnaissance, and itinerary-detailed investigations were carried out in the spruce stands of Borjomi-Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe, Oni, Ambrolauri, and Lentekhi forest districts; while the visual and reconnaissance researches were carried out in Tsageri forest district, because of the less area and satisfied pathological state of stands. We considered inexpedient to carry out detailed researches in Tsageri.

The results of pathological investigation of spruce stands of Borjomi-Bakuriani, Akhaltsikhe, Oni, Ambrolauri and Lentekhi forest districts are given below in the tables#1,2,3,4,5.

Nevertheless, in the table #6 there is sum total data according to every examined area and to the basic pathological signs. It gives general picture about the contemporary phytosanitary situation of the spruce stands.

The system of tabulation is the same for all tables. The pathological situation of the spruce stands that has the decisive importance for the forestry characterizes the following categories: healthy trees, hollow trees, drying and dead trees. As regards for injurious insects and fungi they are connected to the dieback symptoms by the different quality and provoke it in view of anthropogenical and ecological factors.

Any forest, as the living organism represents complicated ecosystem with versatile processes that proceeds in it and the processes of dieback symptom is one of the most important phenomenon, because it is caused by various chained to one-another abiotic and biotic factors.

The investigation way is the same in case of spruce stands where the process of decline is caused on the one hand by insects and diseases and on the other hand by anthropogenical activities. It is expressed in drying and insanitary of stands. Certainly, we also should not forget climate anomaly, for example, long – term severe droughts that effects negatively viability of forest stands.

As it is obvious from the tables (#1,2,3,4,5) the pathological state of spruce stands is unsatisfied in the investigated forest sites. We will concern separately the individual forest districts.

9

Table # 1



Phitosanitary situation of spruce stands of Borjomi-Bakuriani forest district


Name of forest site

Name of route and height above sea level

Total amount of recorded trees

A m o n g t h e m :


Healthy

Hollow

Drying

Dry

Settled by bark beetles and moth

Ddiseases

Ips


thipograp-hus

Dendroctonus micans

Dioryctria

splemdidella



Phellinus pini var.

abietis


Armil-laria

mellea


1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Borjomi

“Plato”

1000


m a. s. l.

200

154

77,0


14

7,0


21

10,5


6

3,0


_

5

2,5


_

14

7,0


_

Tsagveri

"Cagveri"

1100


m a. s. l.

220

156

70,91


11

5,0


17

7,73


39

17,73


17

7,72


3

1,36


_

11

5,0



_

Tsagveri

"Mzeta- Mze"

1250


m a. s. l.

164

99

60,37


_

28

17,14


35

21,34


28

17,14


2

1,22


_

_

_

Tsemi

"Libani"

1400


m a. s. l.

235

164

69,79


4

1,70


31

13,19


24

10,21


31

13,19


8

3,40


4

1,70


4

1,70


6

2,55


Bakuriani

"Didi Mitarbi"

1700


m a. s. l.

256

174

67,97


_

24

9,37


41

16,01


24

9,37


7

2,73


9

3,51


_

12

4,69


Total :

1075

747

69,49


29

2,70


121

11,26


145

13,49


100

9,30


25

2,33


13

1,21


29

2,70


18

1,67

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