Exegetical Tools Exercise: Mark 1-15 name(S)




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Exegetical Tools Exercise: Mark 1.1-15 NAME(S) ________________________________



Note that there is an online version of this exercise at the course website that will make it easier for you to follow the links. BDAG refers to the Bauer, Danker, Arndt, Gingrich Lexicon of the Greek NT, and pertinent sections are on the website.


  1. Mark 1.1: What does the word εὐαγγέλιον mean?

  • What three primary meanings are given in the major headings of BDAG?







  • What two suggestions are given in BDAG for the use in Mark 1.1?



  • What is the definition given for εὐαγγέλιον in the Liddell-Scott dictionary?



  • εὐαγγέλιον occurs only one time in the LXX. Using Bible software or the Hatch-Redpath Concordance to the Septuagint, indicate where.
    Looking at the NRSV translation, how is it translated?



  • Now look at your NET Bible, footnote 1 to Mark 1.1. What does it say about translating the phrase with εὐαγγέλιον?



  1. Mark 1.2-3: Look in the outer margin of the Greek text of your NET Bible.

  • Where are these verses paralleled in the other Gospels?



  • Which Old Testament passages are being referenced?

  • (Cf. page 35 in the NET Bible for the following questions.) Why are they italicized?

  • What does that funny symbol mean near the “3”?



  1. Mark 1.4f.: This incident in this passage takes place in the “wilderness / ἔρημος.”

  • Look this word up in BDAG. What does it say whether it is meant as a specific place or a general description?

  • Use a map in your Bible or an online map such as: http://www.iath.virginia.edu/mls4n/maps.html or http://www.bible.ca/maps/maps-ministry-of-jesus.gif or the NET Bible maps. (In BibleWorks, use “Resources” > “Quick Bible Maps” > Map 7 or online at: http://www.bible.org/page.asp?page_id=2055 ) to locate the area described. Name one or two communities that are near this area.

  • In 1.9, it says that “Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan.” About how many miles did Jesus have to travel?

  • Look up “Nazareth” in a Bible dictionary and record one interesting detail.
    (In BibleWorks, “Resources” > “Bible Dictionaries.” Online: http://www.bible.org/page.asp?page_id=2012 - Remember that these are older dictionaries and that more reliable information is found in such resources as the Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible or the HarperCollins Bible Dictionary.)



  1. Mark 1.4: The word for “sin” used here is ἁμαρτία. In the Louw-Nida Lexicon it appears in section 88.L: “Sin, wrongdoing, guilt.” List one other Greek word that the NT uses for sin and indicate how it and ἁμαρτία are distinct.

  2. Mark 1.6: Look in the outer margin of the Greek text of your NET Bible. What parallel texts does it suggest for this verse?



  3. Mark 1.10: The text says a περιστερά descended upon Jesus. Look this word up in a lexicon. What two different words are given as suggested translations?



  4. Mark 1.10: The word σχιζομένους is used.

  • Where else in Mark does this word occur?

  • You have just been looking for the occurences of the verb in Mark. What is the related noun, and where does it occur in Mark?



  1. Mark 1.11: Look up the parallels to this verse in Matthew and Luke and record (in NRSV English) exactly what the voice says.



Matthew _____

Mark 1.11

Luke ______



You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased




OPTIONAL BONUS:

Look at the inner margin of the Greek text of your NET Bible by Mark 1.13. You should see an Arabic number above a Roman numeral. These are Eusebian Section and Canon Numbers. (Cf. page 35 in the Introduction of the NET Bible for more information.) Using the Canon Tables on pages 42-46, find and indicate the parallel passage to this verse.

[BDAG] εὐαγγέλιον



• εὐαγγέλιον, ου, τό (s. prec. entry; Hom. et al.; LXX, TestSol D 1:13; ApcSed 14:9; Joseph., Just., Mel.) orig. ‘a reward for good news’, then simply ‘good news’ (so Plut., Sertor. 573 [11, 8]; 582 [26, 6], Phoc. 749 [16, 8]; 752 [23, 6] al.; Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 93 §384; 4, 20 §78; Ps.-Lucian, Asin. 26; Jos., Bell. 2, 420; 4, 618; 656; IG III, 10 = II2, 1077 [OWeinreich, ARW 18, 1915, p. 43, 3]; papyrus letter [after 238 AD] in Dssm., LO 313f [LAE 371]=Sb 421.—Also in sacral use: Diod. S. 15, 74, 2 Διονύσιος τοῖς θεοῖς εὐαγγέλια θύσας=offered a sacrifice for good news to the gods; OGI 458=IPriene 105, 40f ἦρξεν δὲ τῷ κόσμῳ τῶν δι᾿ αὐτὸν εὐανγελίων ἡ γενέθλιος τοῦ θεοῦ [s. AHarnack, Red. u. Aufs. I2 1906, 310ff; PWendland, ZNW 5, 1904, 335ff, D. urchristl. Literaturformen 1912, 409f]; Philostrat., Vi. Apollon. 1, 28 of the appearing of Apollon.; Ael. Aristid. 53, 3 K.=55 p. 708 D.: Ζεὺς Εὐαγγέλιος) in our lit. only in the sense of good news relating to God’s action in Jesus Christ.
1. God’s good news to humans, good news as proclamation
a. abs.
α. τὸ εὐαγγέλιον Mk 1:15; 8:35; 10:29; Ro 1:16; 10:16; 11:28; 1 Cor 4:15; 9:18, 23; 2 Cor 8:18; Gal 2:2; Eph 3:6; Phil 1:5; 2:22; 4:3; 1 Th 2:4; 2 Ti 1:8, 10; IPhld 5:1, 2; 8:2; 9:2; ISm 5:1; 7:2; MPol 1:1; 22:1.
β. in gen., dependent on another noun ὁ λόγος τοῦ εὐ. Ac 15:7; τὸ μυστήριον τ. εὐ. Eph 6:19; cp. vs. 15; Phil 1:7, 12, 16; ἡ ἀλήθεια τοῦ εὐ. Gal 2:5, 14; Col 1:5 (but the last passage can also be transl. the true message of the gospel). ἡ ἐλπὶς τοῦ εὐ. the hope that is kindled by the gospel vs. 23; ἡ πίστις τοῦ εὐ. faith in the gospel Phil 1:27; ἐν τ. δεσμοῖς τοῦ εὐ. Phlm 13; ἡ ἐξουσία τοῦ εὐ. authority over (i.e. to proclaim) the gospel B 8:3; ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐ. beginning (of the proclaiming) of the gospel Phil 4:15; cp. 1 Cl 47:2 (s. on this WHartke, D. Sammlung u. d. ältesten Ausgaben der Paulusbriefe 1917, 55); Mk 1:1 (s. 3 below).
γ. in certain combinations w. verbs τὸ εὐ. κηρύσσειν Mt 26:13; Mk 13:10; 14:9 (JJeremias, ZNW 44, ’53, 103-7: apocalyptic proclamation); 16:15; cp. Mt 4:23; 9:35; 24:14; Mk 1:14; Ac 1:2 D; B 5:9; GMary 463, 29; 33. καταγγέλλειν 1 Cor 9:14. γνωρίζειν 15:1. εὐαγγελίζεσθαι Gal 1:11 (cp. 2 Cor 11:7).
b. in combination
α. w. adj. εὐ. αἰώνιον Rv 14:6. ἕτερον 2 Cor 11:4; Gal 1:6 (EGrässer, ZTK 66, ’69, 306-44). ἅγιον AcPlCor 2:36.
β. w. gen. (s. OSchmitz, D. Christusgemeinschaft des Pls im Lichte seines Genetivgebrauchs 1924, 45-88).
a. objective genitive εὐ. τῆς βασιλείας Mt 4:23; 9:35; 24:14. τ. θεοῦ Mk 1:14. τ. χάριτος τ. θεοῦ of God’s grace Ac 20:24. τ. εἰρήνης Eph 6:15. τ. σωτηρίας 1:13. τ. δόξης τ. Χριστοῦ of the glory of Christ 2 Cor 4:4; cp. 1 Ti 1:11 (τὸ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εὐ. Orig., C. Cels. 2, 13, 62). εὐ. τ. Χριστοῦ is usu. interpr. as the gospel (good news) about Christ (because of Ro 1:1-3; 2 Cor 4:4; 1 Th 3:2, cp. Ro 15:16) Ro 15:19; 1 Cor 9:12; 2 Cor 2:12 (here and Ro 1:1 εἰς εὐαγγέλιον=for the purpose of bringing the good news, as Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 113 §474). 2 Cor 9:13; 10:14; Gal 1:7; Phil 1:27; 1 Th 3:2; cp. Ro 1:9; 2 Th 1:8; B 5:9; MPol 19:1. εὐ. τῆς ἀκροβυστίας the gospel for the uncircumcised Gal 2:7.
b. Subjective genitive (τοῦ) θεοῦ Ro 1:1; 15:16; 2 Cor 11:7; 1 Th 2:2, 8, 9; 1 Pt 4:17. The one who is commissioned to do the proclaiming can be mentioned in the subj. gen. εὐ. μου, ἡμῶν Ro 2:16; 16:25; 2 Cor 4:3; 1 Th 1:5; 2 Th 2:14; 2 Ti 2:8. S. LBaudiment, ‘L’Évangile’ de St. Paul 1925; Molland (3 below) 83-97.
2. details relating to the life and ministry of Jesus, good news of Jesus D 8:2; 11:3; 15:3f; 2 Cl 8:5; MPol 4:1; perh. also Mk 1:1 (LKeck, The Introduction to Mark’s Gospel, NTS 12, ’66, 352-70; DDormeyer, NTS 33, ’87, 452-68); IPhld 8:2; ISm 7:2. This usage marks a transition to
3. a book dealing with the life and teaching of Jesus, a gospel account that deals w. the life and teaching of Jesus (Just., A I, 66, 3 al.) Dg 11:6 (ἐν τοῖς εὐ.; TestSol 1:13 D; Orig., C. Cels. 1:9, 19 [w. ἐν τοῖς προφήταις]) τὸ καθ᾿ Ἐβραίους εὐ.—Papias (2:17).—(Cp. ὁ τὸ εὐ. γράψας Ἰωάννης Orig., C. Cels. 5, 12, 13).—ASeeberg, D. Evangelium Christi 1905; Harnack, Entstehg. u. Entwicklg. d. Kirchenverfassung 1910, 199-239; PZondervan, Het woord ‘Evangelium’: TT 48, 1914, 187-213; MBurrows, The Origin of the Word ‘Gospel’: JBL 44, 1925, 21-33; JSchniewind, Euangelion 1; 2; 1927, ’31, Die Begriffe Wort u. Evglm. b. Pls, diss. Halle 1910; AFridrichsen, Τὸ εὐαγγέλιον hos Pls: NorTT 13, 1912, 153-70; 209-56, Der Begriff Evgl. b. Irenäus, Hippolyt, Novatian: ibid. 1917, 148-70; AOepke, D. Missionspredigt des Ap. Pls. 1920, 50ff; EBurton, ICC Gal 1921, 422f; EMolland, D. Paulin. Euangelion; D. Wort u. d. Sache ’34; RAsting, D. Verkündigung im Urchristentum ’39 (on Word of God, Gospel, Witness); GFriedrich, TW II 705-35; KRengstorf, ZNW 31, ’32, 54-56; MAlbertz, D. Botschaft des NT, vols. I and II, ’47-’57; JvDodewaard, Biblica 35, ’54, 160-73; HKoester, TU 65, ’57, 6-12; JBowman, ‘Gospel’ and Its Cognates in Palestinian Syriac, NT Essays (TManson memorial), ed. Higgins ’59, 54-67; HFrankemölle, Evangelium ’88; HKoester, From the Kerygma to the Written Gospels: NTS 35, ’89, 361-81; RAC VI 1107-60.—DELG s.v. ἄγγελος. M-M. On εὐαγγελ- terms s. New Docs 3, 12-14. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv.
[LS] εὐαγγέλιον

εὐαγγέλιον, τό, the reward of good tidings, given to the messenger, Od.; in pl., εὐαγγέλια θύειν to make a thankoffering for good tidings, Xen., etc.; εὐαγγελίων θυσίαι Aeschin.; εὐαγγέλια στεφανοῦν τινα to crown one for good news, Ar. II. in Christian sense, the Glad Tidings, i.e. the Gospel (Saxon gode-spell), N.T.; and εὐαγγελιστής


[BDAG] ἔρημος

• ἔρημος, ον (s. prec. and next entry; Hom.+; on the accent s. B-D-F §13; Mlt-H. 58).


1. as adj. pert. to being in a state of isolation, isolated, desolate, deserted
a. of an area isolated, unfrequented, abandoned, empty, desolate τόπος (Diod. S. 15, 49, 1 ἐν ἐ. τόπῳ; Plut., Numa 61 [4, 1]; Arrian, Ind. 22, 4; OGI 580, 7; En 18:12; TestAbr B 12 p. 116, 24 [Stone p. 80]; ParJer; AscIs 2:8; Philo, Spec. Leg. 4, 141; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 308; Just., A I, 53, 9 χώραν ἔ.) Mt 14:13, 15; Mk 1:35, 45; 6:31f, 35; Lk 4:42; 9:10 v.l., 12. οἶκος (Artem. 2, 33 p. 130, 10; Philo, Spec. Leg. 2, 133; Jos., Vi. 376) Mt 23:38. ἔπαυλις Ac 1:20. ὁδός lonely 8:26 (Arrian, Anab. 3, 3, 3 ἐρήμη ἡ ὁδός; 3, 21, 7; s. on Γάζα). χωρίον Papias (3).
b. of pers. desolate, deserted (trag., Thu.; JosAs 12:11 ‘orphaned’; Just., D. 69, 4; τοῖς ἐ. γνώσεως θεοῦ) a childless woman (Chariton 3, 5, 5) Gal 4:27; 2 Cl 2:1 (both Is 54:1; cp. Philo, Exsecr. 158). ἔ. ἀπὸ τ. θεοῦ deserted by God 2:3 (cp. Appian, Bell. Civ. 4, 30 §130 ἔ. ἐκ παραπομπῆς=deserted by his escort).
2. as subst. ἡ ἔ. (Hdt. 3, 102 al.; LXX; En 10:4; TestAbr B 12 p. 116, 26; 28 [Stone p. 80]; ParJer 7:20; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 89; sc. χώρα) an uninhabited region or locality, desert, grassland, wilderness (in contrast to cultivated and inhabited country) Mt 24:26; Rv 12:6, 14; 17:3. Pl. lonely places (cp. PTebt 61a, 151 [118 BC]; PsSol 5:9) Lk 1:80; 5:16; 8:29. Steppe, grassland as pasture 15:4. Of the Judean wilderness, the stony, barren eastern declivity of the Judean mountains toward the Dead Sea and lower Jordan Valley (1 Macc 2:29; 5:24, 28; 2 Macc 5:27) Mt 3:1 (ἡ ἔ. τῆς Ἰουδαίας); 4:1; 11:7; Mk 1:4 12f; Lk 3:2; 4:1; 7:24; J 11:54. Here also belong the reff. to Is 40:3 (cp. 1QS 8, 12-14 w. ref. to Is 40:3 and s. HRüger, ZNW 60, ’69, 142-44; GNebe, ibid. 63, ’72, 283-89): Mt 3:3; Mk 1:3; Lk 3:4; J 1:23; GJs 16:2ab v.l. (s. ἐρημία). Gathering-place of an aroused band of Judean patriots Ac 21:38 (on the language cp. Jos., Bell. 7, 438; on the Egyptian, Bell. 2, 261f ἐκ τῆς ἐρημίας, Ant. 20, 169; Schürer I 463, 33; 464). Of the Arabian desert (LXX; Just.) ἡ ἔ. τοῦ ὄρους Σινᾶ (Ex 19:1f; cp. vs. 3 al.) Ac 7:30; cp. J 3:14; 6:31, 49; Ac 7:36, 38, 42 (Am 5:25),44; 13:18; 1 Cor 10:5; Hb 3:8 (Ps 94:8), 17; AcPl Ha 8, 16. As the place where the prophets Eldad and Modat preached Hv 2, 3, 4.—AJonsen, Die bibl. Wüste, diss. Würzb. 1923; UMauser, Christ in the Wilderness (Mk) ’63; RFunk, JBL 78, ’59, 205-14.—DELG s.v. ἐρῆμος (the accented form in Hom. et al.). M-M. TW. Sv.


Friberg Lexicon

peristera,, a/j, h` dove, pigeon


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