For 2010-11 and 2011-12 sessions m. Pharm semester I (Group E) pharmacognosy and natural products

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FOR 2010-11 AND 2011-12 SESSIONS

M.PHARM Semester I (Group E)


Paper I: Techniques in Natural Product Chemistry
Max Marks 80 Max Time 3hrs.

Internal Assessment 20 Marks only 4 hrs/Week

Total Marks 100
1. General methods of extraction of natural products: Types and principles of extraction methods; their merits and demerits (Maceration, percolation, Soxhlet extraction, Steam distillation, Microwave-assisted extraction, solid-liquid extractions (SLE), ultrasonic extraction, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) , subcritical water extraction (SWE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Rationale for selection of different methods for extraction of natural products.

2. Separation techniques: General principles and types of chromatography. Principles of separation, instrumentation, factors influencing resolution, detection/visualization and applications of the following techniques to natural products:

  1. Column chromatography including short column, flash, vacuum liquid, medium pressure liquid and centrifugal chromatography.

  2. Paper chromatography,

  3. TLC and HPTLC (Selection of TLC and HPTLC plates, sorbents and mobile phase. Normal and reverse phase TLC)

  4. Ion exchange, size exclusion and ion pair chromatography,

  5. Counter current chromatography and DCCC

  6. GasChromatography (Selection of carrier gas and detectors)

  7. High performance liquid chromatography (Analytical, Semi-preparative and preparative)

  8. Electroplanar chromatography or electrophoresis.

3. Spectral Analysis and relevance to natural products:

  1. Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy: The nature of electronic excitation, the origin of UV band structure; principle of absorption spectroscopy; Beer and Lambert’s Law, Fieser-Kuhn and Nelson rules. Influence of substituent, ring size and strain on spectral characteristics. Calculation of Lamda maxima, effect of solvents, stereochemical effects, non-conjugated interactions; qualitative and quantitative applications

  2. Infrared spectroscopy: The IR absorption process; the modes of vibration bond properties and absorption trends. Coupled interactions; hydrogen bonding; qualitative and quantitative applications and introduction about FT-IR

  3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy :

    1. 1H NMR Spectroscopy: Principle, Factors affecting chemical shift, Chemical equivalence, spin-spin coupling, the origin of spin-spin splitting, Pascal triangle, the coupling constant, Factors affecting coupling constant, Non-first order spectra, Simplification of complex PMR spectra, Variable temperature NMR spectroscopy: Introduction and applications.

    2. 13C NMR Spectroscopy: Natural abundance of 13C, Resolution and multiplicity, Proton coupled, proton decoupled and off resonance decoupling techniques, Peak assignments,

    3. New Dimensions in NMR spectroscopy: NOE and NOE difference spectra, Introduction and applications of COSY, NOESY, ROESY and INADEQUATE TOCSY techniques in structure elucidation of natural products like menthol and geraniol. Basic principles of APT, DEPT and SEPT techniques and use in structure elucidation of natural products.

  4. Mass Spectrometry: Basic principle and theory involved, recognition of molecular ion peak and nitrogen rule, Index of hydrogen deficiency, types of ions, general rules of fragmentation and McLafferty rearrangement, rearrangements; mass spectra of representative compounds, Use of chemical ionization, field desorption, FAB, APCI, ESI, FAB, MSn, and MALDI in structure elucidation of natural products.

4. Hyphenated techniques: Principles and applications of GC-MS, LC-MS and LC-NMR techniques for the study of natural products.

5. Computer assisted structure elucidation of natural products

6. Spectroscopic elucidation of structures of morphine (alkaloid), abietic acid (diterpenoid), glycyrritinic acid (triterpenoid), diosgenin (steroidal sapogenin), rutin (flavonoid), and xanthotoxin (coumarin).


1. R.M.Silverstein, F.X.Webster, Spectrometric Identification of organic compounds, latest edition, John Wiley & sons, New-York.

2. Remington, The science and practice of pharmacy, Mack publishing company. Easton Pennsylvania.

3. Willam Kemp, Organic spectroscopy.

4. E. Heftmann, A laboratory handbook of chromatography, New - York.

5. H.H.Willard, L.L.Merritt and J.A.Dean, Instrumental methods of analysis, Van Nostrend Reinhold, New York.

6. WWM. Wenland, Thermal analysis, John Willy and sons, New-York.

7. Principle of instrumental analysis,V ed. By Skoog, Holler-Niemen.

8. I.L. Finar, Organic Chemistry, Vol.II, The English Language Books Society and Longman Group Limited.

M.PHARM Semester I (Group E)


Paper II: Advanced Pharmacognosy and Phtytochemistry
Max Marks 80 Max Time 3hrs.

Internal Assessment 20 Marks only 4 hrs/Week

Total Marks 100
1. Standardization and quality control of herbal drugs and products: Concept, requirement and various techniques of standardization of plant drugs. Exogenous and endogenous factors influencing quality of medicinal and aromatic plants.

1.1 Organoleptic evaluation of plant drugs {Study of organoletic features of leafy drugs (Senna and Digitalis), bark drug (Terminalia arjuna), stem drug (Tinospora cordifolia and Berberis aristata), rhizome drug (Podophyllum hexandrum), root drug (Withania somnifera), fruit drug (Aegle marmelos and Terminalia chebula), seed drug (Plantago ovata), and entire plant (Bacopa monnieri and Ocimum sanctum)}.

1.2 Microscopic evaluation of plant drugs

1.2.1 Study of microscopic features of leaf (Adhatoda vasica), wood (Pterocarpus marsupium), bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), rhizome (Zingiber officinale), seeds (Mucuna prurita), and entire plant (Convolvulus microphyllus).

1.2.2 Quantitative microscopy

1.2.3 Microscopic analysis of powdered drugs with the objective of identifying genuine drugs and their adulterants.

1.3 Physical evaluation of plant drugs

1.4 Phytochemical evaluation of plant drugs

1.5 Biological standardization

1.6 Importance of marker constituents in plant drug standardization

1.7 Fingerprint identification of plant drugs

2. Biogenesis of plant metabolites

2.1. Methods of investigation of biosynthetic pathways (tracer techniques, autoradiography etc)

2.2 Study of important biosynthetic pathways of plant metabolites (like Photosynthesis, TCA cycle, Embden Merrhoff pathway, Shikimic acid pathway, Acetate hypothesis, biosynthesis of polyketides and Isoprenoid compound biosynthesis; mixed pathways for glycosides and flavonoids).

2.3 Regulation of formation of secondary metabolites.

3. Study of a few phytochemical groups: Classification, biogenesis, general chemistry and therapeutic potential of:

3.1 Alkaloid N→ oxides

3.2 Terpenoids (with special emphasis on triterpenoids, carotenoids and quassinoids)

3.3 Porphyrins

3.4 Polyunsaturated fatty acids

3.5 Gums and mucilages and immunostimulating polysaccharides

3.6 Flavonoids and coumarins

4. Phytopharmaceuticals: Isolation, chemistry and therapeutic potential of artemisinin, taxol, podophyllotoxins, gingkolides, curcumin, capsaicin, andrographolide, papain, eugenol, citral, withanolides, hesperidin, forskolin , tannic acid, vasicine, vincristine, digoxin, glycyrrhetinic acid, vitexin, ginsenosides, brassinosteroids.

6. Marine biomedicinals and marine toxins

7. Volatile oils: Isolation, chemistry and utilization of volatile oils. Use of volatile oil containing plants and their by-products in the perfume industry and spices industry.

8. Study of principle of synergy in phytoconstituents.


  1. V.E. Tyler , L.R. Brady and J.E. Robbers, Pharmacognosy , 9th edition, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, U.S.A., 1988.

  2. W.C. Evans, Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy 16th edition, Bailliere Tindal, London, U.K, 2009

  3. T. Robinson, The organic constituents of higher plants, Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, U.S.A., 1967.

  4. B. P. Jackson and D.W. Snowdon, Powdered vegetable drugs, Stanley Thornes Ltd, London, U.K., 1974.

  5. T. W. Wallis, Textbook of Pharmacogonsy, 5th edition, CBS, Delhi, India, 1985.

  6. I.L.Finar,Organic Chemistry Vol. I and II, 6th edition, The English Language Book Society and Longman Group Limited,London, U.K.1995

  7. S.S. Handa and M.K. Kaul, Supplement to Cultivation and Utilization of Medicinal Plants CSIR, Delhi, India, 1997.

  8. S.S. Handa and M.K. Kaul, Supplement to Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants CSIR, Delhi, India, 1997.

  9. M.L. Wickery and B. Wickery, Secondary Plant Metabolism McMillan Press Ltd. London.

  10. J.B. Harborne, Phytochemical Methods, Chapman and Hall, London

  11. P.B. Kaufman et al, Natural Products from Plants, CRC press, 1998.

  12. WHO (World Health Organization), 1998. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. World Health Organization, Geneva.

  13. Monographs and relevant Review articles appearing in various periodicals and Journals.

Max Marks 80 Max Time 8hrs.

Internal Assessment 20 Marks only 16 hrs/Week

Total Marks 100

  1. Spectral workshop: Workshops involving interpretation of IR, NMR, Mass spectra of simple organic compounds and phytochemicals to elucidate their structure.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative microscopic examination of plant drugs and identification of their adulterants

  3. Exercises on chromatographic techniques: Exercises based on paper, thin layer, column and HPL chromatography.

  4. Exercises on extraction:

      1. Extraction of active principle and volatile oils

      2. Preparation of the TLC profiles of the extracted constituents.

  5. Quantitative estimation of phytoconstituents in crude drugs and herbal formulations.

  6. Pharmacopoeial evaluation of some important plant drugs.

  7. Standardization / evaluation of some commercial / ayurvedic formulations.

  8. Preparation of report on one plant drug.

M.PHARM Semester II (Group E)


Paper III: Recent advances in Pharmacognosy

Max Marks 80 Max Time 3hrs.

Internal Assessment 20 Marks only 4 hrs/Week

Total Marks 100
1. Discovery of new drugs from natural products in the following therapeutic areas: Study of different experimental models used for evaluation of biological activity; chemical constituents and pharmacological basis of therapeutic uses of the following plants.

1.1 Hepatoprotective plants (Silybum marianum, Schizandra chinensis, Cynara scolymus, Andrographis paniculata, Picrorrhiza kurroa).

1.2 Anti inflammatory plants (Bosewellia serrata, Curcuma longa, Commiphora mukul)

1.3 Plants used in diabetes mellitus (Trigonella foenumgraecum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Momordica charantia, Gymnema sylvestris, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus)

1.4 Anticancer plants (Taxus species, Podophyllum species, Catharanthus roseus, Cephalotaxus harringtonia, Camtotheca acuminata).

1.5 Plants used in mental health

  1. Antianxiety plants (Piper methysticum, Valeriana species, Acorus calamus, Passiflora species)

  2. Anti depressant plants ( Hypericum perforatum, Evening primrose oil)

  3. Plants used as memory enhancers ( Bacopa monnieri, Centella asiatica, Celastrus paniculatus, Convolvulus microphyllus)

1.6 Plants used as immunomodulators and adaptogens (Allium sativum, Panax ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asparagus racemosus)

1.7 Plants with antioxidant activity: Plants containing flavonoids, Emblica officinalis, Lycopersicum esculentum, Allium cepa

1.8 Bioavailability enhancers: Piper species

1.9 Plant sweeteners and plant bitters

1.10 Anti viral plants (Echinacea purpurea, Thuja occidentalis)

2. Traditional Medicine development:

  1. Concept and relevance of traditional medicine, CAM and herbal medicine. WHO guidelines for TM and CAM.

  2. Concept of rasayana and medhya rasayana.

  3. Importance of evidence based medicine for herbal remedies (with examples of Echinacea, Black Cohosh, St. John’s Wort, Saw Palmetto, and Flaxseed).

  4. Scientific validation of traditional medicines (Study of important examples like Skullcap, hawthorn, feverfew, liquorice, ginseng, valerian, ginger, tulsi, Acorus calamus, Artemisia annua, Vitex negundo, Tylophora indica, Boerhaavia diffusa, Terminalia chebula, Albizia lebbeck).

3. Agrotechnology of medicinal plants: Importance of cultivation of medicinal plants. Need for improved agrotechnology of medicinal plants.

3.1 WHO guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices (GACP) for medicinal plants.

3.2 Problems and recent trends in pest management, scope of biological control and use of environment friendly pesticides especially plant derived products, Pyrethroids, neem, pheromones and juvenile hormones.

3.3 Cultivation and management of medicinal plants: Dioscorea, Opium, Digitalis, Senna, Plantago, Mentha, Lemon Grass, Basil, pepper, aloe, gymnema, stevia, safed musli, Acorus calamus, saffron, Vinca.

4. Plant tissue culture techniques and their application to Phytopharmaceuticals :: Types, techniques and requirements for plant tissue cultures. Study of cellular totipotency, callus and suspension cultures, micropropagation, biotransformation. Immobilized plant cell culture systems, hairy root and multiple shoot cultures and cryopreservation. Large scale culture of plant cells.

4.1 Secondary metabolites production: Screening and selection of high yielding cell lines, Production of plant metabolites in tissue culture. Effect of different factors on the production of secondary metabolites in plant tissue culture systems.

4.2 Crop quality improving methods: Chemodemes, Hybridization, Mutation & Polyploidy. Transgenic plants and edible vaccines

5. Chemotaxonomy and drug discovery: Concept and potential of chemotaxonomy (with special reference to flavonoids, quinones and alkaloids).

6. New avenues in commercial Pharmacognosy: Plant materials, their chemical constituents and scientific basis of their use as neutraceuticals, cosmaceuticals and natural polymers.

  1. W.C. Evans, Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy 16th edition, Bailliere Tindal, London, U.K, 2009

  2. T. W. Wallis, Textbook of Pharmacogonsy, 5th edition, CBS, Delhi, India, 1985.

  3. S.S. Handa and M.K. Kaul, Supplement to Cultivation and Utilization of Medicinal Plants CSIR, Delhi, India, 1997.

  4. S.S. Handa and M.K. Kaul, Supplement to Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants CSIR, Delhi, India, 1997.

  5. WHO (World Health Organization). WHO guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices (GACP) for medicinal plants. World Health Organization, Geneva, (2003).

  6. WHO (World Health Organization). WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants vol 1-3. World Health Organization, Geneva, (1999).

  7. Com pendium of Indian medicinal plants vol I-V, CSIR, Lucknow

  8. T. Fleming, PDR for herbal medicine, Mountvale, (2000).

  9. M.J. Cupp, Toxicology and clinical pharmacology of herbal products, Humana press, New Jersey (2000)

  10. Street H.E. (1997) Plant Cell and Tissue Culture, Blackwell Scientific, London.

  11. Monographs and relevant Review articles appearing in various periodicals and Journals.

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