Era / trend name & date philosophy readings




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ERA / TREND NAME & DATE

PHILOSOPHY


READINGS

ARCHITECT / ARTIST – WORKS


Neo-Classical &

Gothic Revival

1740 - 1830





Revival, Cliché, Historicism.

European Style In Usa To Adopt The Preconceived Status Of Classics And Medieval.








Piranesi Carceri

Neo-Classical

Robert Adams – Ruins Of Palmyra And Palace Of Diocletian At Spalato

Thomas Jefferson – University Of Virginia

James Hoban – The White House

Karl Friedrich Schinkel – Altes Museum

Mckim Mead And White – American Academy, Rome



Gothic Revival

Charles Barry – Palace Of Westminster

George Meikel Kemp – Scott Monument

William Henry

Barlow - St.Pancras London

Horace Jones – Tower Bridge




Beaux Arts

1800 -1900




Beaux Art Was Based On The Ecole Des Beaux Arts School Founded By Napolean.




Napoleon - Ecole Des Beaux Arts School

Barron Haussman - Remodelling Of Paris

Charles Garneir – Paris Opera

Mckim Mead And White – Boston Public Library, Penn Station

Arthur J Davis – Ritz Hotel London

Cass Gilbert - Us Supreme Court




British Raj

1830-1930

Neo-Classical

Neo-Gothic

Indo-Sarcenic


British Raj Revived European Style In India





Mumbai

Neo-Classical - Asiatic Library (Town Hall)

Neo-Gothic - Mumbai High Court

Cst


Indo-Sarcenic - Municipal Corporation Building

Chennai

Neo-Classical – Government House

Neo-Gothic – St. Marry’s Cathedral

Indo-Sarcenic – Chepauke Palace, High Court



Delhi

Neo-Classical – Secretariat Bldg

Neo-Gothic -

Indo-Sarcenic – Rashtrapati Bhavan



Calcutta

Neo-Classical – Government House

Neo-Gothic – High Court

Indo-Sarcenic – Victoria Memorial



Industrial Revolution

1700 - 1940



Engineering Vs Architecture.

Industry Development, Migration From Rural To Urban For Employment,

Loss Of Cottage Industry And Hand Skills, Standardization

Mechanization, Mass Production And Prefabrication

Material – Glass, Steel And Iron





Thomas Pritchard – Iron Bridge, Coalbrookdale

G. G. Scott – St. Pancras Station, London

Richilieu – Market Hall, Paris

Rouhault – Greenhouse, Botanical Garden

Joseph Paxton – Crystal Palace


Art And Craft Movement


Revival Of Ruskin’s Seven Lamps Of Architecture

  1. Truth: No False Materials

  2. Beauty

  3. Sacrifice: Art Must Involve Effort

  4. Power: Mass & Shadow

  5. Memory: Build For The Future; History Confers Meaning

  6. Obedience: Old Forms, Not New Inventions

  7. Life: Involves The Whole




John Ruskin – St. Andrew’s Cathedral

Philip Web – Furniture

Philip Webb – The Red House, Bexleyheath

William Morris – Marshall, Faulkner & Co Is Set Up (Wall Papers And Furniture)

C.F.A. Voysey – Shakleford, Surrey

M.H. Baillie Scott – Blackwell House

Church Of All Saints, Brockhampton, Uk


Art Nouveau


It Is Characterized By

  1. Asymmetrical Shapes

  2. Arches And Curved Forms

  3. Curved Glass

  4. Curving, Plant-Like Embellishments

  5. Mosaics

  6. Stained Glass

  7. Japanese Motifs




Kenneth Frampton Chap 9 – “The Abstraction Of Empathy” Henry Van De Velde

Victor Horta – Tassel House

Antonio Gaudi – Park Guell, Sagrada Familia

Casa Batilo, Casa Mila

Charles Rennie Mackintosh – Glasgow School Of Art

Otto Wagner – Majolika Haus

Giuseppe Sommaruga – Palazzo Castiglione

Hector Guimard – Metro Station Entrances



ISMS / ERA

NAME & DATE

PHILOSOPHY


READINGS

ARCHITECTS/

ARTISTS – PROJECTS / WORKS

New Urbanism

City Beautiful Movement –

1893-1906

Garden City Movement –

1870-1919

Ciam (Congress International D’ Architecture Modern)

1928-1959


  1. New Principles Developed For Urbanism

  2. Nature Comes To Towns

  3. Garden Manner City Planning

  4. “Town And Country Should Be Married And Out Of This Joyous Union Will Spring New Hope, A New Life, A New Civilization” – Ebenezer Howards

  5. Le Corb & Siegfried Gideon – Ciam Principles




  1. Charles Robinson - City Made Beautiful

  2. Ebenezer Howard – Garden Cities Of Tomorrow

  3. Jane Jacobs (Critique) –The Death And Life Of Great American Cities

  4. Le Corb – Athens Charter




City Beautiful Movement

Burnham And Edward Bennett – Chicago And San Francisco New Plans

Burnham, Mckim And F L Olmstead – Washington D.C Plan

Cass Gilbert – Minnesota State Capitol



Garden City Movement

Cities Based On Ebenezer Howard’s Principles – Letchworth, Welwyn, Hellerau



Ciam

Le Corb – Chandigarh Planning


Cubism

Analytical

Synthetic

1907 – 1920




  1. Art: Multiple Perspectives, Background And Object Intersect, Usually Depicted Still Life Or Human Figures

  2. Sculpture: Revealing Structure, Reducing To Cubes, Spheres, Cylinders And Cones.

  3. Architecture: Crystalline Shapes, Sharp Clean Lines, Cuboids, Simplicity And Subtle Colours.




Art

Picasso – Three Musicians (Synthetic), Accordianist (Analytical)



Sculpture

Marcel Duchamp – Nude Woman Moving Up The Stairs

Picasso – Head Of A Woman

Raymond Duchamp-Villion – The Large House



Architecture

Josef Gočár – The House Of The Black Madonna

Josef Chochol – Hodek Apartment House

Pavel Janák – Fára’s House, Pelhřimov




Neoplasticism

(D’ Stijl)

1914-1931



  1. Reduction To Basic Principles

  2. Balance By Opposition

  3. Basic Elements Of Design Distinctly Legible

  4. Use Of Primary Colour

  5. Adolf Loos – Raumplan (Volumetric)




Kenneth Frampton Chap 8 –Adolf Loos & The Crisis Of Culture”

Piet Mondrian – Red, Blue And Yellow Compositions

Theo Van Doesburg – Counter Composition Xiii

Adolf Loos – Steiner House, Muller House, Josephine Baker’s House, Villa Moissi (Lido)

Gerrit Rietveld – Schröder House

Furniture


Soviet Constructivism

(Structural Rationalism)

1920-1930


  1. Using The Industrial Material (Glass And Steel),

  2. Technology Oriented

  3. Innovative And Utopian In Design

  4. Dynamic And Complex

  5. Portraying The Post War I Society And The Russian Civil War.

  6. Kasimir A Renowned Suprematist Laid The Base To Constructivism Art

Kenneth Frampton Chap 4 – Structural Rationalism And The Influence Of Viollet-Le-Duc Http://Www.Citrinitas.Com/History_Of_Viscom/Avantgarde.Html


Art

Kazimir Malevich – Compositions

Alexander Rodchenko – Dance, An 'Objectless' Composition, Graphic Designs

El Lissiztky – Beat The Whites With The Red Wedge, Flying From Far Away

Vladimir Tatlin – The Bottle

Installations

Vladimir Tatlin – Corner Counter Relief

Naum Gabo – Linear Construction, The Head

Vladimir Tatlin – Tatlin Tower, Letatlin

Kasimir Malevich – Architecton “Gota” Circa

Architecture

Vladimir Shukhov – Radio Tower And Hyperbloid Roof Systems

Konstatin Melnikov – Melnikov House

El Lissiztky – The Lenin Tribune (Moving Speaker Podium)




Futurism

1909-Current

Super Studio – 1966

Archizoom –

Archigram

Coop Himmeb(L)Au




  1. Activist & Utopian

  2. Remained Conceptual Mostly Because It Would Be Daring And Violent.

  3. Technology, Speed, Striking Shapes, Dynamic Lines, Strong Contrasts And Bright Colors

  4. Use Of Advanced Materials.

  1. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti – Le Figaro, A Manifesto

  2. Reyner Banham –

Theory And Design In The First Machine Age

  1. Emilio Ambasz – Superstudio; Description Of The Micro-Event And Micro-Environment

Art

Carlo Carro – The Red Horseman, The Funeral Of The Anarchist Galli

Umberto Boccioni – The City Rises

Asger Jorn, The Disquieting Duck



Architecture

Constant Anton Nieuwenhuys – Spatial And Building Models, Gold Sector Project

La Città Nuova – Sant'elia 

Asger Jorn & Guy Debord, The Naked City

Reyner Banham – Standard Of Living Package

Micheal Web – Furniture Manufacturers’ Association Building, Entertainment Centre Suitaloon

David Greene – Spray Plastic House

Renzo Piano & Richard Rogers – Centre Georges Pompidou



Superstudio – Continuous Monument, Architectural Histogram, Fourth – Space Ship City, Eight – The Conical Terrace City, Fifth – City Of The Hemispheres

Archizoom – Continuous City, Standardized Living Quarters, Meis’ Abstracted Chair

Archigram – Living City Exhibition, Plug-In-City, Walking City, Instant City,

Coop Himmeb(L)au – The Cloud, Villa Rosa


Surrealism

1924- 1960


Precursor –

Dadaism



  1. Surrealism In Art Follows Dadaism

  2. Supersedes The Reality Of Our Everyday Consciousness

  3. Striking Visual Art Works And Writings.

  4. Superior Reality Of Forms







Art

Salvador Dali – The Sacrament Of The Last Supper, Persistence Of Memory, Living Still Life,

Max Ernst – The Hat That Makes The Man, The Elephant Celebes

Giorgio De Chirico – Metaphysical Interior

Rene Magritte – The Son Of Man

Man Ray – Erotique Voilee

Architecture

Edward James – Las Pozas

Ferdinand Cheval – Le Palais Idéal (The "Ideal Palace")

Frederick John Kiesler – Endless Space




Bauhaus

(Functionalism)

1925 – 1945

Europe


  1. Search For An Answer After World War Ii Also Considering The Economic Crisis.

  2. Le-Corb’s 5 Prinicples Of Modernism – Free Facade, Free Plan, Piloti, Roof Gardens, Ribbon Windows




  1. Colin Rowe – “Literal And Phenomenal Transparency”

Quotes

  1. Louis Sullivan – “Form Follows Function”

  2. Le Corb – “House Is A Machine For Living”




Walter Gropius – The Bauhaus School Building (Germany), Gropius House,

Le Corb – Villa Stein, Villa Savoye, Barcelona Pavilion

Bauhaus Furniture


International Style

Modernism

1945 – 1960

Usa


After The Nazis Rose The Term International Style Was Applied To The American Style Of Bauhaus With Its Pioneers Shifting To The Us



Mies – Ibm Building, Farnsworth House, Seagram Building

Philip Johnson – The Glass House, Transco Building

Le Corb –Unite’ De Habitat, Chandigarh Secretariat Building

Richard Neutra – Miller House



Purism

1918 – 1926



  1. Bringing Out The Pure Essence Of The Object Or Structure

  2. De Stijl Influence

  3. Adolf Loos – “Modern Ornaments Have No Parent And No Progeny”

  4. Ornamentation Is Crime

Adolf Loos –

Ornament And Crime



Quote

Adolf Loos – “The Evolution Of Culture Is Synonymous With The Removal Of Ornament From Utilitarian Objects”



Art

Amedee Ozenfant – Bottle Violin, Glasses And Bottles

Fernand Leger – Mechanical Elements, Three Women

Architecture

Le Corb – Villa Garche, Maison Citrohan, Raoul La Roche & Jeanneret House

Mies – Tugendhat Villa,

Peter Zumthor – Saint Benedict Chapel




Minimalism

1960




“Less Is More” Mies

Non Symbolic, Geometric Reference, Basic Required Forms And Elements, Non Aesthetic








Art

Picasso – Femme

Brice Marden – The Dylan Painting

Sol Lewitt – Wall Paintings



Installation

Dan Flavin – Monument For Vladimir Tatlin

Carl Andre – Works In Cedar Wood

Donald Jude – Stacks, Boxes, Progressions

Tony Smith – Free Ride, Cigarette

Larry Bell – Transparent Pedestals



Architecture

Peter Zumthor – Thermal Bath, Bruder Klaus Chapel, Swiss Pavilion,

Tadao Ando – Church Of Light, 4x4 House, Museum Of Wood


Art Deco

1920 – 1930




Common Characteristics Of Streamline Moderne

  1. Horizontal Orientation

  2. Rounded Edges, Corner Windows, And Glass Brick Walls

  3. Porthole Windows

  4. Smooth Exterior Wall Surfaces,

  5. Flat Roof With Coping

  6. Horizontal Grooves

  7. Subdued Colors: Base Colors Were Typically Light And Trim Colors Were Typically Dark




References

  1. Art Nouveau- Inspiration From Nature

  2. Cubism- Basic Geometry Shapes.

  3. Neoclassicism-Rendering And Colors, Concept Of Lines

  4. Constructivism- Overlapping Figures

  5. Modernism-Vertical Emphasis




Art

Tamara De Lampica – Self Portraits

Jean Dupas – Black Bull

Sculpture

Heitor Da Silva Costa – Christ Redeemer

Demetri Chiparus – Dancers, Discuss Throw

Ferdinand Priess – Aristocrat, Fire And The Flame



Furniture

Emile Ruhlmann, Edgar Brandt



Architecture

New York City Hall - John W. Cowper Company

Flw – Jhonson Wax Company Administrative Building

Robert V. Derrah – Coca Cola Building

Willam Wan Allen – Chrysler Bldg

Raymond Hood – Rockefeller Building

Shrevor, Lamb & Harmon – Empire State Building

India

Sorabji Bhedwar – Eros

Thomas White And David Willams – Metro

Charles Stevens – Regal




Organic
Growing Architecture

  1. Merge With Landscape In Design, Material, Construction And Form.

  2. Unfold Like An Organism From The Seed Within




Flw – Falling Waters, Jacob House, Ork Park Studio

Bruce Goff – Bavinger House, Duncan Etzkorn Castle

Nari Gandhi – Moon Dust House, Jain House, Madh Island House For S.H Daya

Self Growing Architecture – The Living Islands Of The Uros People, Natural Root Bridges


Dymaxian And Geodesic Domes







Buckminster Fuller – Geodesic Domes

Brutalism

1950 – 1970



In French Béton Brut – Rawness And Honesty In Material And Design, Exposed Elements, Blocks In Appearance

Associated Material – Concrete




Reyner Banham – The New Brutalism



Peter And Allison Smithson - Hunstanton School,

Le Corb – Monastery Of Saint Marie De La Tourette, Carpenter Centre For Visual Arts

Erno Goldfinger – Trellick Tower,

Paul Rudolf – Orange County Government Centre, Yale Art And Architecture College, University Of Massachusetts

Owen Ludor - Tricorn Centre, Trinity Car Park,

Kallmann Mckinnell And Knowels - Boston City Hall

William Pereira – Giesel Library

Louis I Khan – National Assembly Building Bangladesh,

Moshe Safdie – Habitat 67

India

Achyut Kanvinde – Iit Kanpur,

Le Corb – Chandigarh (High Court, Secretariat, Assembly Hall), Mill Owner’s Association, Villa Schodan


Metabolism

Japanese Group – Kisho Kurokawa Kenzo Tange, Arata Isozaki, Kiyonori Kikutake & Fumihiko Maki

1960 – 1970


The Metabolists Believed That The City Existed As A Dynamic Organism, Composed Of Cellular Units Giving Rise To Superstructures.

Principles Of Life

Growth, Division, Rings, Recycling, Exchange, Deconstruction, Temporariness, Dynamic Stability, Transformation, Autonomous Part



Mechanical Building + Life = Living Building


Kiyonori Kikutake – Marine City

Kisho Kurukawa – Helix City, Nagakin Capsule Tower, Sony Tower, Osaka, Floating City,

Kenzo Tange – Yamanishi Broadcasting Centre, Kuwait Embassy , Tokyo, Shizuoka Broadcasting Center

Arata Isozaki – City In Air, Clusters In The Air

Funiko Maki – Golgi Structures


Expressionism

1915 – 1940


Precursors

Fauvism 1904-1908

German Expr.

1912-1930

Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) 1911-1914

Impressionism




Intuitive, Utopian, Reflection Of The Inner Conscious, Expression Of The Immediate Perceptions Or Ideologies

Kenneth Frampton Chp13 – The Glass Chain: European Architectural Expressionism

Precursors

Fauvism – Henry Mattise – The Joy Of Life, The Dance

German Expressionism

Art

Ernst Kirschner – Self Portrait As A Soldier, Circus Rider, Berlin Street Scene


Kathe Kollwitz – The Survivors, Woman With Dead Child

Sculpture – Kathe Kollwitz – Grieving Parents

Der Blaue Reiter – Vassily Kandinsky – Composition Vii

Impressionism

Vincent Van Gogh – Starry Night, Murnau Street With Women


Expressionism

Art

Edward Munch – The Dance Of Life, The Scream, Despair

Francis Bacon – Scream

George Grosz – Woman Slayer,

Otto Dix – Three Prostitutes, The Odd Couple

Wenzel August Hablik – The Path Of Genius,



Sculpture

Auguste Rodin – The Thinker

Ernst Barlach – Magdeburger Ehrenmal, The Avenger

Architecture

Erich Mendelsohn – Einstein Tower In Potsdam

Bruno Taut – Glass Pavillion, Alpine Architecture

Wenzel August Hablik – Projects For Glass Buildings




Neo Expressionism

1940 Onwards




Neo Expressionism

Themes Of Natural, Romantic Phenomena Such As Rocks, Mountains, Caves Etc. Were Used.

Largely Mineral And Elemental Themes As Opposed To Florid Themes.


    1. Distorted Shapes.

    2. Fragmented Lines.

    3. Organic Or Biomorphic Forms.

    4. Massive Sculpted Shapes.

    5. Lack Of Symmetry.

    6. Expressionism Aims At The Emotional Aspect.




Neo Expressionism

Architecture

Flw – Falling Waters, Unitarian Meeting House

Ar. Roger Anger – Matrimandir

Tom Atkins – Burj Al Arab

Fariboz Sahba – Lotus Temple

Eero Saarinen – T.W. A Terminal

Herzog & De Meuron – Beijing National Olympic Stadium

Santiago Calatrava – Turning Torso

Frank Gehry – Guggenheim Museum

John Utzon – Opera House

Le Corb – Chapel Of Notre Dame Du Haut


Post Modernism

1960 – 1990



Gray Architects – Robert Venturi, Charles Moore, Aldo Rossi, Philip Johnson, Robert Stern
White Architects (Nyc 5) – Peter Eisenman, Richard Meier, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk, Michael Graves
Critiques – Vincent Scully & Colin Rowe
Robert Venturi – “Less Is Bore”

References To Be Taken From “Learning From Las Vegas”



  1. Robert Venturi – Complexity And Contradiction In Architecture.

  2. Robert Venturi – Ugly & Ordinary Of The Decorated Shed

  3. Charles Jencks – Language Of Postmodernism And Timeline

  4. Robert Stern – Gray Architecture As Postmodern

  5. Eisenman – Post Functionalism

  6. Colin Rowe – Introduction To Five Architects

  7. Aldo Rossi – The Architecture Of The City




Greys

Robert Venturi – Vanna Venturi House, Headquarters Building, Guild House, National Football Hall Of Frame

Philip Johnson – At & T Building

Charles Moore – Piazza D'italia

Robert Stern – Nashville & Jacksonville Public Libraries

Aldo Rossi – Analogous City, Cemetery Of San Cataldo (Italy), Regional Administrative Centre (Italy),



Whites

Eisenman – Study Of Cubes, House I

Richard Meier – Casa Saltzman

Charles Gwathmey – Gwathmey Residence And Studio

John Hejduk – One-Half House

Michael Graves – Portland Building



India

Hafeez Contractor – Hiranandani Towers (Grey)

Louis I Khan – Iim Ahmedabad (White)
Art – Super Graphics


Pop Art

Return To Conventional Reality

Abrupt


Object Without Context


A Comparison To Expressionism And Impressionist Art Conveys The Essence Of Pop

Art

Andy Warhol – Three Cokes, Banana, Mickey Mouse, Marilyn

Jasper John – Three Flags

Claes Oldenburg – Flying Pizza

Robert Rauschenberg – Retroactive Ii

Claes Oldenburg – Bagel, Cherry

Richard Hamilton – Today’s Home

Aya Takano – Future Room Of Me (Japan)

Roy Lichtenstein – Ten Dollar Bill, Sandwich And Soda

Installation

Claes Oldenburg – Dropped Cone, Corridor Pin Blue, Spoon Bridge And Cherry, Trowel, Thrown Away Apple,

Andy Warhol –


De-Constructivism

1966


Characteristics

  1. Defragmentation, Dislocation

  2. Disorientation, Re-Orientation

  3. Clashing Of Elements And Angles

  4. Folding Of Planes

  5. Superimposition

  6. Exaggerated Exterior

  7. Disharmonious To Surrounding

  8. Sculpture Not Structure

  9. No Regular Constructional Elements

  10. Appears Incomplete & Unpredictable




Jacques Derrida – Jacques Derrida For Beginners



Bernard Tschumi – Parc De La Villette

Peter Eisenman – Houses Vi, House Of Cards (X) Wexner Centre, Guardiola House, Holocaust Memorial

Daniel Libeskind – Jewish Museum Berlin, Renaissance; Royal Ontario Museum, Spirit House

Coop Himmeb(L)Au – Akron Art Museum, Ufa Cinema Centre

Frank Gehry – Guggenheim Bilbao

Zaha Hadid – Rosenthal Center For Contemporary Art, Vitra Fire Station, Chamber Music Hall



Regionalism

  1. Vernacularism

  1. Conservative, Direct

  1. Modern Regionalism

  1. Interpreted, Evolved & Material Concrete

  1. Critical Regionalism

  1. Abstract & Questioning




The 3 Cs Of Regionalism

  1. Culture – Surroundings / Region, Inhabitant / User, Structure’s Function

  2. Context – Site Labour, Local Material, Local Construction Techniques

  3. Climate – Macro And Micro

Vernacularism – Contemporary Or Before Modernism. It’s Not Affected By Modernism Trends. Sentimental, Nostalgic

Modern Regionalism And Critical Regionalism – Happen In Response To Modernism; They Are Truly Postmodern. Rational, Binding Past To Future


Kenneth Frampton – Towards Critical Regionalism


Vernacular

Laurie Baker – Hamlet Kerala

Hassan Fathy – New Gourna Village

Raj Rewal – Asian Games Village

B.V Doshi – Aranya Low Cost Housing
Modern Regionalism

Charles Correa – Jawahar Kala Kendra, Bharat Bhavan, Vidhan Bhavan State Assembly, Kanchenjunga

B.V Doshi – Sangath

Achyut Kanvinde – National Science Centre (New Delhi)


Critical Regionalism

Jorn Utzon – Bagsvaerd Church,

Tadao Ando – Church Of Light, Water Temple


Hi-Tech

1970


Structural Expressionism
Architects Prefer Calling Their Work “Alternative Technology”.

Characteristics

  1. Space Frames And Composite Fabrics

  2. Extensive Glazing, Metal Cladding

  3. Light Appearance

  4. Pre-Fabricated Elements.

  5. Design Is Functionally Orientated

  6. Larger Spans Uninterrupted & Flexible Spatial Volumes




Joan Kron And Suzanne Slesin – High Tech: The Industrial Style And Source Book For The Home
Innovative Structural Form = Technology + New Materials + “Use Less To Give More”


Norman Foster – Renault Distribution Centre, Hong Kong Shangai Bank, 30.St.Mary Axe, Millau Viaduct
Richard Rogers – Centre Gorges Pompidou, Millennium Dome,
Renzo Piano – Kansai International Airport
Santiago Calatrava – Turning Torso, Eden Project Cornwall


Sky Scrapers

Egyptian Civilization - Contemporary







  1. David Bennett – Skyscrapers By

  2. Charles Jencks – Skyscraper- Skycities By




RomanPharos Of Alexandria

Gothic – Ulm Cathedral,Germany

Late 1800s

William Le Baron Jenney –Home Insurance Building

Daniel Burnham –Reliance Building

John Wellborn Root – Monadnock Building

Louis Henry Sullivan- Guaranty Building

Early 1900s

Daniel Burnham – Flatiron Building

Cass Gilbert – Woolworth Building

Art Deco

William Van Alen – Chrysler Building

Shreve, Lamb And Harmon – The Empire State Building

International Style

Mies & Philip Johnson – Seagram Building



1970s

Fazlur Khan – Sears Tower

World Trade Centre – Minoru Yamasaki

Post Modern

Philip Johnson – At&T Headquarters



21st Cent.

C.Y. Lee & Partner – Taipei Tower 101

Adrian Smith, Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill – Burj Khalifa

India (Current)
Hafeez Contractor – Imperial Tower

Lodha Group – Lodha Bellissimo



India (Future)

Foster Partners – India Tower

Cobb Freed And Partners, Leslie E . Robertson – World One


Green Buildings / Sustainability

Solar Power/ Electricity

Rain Water Harvesting

Waste Water Recycling

Bio Gas Production

Passive Designs – Heating And Cooling





Tzed Homes Bangalore

Karan Grover – Green Business Centre

Suzlon Group – Suzlon One Earth

Arup Associates – The Druk White Lotus School

Auroville Township

John And Cynthia Hardy – Green School, Bali

Santiago Calatrava – Eden Project Cornwall

Vincent Callebaut Firm – Tianjin Eco City (Transportation System)



Foster+Partners – Masdar City Abudhabi


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