Erosion noun e-ro-sion The process by which rock or soil is gradually destroyed by wind, rain, or the sea: the problem of soil erosion the erosion of the coastline The process by which something is gradually reduced or destroyed erosion of




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Title:


6°40’00” S 36°19’00” E
Erosion noun

e-ro-sion


1. The process by which rock or soil is gradually destroyed by wind, rain, or the sea:

the problem of soil erosion

the erosion of the coastline
2. The process by which something is gradually reduced or destroyed

erosion of

the gradual erosion of our civil liberties
Erosion, removal of surface material from the Earth’s crust, primarily soil and rock debris, and the transportation of the eroded materials by natural agencies from the point of removal
Encyclopædia Britannica

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Title: SW TZ


Caption:

Tanzania

945,087 km2

NE Africa

Population: 47,783,100 (2012)

Fertility rate: 5.3

Life expectancy: 60.9


Iringa

Southern highlands

Indian Ocean drainage zone

Eastern Arc mountain range:

30,000,000 years old

96 endemic species of vertebrates

800 endemic plant species

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Title: Th230/Pa231


Caption:

Evidence of early hominid activities

260K (260,000+70,000-40,000)

Th230/Pa231

Late Acheulian/early Middle Stone Age


Assemblage

Type 1: 70% handaxes, cleavers, knives, small flake tool, large picks, corescrapers, choppers, spheroids;

Type 2: 40- 60% small tools;

Type 3: 50% large picks, core-scrapers, choppers, spheroids, few small tools, few bifaces


Lower sand horizon

Hippo, skull and limbs absent, unretouched quartz flakes


Raw material types

Quartz, quartzite, rock crystal, chert or flint varieties, sandstone, rhyolite, granite, trachyte, basalt, ironstone, argillite, feldspars, pumice

IncompleteHistory_04.jpg

Title: Kikunga


Caption:

Marcus Kikunga (1942-1990)

Eularia Beatrice Nzalaria (1948):

Richard Kikunga (1967),

Pascacia Kikunga (1970-2010),

Thomas Kikunga (1972-2006),

Juma Kikunga (1975),

Daria Kikunga (1976):

Saouda Bukuku (1999),

Joseph Bukuku (2000),

Victor Mgimwe (2010)
IncompleteHistory_05.jpg

Title: 100-130 d
Caption:

Crop cycle of maize

100 -130 days

Phenological phases: vegetative phase, reproductive phase and maturation phase

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Title: 42-145 d


Caption:

Growing season

42-145 days

Mean length: 93- 97 days

Start: first week of December

End: last week of April

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Title: Euforbia sp.


Caption:

Tree species

Euphorbia sp., Acokanthera laevigata, Cassipourea malosana, Bersama abyssinica, turrea holstii,

Halleria lucida, Macaranga kilimanscharica, Ekerbigia capensis, Podocarpus sp., Rapanea, Schefflera, umbellifera
Shrubs

Clausena anisata, Coffea mufindensis
Sparse trees

Alangium chinense, Albizia gummifera, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum

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Title: 181,369 t


Caption:

Bag of maize (100kg)

70,000 to 80,000TSh at Iringa municipal market (2013)

181,369 tons of maize sold outsaide Iringa region (2011-2012)

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Title: 1220 kw


Caption:

Hydroelectric plant - Tosamaganga

1951, TANESCO owned, turbine type/manufacturer: Gilkes & Gordon/Francis


Installed capacity 1220 kw, average energy 55 GHh/yr, average energy 6.3 MWc, power flow 16.3 m3/s, spill low 4.8 m3/s, total flow 21.1 m3/s
Out of operation: outdated and inefficient technology (2002)

Heavily contaminated with PCBs – priority 1

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Title: pH 6.8


Caption:

Chemical analysis of the Little Ruaha river water

0.25 Boron ppm, 0.16 me/l Calcium, 0.12 Magnesium, 0.35 Sodium, 0.28 residual Sodium carb, 0.94 Sodium absorption ratio


Complete chemical analysis

Electric conductivity at 25°C 131, pH 6.8, Alkalinity 48, total hardness 28, Chlorides 4, O2 absorbed 6.7, Nitrite nil, Nitrate trace, Fluoride 0, Silica 26.5, Sulphate 3.7, Calcium 2.4, Magnesium 5.28, Sodium 14, Iron 0.90, total dissolvent solids 430


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Title: 1273m3


Caption:

Tosamaganga catchment area

1273m3


Flow in May: 20,0638 m3/s, catchment area 759km2, mean annual discharge 4.4, mean annual rainfall 1000mm, mean annual runoff 184s/km

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Title: No.1-2-3 etc

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Title: 1948


Caption:

“I used to live near the road to Iringa, close to a big tree. Every day, I walked to school in Tosamaganga. One day, I was 18, I wanted to cross the bridge over the Little Ruaha River, but there was a dangerous rhinoceros in the area. I had to take a different road, passing the hydroelectric plant. Marcus worked there as a carpenter, and he watched me passing by. He introduced himself to my father, who gave me away.”



Eularia Beatrice Nzalaria
Marcus Kikunga (1942-1990) died of tuberculosis. He was born in Irula and came to Tosamaganga to work as a carpenter at the hydroelectric plant. He is buried in Irula, leaving nothing behind in Tosamaganga.

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Title: 973 hPa


Caption:

Wind

Speed: 26 km/h

Humidity: 44%

Air pressure: 973 hPa

Prevailing wind: S

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Title: S
Caption:



Adiabatic flame temperature

Oxy-dicyanoacetylene 4,990°C

Oxy-acetylene 3,480°C

Oxyhydrogen 2,800°C

Air-acetylene 2,534°C

Blowtorch (air-mapp gas) 2,200°C

Bunsen burner (air-natural gas) 1,300 -1,600°C

Candle (air-paraffin) 1,000°C

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Title: 1-10 mm


Caption:

Geological erosion: 1 to 10 mm per century

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Title: Aw


Caption:

Aw (Köppen-Geiger climate classification)

Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate

Moderately cool tropical and subhumid

Average temperature: 19.7°C

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Title: 708mm p.a.


Caption:

Rain

Rainfall: 708 mm p.a.

Unimodal rainfall:

Mvua za mwaka: December – April

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Title: 06:17


Caption:

Civil twilight 06:17-18:49

Astrological twilight 05:27-19:39

Nautical twilight 05:52-19:14

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Title: 18:27


Caption:

Sunrise: 06:39

Sunset 18:27

Length of day 11:47:28

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Title: LX


Caption:

Lixisols (LX)

46888.61 km2; 4.95%


Definition

Soils, having an argic horizon starting within 100 cm from the soil

surface, or within 200 cm of the soil surface if the argic horizon is

overlain by loamy sand or coarser textures throughout


Connotation

Strongly weathered soils in which clay is washed down from the

surface soil to an accumulation horizon at some depth; from L.

lixivia, washed-out substances


Parent material

Unconsolidated, strongly weathered and strongly leached, finely

textured materials
Environment

Regions with a tropical, subtropical or warm temperate

climate with a pronounced dry season, notably on old erosional

or depositional surfaces. Many Lixisols are (surmised to be)

polygenetic soils with characteristics formed under a more humid

climate in the past


Profile development

ABtC-profiles. On slopes and on other surfaces subject to erosion,

the argic accumulation horizon may be exposed or at shallow depth
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Title: Commiphora spp.


Caption:

Trees as/for
Water conservation/water source

Ficus thonningii, Ficus sycomorus
Windbreak

Xeroderris stuhlmannii
Cultural significance

Ficus sycomorus, Syzygium cordatum, Kigelia africana
Spiritual significance

Commiphora spp.: trees that provide a means of communicating

with ancestors


Indicators for rainfall

Mihemi: shed leaves when the rains are about to end

Mipogoro (Acacia): sprouting in the dry season indicates a good rainy season is coming. In the past, flowering also indicated that rains were about to end


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