File d pieridae tribe pierini




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FILE D – PIERIDAE
TRIBE PIERINI

Swainson, 1820

INCERTAE SEDIS

Genus Dixeia Talbot, 1932
Entomologist 55: 36 (36-37).

Type-species: Pieris charina Boisduval, by original designation.


An Afrotropical genus of 10 species.

Dixeia capricornus (Ward, 1871)
Pieris capricornus Ward, 1871. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 59 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Camaroons”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Angola.

Common name: Capricorn white.

Habitat: Forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A rather uncommon species in West Africa (Larsen, 2005a). Males fly fast and are avid mud-puddlers (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Dixeia capricornus capricornus (Ward, 1871)
Pieris capricornus Ward, 1871. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 59 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Camaroons”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast (east), Ghana, Benin, Nigeria (south), Cameroon (west and central).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Mbe Mountains in Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a).
adultera Plötz, 1880: 205 (as sp. of Pieris). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 41: 205 (189-206). Cameroon: “Victoria”.
nusprica Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Pieris capricornus). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 82 (12-107). Cameroon: “Camerun-Hinterland”.
aurantiaca Talbot, 1943 (as female f. of Dixeia cebron). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 12: 107 (102-112). No locality given.
signata Talbot, 1943 (as male f. of Dixeia capricornus). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 12: 108 (102-112). Ghana: “Gold Coast, Enchi”.
alba Bernardi, 1961 (as female morph of Dixeia capricornus capricornus). Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 503 (496-505). Cameroon: “Kamerun, Victoria”.
ochracea Bernardi, 1961 (as female morph of Dixeia capricornus capricornus). Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 503 (496-505). Cameroon: “Yaunde, Cameroons, 2000 feet”.
Dixeia capricornus falkensteinii (Dewitz, 1879)
Pieris falkensteinii Dewitz, 1879. Nova Acta Academiae Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicum Naturae Curiosorum 4 (2): 182 (173-212).

Type locality: Angola: “Chinchoxo”.

Distribution: Cameroon (south), Gabon, Congo, Angola.
lindnerii Dewitz, 1879 (as sp. of Tachyris). Nova Acta Academiae Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicum Naturae Curiosorum 4 (2): 186 (173-212). Angola: “Chinchoxo”.

Dixeia cebron (Ward, 1871)
Pieris cebron Ward, 1871. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 59 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Cameroons”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria (south), Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, ?Democratic Republic of Congo (west).

Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Bossematie (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Cebron white.

Habitat: Dry and open forest formations (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: The flight of males is fast and weaving. Males are avid mud-puddlers and both sexes visit flowers (Larsen, 2005a). Small numbers were noted participating in a mixed migration through Lagos, Nigeria in late May, 1967 (Larsen, 1968).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
usitatus Talbot, 1943 (as female f. of Dixeia cebron). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 12: 107 (102-112). Ivory Coast.
asignata Bernardi, 1961 (as male morph of Dixeia cebron). Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 497 (496-505). Ghana: “Sunyani Forest”.

Dixeia charina (Boisduval, 1836)
Pieris charina Boisduval, 1836. In: [Roret, Suites à Buffon] Histoire naturelle des Insectes. Species général des Lépidopteres 1: 525 (690 pp.). Paris.

Dixeia charina charina. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 42mm. Cintsa West, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa; 20-31 December, 2001; M.C. Williams (Williams collection).

Dixeia charina charina. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 40mm. Cintsa West, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa; 20-31 December, 2001; M.C. Williams (Williams collection).
Type locality: South Africa: “Cafrerie [South Africa]”.

Diagnosis: See D. doxo for differentiation from that species. On the hindwing underside there is much variation in the amount of black scaling, from vitually none to heavily irrorated (Pringle et al., 1994).

Distribution: Ethiopia, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo (Larsen, 1991: 144), Tanzania, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Madagascar. It is not clear which subspecies is covered by the record for the DRC (Kivu) (Larsen, 1991:144).

Common name: African small white.

Habitat: Coastal forest and bush; savanna. In the southern part of its range the larval host-plant may grow just above the high-tide line and specimens of the butterfly may be observed flying along sandy beaches (Williams, unpublished).

Habits: The flight is fairly fast and direct but specimens settle fairly frequently. Specimens are often seen flying along the edges of forest or coastal bush (Pringle et al., 1994). Both sexes feed from flowers. Migrations have occasionally been recorded (Trimen, cited by Swanepoel, 1953).

Flight period: All year; more plentiful in the warmer months.

Early stages:
Clark, in Van Son, 1949: 192.

Egg 0,9 mm high and 0,4 mm in diameter; elongate barrel-shaped; attenuate at micropylar end; 11 or 12 longitudinal ribs of which only half reach the micropyle, where they are produced into sharp points; 25 to 28 rows of transverse ribs; colour white, becoming slightly yellowish; laid singly on tip of young shoot; egg stage 7 days. Larva eats its way out near top of shell and consumes part of the shell; 1,75 mm long; light yellowish brown with pinkish tinge on sides; head blackish. Later instars - light green head with brown crown; body light green; dorsal stripe edged with very dark green, lightening lower down the sides. Final instar larva attains 30 mm; variable in colour with three distinct colour forms: 1. light green dorsally with dark green central stripe broadening at head; first segment with white V-like patches; sides brown, shading to green above lateral ridge; ridge and area below it pale blue-green; head light brown, darkening at top; may or may not have red and white lateral markings. 2. Green with white V-marks on first segment, flanked with brown or black; head green with brown on upper portion, or plain green; with or without red and red and white lateral markings; there may be a subdorsal row of black streaks at the junction of the segments, generally flanked on inner side with white or pink, especially on anterior segments; pink and white may extend over the dorsum. 3. Pinkish brown broad dorsal stripe similar to 1; sides light, speckled with brown, except on first three segments, which are heavily marked with brown; no white marks on first segment, where there is some light chocolate marking instead; head light chocolate with brown cap; lateral and subdorsal variations as in 2. Pupa 18 mm long; head with narrow, apically rounded projection, which is a little shorter than the head itself; thorax with short paired acute anterior and larger lateral projections; dorsal keel angularly produced at middle; wing-cases hardly projecting; abdomen strongly widened laterally near base, with large and acute projections, connected over the dorsum by a transverse carina; colour highly variable with the following colour forms: 1. Light green with chocolate-edged brown markings over the dorsum. 2. Chocolate with whitish-edged brown marking over the dorsum. 3. Dull yellow-green with brown markings.


Clark, in Pringle et al., 1994: plate 23, p.384.

“The eggs are laid singly on the tips of young shoots. They are 0,4 mm in diameter and 0,9 mm high. White when first laid, the eggs later become a yellowish colour. There are about 28 cross ribs and 12 longitudinal ribs, half of which reach the micropyle where they are produced into sharp points. The egg stage lasts about seven days. The larvae emerge from near the top of the egg and eat part of the eggshell. The colour of the larvae is variable. The pupae are also variable in colour. They are suspended upright by a silken girdle and are attached by the cremastral hooks to a silken pad.”


Henning, Henning, Joannou, and Woodhall, 1997: 346 (photograph of final instar larva and pupa).
Larval food:

Capparis sepiaria L. var. citrifolia (Lam.) Tolken (Capparaceae) [Dickson & Kroon, 1978].
Dixeia charina charina (Boisduval, 1836)
Pieris charina Boisduval, 1836. In: [Roret, Suites à Buffon] Histoire naturelle des Insectes. Species général des Lépidopteres 1: 525 (690 pp.). Paris.

Dixeia charina charina. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 42mm. Cintsa West, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa; 20-31 December, 2001; M.C. Williams (Williams collection).

Dixeia charina charina. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 40mm. Cintsa West, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa; 20-31 December, 2001; M.C. Williams (Williams collection).
Type locality: South Africa: “Cafrerie”.

Distribution: Mozambique (south), South Africa (Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province, Western Cape Province - south-east), Swaziland.

Specific localities:

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Pringle et al., 1994); Sheba Mine (Hennings).

KwaZulu-Natal – Port Shepstone (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Colenso (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); Estcourt (Swanepoel, 1953); Greytown (Swanepoel, 1953); St. Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); False Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); Kosi Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); Lebombo Mountains (southern end) (Pennington).

Eastern Cape Province – Port Elizabeth (Swanepoel, 1953); Uitenhage (Swanepoel, 1953); Fort Beaufort (Swanepoel, 1953); Grahamstown (Swanepoel, 1953); Bathurst (Swanepoel, 1953); Port Alfred (Swanepoel, 1953); Butterworth (Swanepoel, 1953); Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Port St. Johns (Swanepoel, 1953); King William’s Town (Swanepoel, 1953); Somerset East (Swanepoel, 1953); Bedford (Pringle et al., 1994).

Western Cape Province – Wilderness (Swanepoel, 1953); Knysna (Swanepoel, 1953); Mossel Bay (Pringle et al., 1994).
anactorie Doubleday, 1842 (as sp. of Pieris). In: Gray, J.E., Zoological Miscellany: 77 (73-78). London. South Africa.
Dixeia charina dagera (Suffert, 1904)
Pieris gerda dagera Suffert, 1904. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 82 (12-107).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Mhonda”.

Distribution: Tanzania (east, including Zanzibar).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Coastal areas (Kielland, 1990).
anali Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Pieris liliana). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 83 (12-107). Tanzania: “Mhonda”.
Dixeia charina liliana (Grose-Smith, 1889)
Belenois liliana Grose-Smith, 1889. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 3: 122 (121-137).

Type locality: Kenya: “in the neighbourhood of Mombasa”.

Distribution: Kenya (east, coast), Tanzania (north).

Specific localities:

TanzaniaRau Groundwater Forest Reserve, Moshi; Karanga River (Cordeiro, 1995).
nigropunctata Sharpe, 1890 (as sp. of Pinacopteryx). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 5: 336 (335-336). “East Africa”.
gerda Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1893 in Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1892-7 (as sp. of Pinacopteryx). Rhopalocera exotica, being illustrations of new, rare, and unfigured species of butterflies 2: 4 ([261 pp.]). London. Kenya: “Mombasa”.
transiens Talbot, 1943 (as f. of Dixeia doxo liliana). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 12: 110 (102-112). Kenya: “Mukaa Hills, about 30 miles east of Machakos, c. 5800 feet”.
immaculata Talbot, 1943 (as f. of Dixeia doxo liliana). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 12: 111 (102-112). Kenya: “Mombasa Island, sea front”.
ochreata Talbot, 1943 (as female f. of Dixeia doxo liliana). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 12: 111 (102-112). Kenya: “Voi”.
Dixeia charina narena (Grose-Smith, 1898)
Pinacopteryx narena Grose-Smith, 1898. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 1: 245 (245-246).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Antanossi country, S. Madagascar”.

Distribution: Madagascar.
lambertoni Le Cerf, 1921 (as sp. of Pinacopteryx). Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Paris 27: 419 (419-423). Madagascar: “?Manomainty, Madagascar”.
Dixeia charina pulverulenta (Dixey, 1929)
Pinacopteryx liliana pulverulenta Dixey, 1929 in Eltringham et al., 1929. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 77: 498 (475-504).

Type locality: Kenya: “Mt Kulal, N.N.W. of Mt Marsabit and towards the S. of Lake Rudolf”.

Distribution: Kenya (north - Mt Kulal and Mt Marsabit).
Dixeia charina septentrionalis Bernardi, 1958
Dixeia doxo septentrionalis Bernardi, 1958. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de Mulhouse 1958: 77 (77-79).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Djemdjem, Ethiopie”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (east and north).
Dixeia charina simana (Hopffer, 1855)
Pieris simana Hopffer, 1855. Berichte über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855: 640 (639-643).

Type locality: Mozambique: “Mossambique”.

Distribution: Mozambique (north).

Note: Quickelberge (1976) treats simana as a full species.

Dixeia dixeyi (Neave, 1904)
Pinacopteryx dixeyi Neave, 1904. Novitates Zoologicae 11: 341 (323-363).

Type locality: Uganda: “Toro”.

Distribution: Tanzania (west), Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu), Sudan (south), Ethiopia (south-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mantena; near Sibweza; Luntampa Forest (Kielland, 1990). Very rare in Tanzania (Kielland, 1990).

Habitat: Forest and heavy woodland (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania at altitudes from 1 000 to 1 200 m (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
yambo Ungemach, 1932 (as sp. of Appias). Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles (et Physiques) du Maroc 32: 26 (1-122). Ethiopia: “Djaoué, en pays Yambo”.
minuta Ungemach, 1932 (as ssp. of Appias yambo). Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles (et Physiques) du Maroc 32: 26 (1-122). Ethiopia: “Youbdo, Ouallaga”.

Dixeia doxo (Godart, 1819)
Pieris doxo Godart, 1819 in Latreille and Godart, [1819], [1824]. Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle [Zoologie] 9 Entomologie: 123 (1-328 [1819], 329-828 [1824]. Paris.

Type locality: No locality given.

Diagnosis: Differs from D. charina in the following respects: upperside of wings with veins outlined in black; forewing upperside with apical black marginal border continuous (broken in charina) and basal half of costa dusted with grey (Pringle et al., 1994).

Distribution: Senegal, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Sudan, Ethiopia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa.

Common name: Black-veined small white; black-veined white; African small white.

Habitat: Dry savanna. In West Africa in Sudan savanna, with minor penetration of the Sahel (Larsen, 2005a). In Tanzania ssp. costata is also found on forest margins, from sea-level to altitudes of 1 200 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Localized and uncommon in West Africa (Larsen, 2005a). Males fly fast and low down, with a zig-zagging flight pattern, frequently settling on low vegetation or on the ground. Both sexes visit flowers. Courtship and mating has been described by Henning, Henning, Joannou, and Woodhall (1997).

Flight period: All year but commonest in summer and autumn. There are distinct seasonal forms (Pringle et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Henning, Henning, Joannou, and Woodhall, 1997: 347. (photograph of final instar larva and pupa on p. 349).

Egg pale cream turning red within 24 hours; 1 mm high; bottle-shaped; 10-12 longitudinal ribs. First instar larva 1,5 mm in length; yellow-white with a faint brown dorso-lateral stripe; head black; setae black; grows to 2,5 mm in length. Fifth (final) instar larva green with fawn-brown dorsal stripe, in the form of diamond-shaped markings; head green with a black dorsal spot; grows to 25 mm. Pupa 16 mm in length; leaf-green with mottled green/brown short cephalic spike; wing-cases and dorsal ridge of the same colour; a short blunt process on thorax at base of each wing.



Eggs laid in batches on leaves of the food-plant and eclose in about 5 days. Pupa attached to a silken pad by the cremaster, and girdled. Pupal period in summer about 8 days.
Larval food:

Capparis spp. (Capparaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 317].

Cadaba termitaria (Capparaceae) [Henning, Henning, Joannou, and Woodhall, 1997: 349].
Dixeia doxo doxo (Godart, 1819)
Pieris doxo Godart, 1819 in Latreille and Godart, [1819], [1824]. Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle [Zoologie] 9 Entomologie: 123 (1-328 [1819], 329-828 [1824]. Paris.

Type locality: No locality given.

Distribution: Senegal, Burkina Faso, Ghana (north), Nigeria (north), to Sudan (west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Sokoto (Larsen, 2005a); Maiduguri (Larsen, 2005a); Jos (St. Leger teste Larsen, 2005a); Kaduna (St. Leger teste Larsen, 2005a).
voltaensis Talbot, 1929 (as ssp. of Pinacopteryx venata). Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 3: 228 (225-233). Burkina Faso: “Haute Volta”.
minor Talbot, 1929 (as f. of Pinacopteryx venata voltaensis). Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 3: 228 (225-233). Burkina Faso: “Haute Volta”.
Dixeia doxo alberta (Grünberg, 1912)
Pieris doxo alberta Grünberg, 1912. Wissenschaftliche Ergibnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1907-1908. 3 (17): 552 (506-560), 4 pls. Leipzig.

Type locality: Uganda: “Südöstl. v. Albert-Edward-See, Mpororo”.

Diagnosis: Characterized on the forewing upperside by the discal black spot in area 3 being connected to the costa by a black bar (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east), Tanzania (central, north-central).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Central to north-central parts (Ruaha National Park; Iramba escarpment; Itigi) (Kielland, 1990).
Dixeia doxo costata Talbot, 1943
Dixeia doxo costata Talbot, 1943. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 12: 111 (102-112).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Tanganyika Territory, District of Great Craters, Kondoa Irangi, 4000 feet”.

Diagnosis: Male characterized on forewing underside by a prominent black spot in area 3; in female on both wing surfaces (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (coast).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Around Dar es Salaam, south to Kisiju, inland to Mikumi National Park and Morogoro (Kielland, 1990).
Dixeia doxo parva Talbot, 1943
Dixeia doxo parva Talbot, 1943. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 12: 112 (102-112).

Dixeia doxo parva. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 41mm. Punda Maria, Zoutpansberg, Transvaal. 23:5:48. D. A. Swanepoel. (Transvaal Museum - TM3132).
Type locality: Zimbabwe: “S. Rhodesia, Lomagundi”.

Distribution: Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa (Limpopo Province, KwaZulu-Natal).

Specific localities:

Zambia: Zambezi Valley; Luangwa Valley (Heath et al., 2002).

Zimbabwe – Sabi Valley (Pringle et al., 1994).

Limpopo Province – Punda Maria (Swanepoel, 1953); Satara (J. Kloppers); Pafuri (J. Kloppers).

KwaZulu-Natal – Lebombo Mountains (southern end) (Pennington).
inspersa Talbot, 1943 (as f. of Dixeia doxo parva). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 12: 112 (102-112). Zimbabwe: “Mashonaland, Umtali”.
aspersa Talbot, 1943. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 12: 112 (102-112). [Lapsus for inspersa.]
Dixeia doxo venatus (Butler, 1871)
Ixias venatus Butler, 1871. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1871: 169 (169-173).
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