Flashcard data for basic principles of genetics




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FLASHCARD DATA FOR BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS
Topic 1: Mendel’s Genetics


1.

Offspring that are the result of mating between two genetically different kinds of parents--the opposite of purebred.

hybrid

2.

The study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring.  This is the branch of science that deals with the inheritance of biological characteristics.

genetics

3.

A 19th century central European monk scientist who published his ideas about genetics in 1866 but largely went unrecognized until 1900, which was long after his death. He acquired his understanding of genetics mostly through pea plant breeding experiments.

Gregor Mendel


4.

A theory that inherited traits blend from generation to generation.  Most of the leading scientists in the 19th century accepted it. However, Gregor Mendel proved that it was not correct.

blending theory

5.

Offspring that are the result of mating between genetically similar kinds of parents--the opposite of hybrid.

purebred

6.

Units of inheritance usually occurring at specific locations, or loci, on a chromosome. These units are responsible for hereditary characteristics in plants and animals.

genes

7.

Alternate forms of the same gene.   Because they are different, their action may result in different expressions of a trait.

alleles

8.

The genetic makeup of an individual for a trait or for all of his/her inherited traits—not the observable or detectable characteristics.

genotype

9.

A genotype consisting of two identical alleles of a gene for a particular trait.

homozygous genotype

10.

A genotype consisting of two different alleles of a gene for a particular trait.

heterozygous genotype

11.

The observable or detectable characteristics of an individual organism; the detectable expression of a genotype.

phenotype

12.

The general term for an allele that masks the presence of another allele in the phenotype.

dominant allele

13.

The general term for an allele that is masked in the phenotype by the presence of another allele.

recessive allele

14.

Gregor Mendel's principle of genetic inheritance stating that, for any particular trait, the pair of genes of each parent separate (during the formation of sex cells) and only one gene from each parent passes on to an offspring.

principle of segregation


15.

Gregor Mendel's principle of genetic inheritance stating that different pairs of genes are passed to offspring independently so that new combinations of genes, present in neither parent, are possible.  In other words, the distribution of one pair of alleles does not influence the distribution of another pair--the genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another.

principle of independent assortment

Topic 2: Probability of Inheritance




1.

A simple graphical method of showing all of the potential combinations of offspring genotypes that can occur and their probability given the parent genotypes. This system involves the use of a tic-tac-toe square. It was named after pioneer British geneticist.

Punnett square

2.

The term for a genotype in which there are two dominant alleles.

homozygous dominant

3.

The term for a genotype in which there is a dominant allele and a recessive one.

heterozygous

4.

The term for a genotype in which there are two recessive alleles.

homozygous recessive

5.

The genotype that normally results in the expression of a recessive allele in the phenotype.

homozygous recessive

6.

The only genotype that normally will not result in the expression of a dominant allele in the phenotype.

homozygous recessive

7.

The genotype of an individual who is a carrier for a recessive allele that is not expressed in his/her phenotype.

heterozygous

Part 3: Exceptions to Simple Inheritance




1.

The general term for inheritance patterns which can be explained by simple rules of dominance and recessiveness of genes.

Mendelian genetics

2.

A trait that is determined by the combined effect of more than one gene. Human skin and hair color are examples. The result of this kind of inheritance is the perception of gradation in the expression of such traits.

polygenic trait

3.

The inheritance pattern in which a trait is expressed in the phenotype of heterozygous individuals as an apparent blend or an intermediate expression.  For instance, in primroses white flowers are homozygous recessive, red ones are homozygous dominant, and pink ones are heterozygous. 

incomplete dominance

4.

The inheritance pattern in which two different alleles for a trait are expressed unblended in the phenotype of heterozygous individuals.  Type AB human blood is an example.

codominance

5.

An inheritance pattern in which a gene has more than two alleles. The human ABO blood type system is an example. It is controlled by at least 3 alleles.

multiple-allele series

6.

Genes that can alter how certain other genes are expressed in the phenotype. Genes causing some kinds of cataracts can be affected by such accompanying genes.

modifying genes

7.

Genes that can either initiate or block the expression of other genes.  They control the production of a variety of chemicals in plants and animals.   Shortly after conception, some of these genes work as master switches orchestrating the timely development of our body parts.  They are also responsible for changes that occur in our bodies as we grow older. 

regulator genes

8.

Genes whose effect does not normally occur unless certain environmental factors are present.  For example, you may inherit a gene for type II diabetes but never get the disease unless you become overweight, persistently stressed psychologically, or do not get enough sleep on a regular basis.

incompletely penetrant genes

9.

Genes that are inherited by both men and women but are normally only expressed in the phenotype of one of them.  The heavy male beard is an example. While women have facial hair it is most often very fine and comparatively sparse.

sex-limited genes

10.

Genes that are expressed in both men and women but differently.  An example of this is gout, a disease that causes painfully inflamed joints.  If the gene is present, men are nearly eight times more likely than women to have severe symptoms.

sex-controlled genes

11.

An inheritance pattern in which a gene will have a different effect depending on the gender of the parent from whom it is inherited. Diabetes and psoriasis can follow this inheritance pattern.

genome imprinting

12.

The inheritance pattern in which a single allele is responsible for a variety of traits.  The collective groups of symptoms known as sickle-cell trait is an example.

pleiotropy

13.

Defective alleles that have segments which are doubled in their transmission from generation to generation.  In the case of genetically inherited diseases, the result is increasingly severe symptoms each generation.

stuttering alleles or unstable alleles

14.

Twins that come from the same fertilized egg and are, subsequently, genetically the same. They are also known as identical twins.

monozygotic twins

15.

The international research effort designed to discover all human genes and to determine their functions.

Human Genome Project


Copyright © 2004 by Dennis O'Neil. All rights reserved.


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