Era / trend name & date philosophy readings

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Neo-Classical &

Gothic Revival

1740 - 1830

Revival, Cliché, Historicism.

European Style In Usa To Adopt The Preconceived Status Of Classics And Medieval.

Piranesi Carceri


Robert Adams – Ruins Of Palmyra And Palace Of Diocletian At Spalato

Thomas Jefferson – University Of Virginia

James Hoban – The White House

Karl Friedrich Schinkel – Altes Museum

Mckim Mead And White – American Academy, Rome

Gothic Revival

Charles Barry – Palace Of Westminster

George Meikel Kemp – Scott Monument

William Henry

Barlow - St.Pancras London

Horace Jones – Tower Bridge

Beaux Arts

1800 -1900

Beaux Art Was Based On The Ecole Des Beaux Arts School Founded By Napolean.

Napoleon - Ecole Des Beaux Arts School

Barron Haussman - Remodelling Of Paris

Charles Garneir – Paris Opera

Mckim Mead And White – Boston Public Library, Penn Station

Arthur J Davis – Ritz Hotel London

Cass Gilbert - Us Supreme Court

British Raj





British Raj Revived European Style In India


Neo-Classical - Asiatic Library (Town Hall)

Neo-Gothic - Mumbai High Court


Indo-Sarcenic - Municipal Corporation Building


Neo-Classical – Government House

Neo-Gothic – St. Marry’s Cathedral

Indo-Sarcenic – Chepauke Palace, High Court


Neo-Classical – Secretariat Bldg

Neo-Gothic -

Indo-Sarcenic – Rashtrapati Bhavan


Neo-Classical – Government House

Neo-Gothic – High Court

Indo-Sarcenic – Victoria Memorial

Industrial Revolution

1700 - 1940

Engineering Vs Architecture.

Industry Development, Migration From Rural To Urban For Employment,

Loss Of Cottage Industry And Hand Skills, Standardization

Mechanization, Mass Production And Prefabrication

Material – Glass, Steel And Iron

Thomas Pritchard – Iron Bridge, Coalbrookdale

G. G. Scott – St. Pancras Station, London

Richilieu – Market Hall, Paris

Rouhault – Greenhouse, Botanical Garden

Joseph Paxton – Crystal Palace

Art And Craft Movement

Revival Of Ruskin’s Seven Lamps Of Architecture

  1. Truth: No False Materials

  2. Beauty

  3. Sacrifice: Art Must Involve Effort

  4. Power: Mass & Shadow

  5. Memory: Build For The Future; History Confers Meaning

  6. Obedience: Old Forms, Not New Inventions

  7. Life: Involves The Whole

John Ruskin – St. Andrew’s Cathedral

Philip Web – Furniture

Philip Webb – The Red House, Bexleyheath

William Morris – Marshall, Faulkner & Co Is Set Up (Wall Papers And Furniture)

C.F.A. Voysey – Shakleford, Surrey

M.H. Baillie Scott – Blackwell House

Church Of All Saints, Brockhampton, Uk

Art Nouveau

It Is Characterized By

  1. Asymmetrical Shapes

  2. Arches And Curved Forms

  3. Curved Glass

  4. Curving, Plant-Like Embellishments

  5. Mosaics

  6. Stained Glass

  7. Japanese Motifs

Kenneth Frampton Chap 9 – “The Abstraction Of Empathy” Henry Van De Velde

Victor Horta – Tassel House

Antonio Gaudi – Park Guell, Sagrada Familia

Casa Batilo, Casa Mila

Charles Rennie Mackintosh – Glasgow School Of Art

Otto Wagner – Majolika Haus

Giuseppe Sommaruga – Palazzo Castiglione

Hector Guimard – Metro Station Entrances







New Urbanism

City Beautiful Movement –


Garden City Movement –


Ciam (Congress International D’ Architecture Modern)


  1. New Principles Developed For Urbanism

  2. Nature Comes To Towns

  3. Garden Manner City Planning

  4. “Town And Country Should Be Married And Out Of This Joyous Union Will Spring New Hope, A New Life, A New Civilization” – Ebenezer Howards

  5. Le Corb & Siegfried Gideon – Ciam Principles

  1. Charles Robinson - City Made Beautiful

  2. Ebenezer Howard – Garden Cities Of Tomorrow

  3. Jane Jacobs (Critique) –The Death And Life Of Great American Cities

  4. Le Corb – Athens Charter

City Beautiful Movement

Burnham And Edward Bennett – Chicago And San Francisco New Plans

Burnham, Mckim And F L Olmstead – Washington D.C Plan

Cass Gilbert – Minnesota State Capitol

Garden City Movement

Cities Based On Ebenezer Howard’s Principles – Letchworth, Welwyn, Hellerau


Le Corb – Chandigarh Planning




1907 – 1920

  1. Art: Multiple Perspectives, Background And Object Intersect, Usually Depicted Still Life Or Human Figures

  2. Sculpture: Revealing Structure, Reducing To Cubes, Spheres, Cylinders And Cones.

  3. Architecture: Crystalline Shapes, Sharp Clean Lines, Cuboids, Simplicity And Subtle Colours.


Picasso – Three Musicians (Synthetic), Accordianist (Analytical)


Marcel Duchamp – Nude Woman Moving Up The Stairs

Picasso – Head Of A Woman

Raymond Duchamp-Villion – The Large House


Josef Gočár – The House Of The Black Madonna

Josef Chochol – Hodek Apartment House

Pavel Janák – Fára’s House, Pelhřimov


(D’ Stijl)


  1. Reduction To Basic Principles

  2. Balance By Opposition

  3. Basic Elements Of Design Distinctly Legible

  4. Use Of Primary Colour

  5. Adolf Loos – Raumplan (Volumetric)

Kenneth Frampton Chap 8 –Adolf Loos & The Crisis Of Culture”

Piet Mondrian – Red, Blue And Yellow Compositions

Theo Van Doesburg – Counter Composition Xiii

Adolf Loos – Steiner House, Muller House, Josephine Baker’s House, Villa Moissi (Lido)

Gerrit Rietveld – Schröder House


Soviet Constructivism

(Structural Rationalism)


  1. Using The Industrial Material (Glass And Steel),

  2. Technology Oriented

  3. Innovative And Utopian In Design

  4. Dynamic And Complex

  5. Portraying The Post War I Society And The Russian Civil War.

  6. Kasimir A Renowned Suprematist Laid The Base To Constructivism Art

Kenneth Frampton Chap 4 – Structural Rationalism And The Influence Of Viollet-Le-Duc Http://Www.Citrinitas.Com/History_Of_Viscom/Avantgarde.Html


Kazimir Malevich – Compositions

Alexander Rodchenko – Dance, An 'Objectless' Composition, Graphic Designs

El Lissiztky – Beat The Whites With The Red Wedge, Flying From Far Away

Vladimir Tatlin – The Bottle


Vladimir Tatlin – Corner Counter Relief

Naum Gabo – Linear Construction, The Head

Vladimir Tatlin – Tatlin Tower, Letatlin

Kasimir Malevich – Architecton “Gota” Circa


Vladimir Shukhov – Radio Tower And Hyperbloid Roof Systems

Konstatin Melnikov – Melnikov House

El Lissiztky – The Lenin Tribune (Moving Speaker Podium)



Super Studio – 1966

Archizoom –


Coop Himmeb(L)Au

  1. Activist & Utopian

  2. Remained Conceptual Mostly Because It Would Be Daring And Violent.

  3. Technology, Speed, Striking Shapes, Dynamic Lines, Strong Contrasts And Bright Colors

  4. Use Of Advanced Materials.

  1. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti – Le Figaro, A Manifesto

  2. Reyner Banham –

Theory And Design In The First Machine Age

  1. Emilio Ambasz – Superstudio; Description Of The Micro-Event And Micro-Environment


Carlo Carro – The Red Horseman, The Funeral Of The Anarchist Galli

Umberto Boccioni – The City Rises

Asger Jorn, The Disquieting Duck


Constant Anton Nieuwenhuys – Spatial And Building Models, Gold Sector Project

La Città Nuova – Sant'elia 

Asger Jorn & Guy Debord, The Naked City

Reyner Banham – Standard Of Living Package

Micheal Web – Furniture Manufacturers’ Association Building, Entertainment Centre Suitaloon

David Greene – Spray Plastic House

Renzo Piano & Richard Rogers – Centre Georges Pompidou

Superstudio – Continuous Monument, Architectural Histogram, Fourth – Space Ship City, Eight – The Conical Terrace City, Fifth – City Of The Hemispheres

Archizoom – Continuous City, Standardized Living Quarters, Meis’ Abstracted Chair

Archigram – Living City Exhibition, Plug-In-City, Walking City, Instant City,

Coop Himmeb(L)au – The Cloud, Villa Rosa


1924- 1960

Precursor –


  1. Surrealism In Art Follows Dadaism

  2. Supersedes The Reality Of Our Everyday Consciousness

  3. Striking Visual Art Works And Writings.

  4. Superior Reality Of Forms


Salvador Dali – The Sacrament Of The Last Supper, Persistence Of Memory, Living Still Life,

Max Ernst – The Hat That Makes The Man, The Elephant Celebes

Giorgio De Chirico – Metaphysical Interior

Rene Magritte – The Son Of Man

Man Ray – Erotique Voilee


Edward James – Las Pozas

Ferdinand Cheval – Le Palais Idéal (The "Ideal Palace")

Frederick John Kiesler – Endless Space



1925 – 1945


  1. Search For An Answer After World War Ii Also Considering The Economic Crisis.

  2. Le-Corb’s 5 Prinicples Of Modernism – Free Facade, Free Plan, Piloti, Roof Gardens, Ribbon Windows

  1. Colin Rowe – “Literal And Phenomenal Transparency”


  1. Louis Sullivan – “Form Follows Function”

  2. Le Corb – “House Is A Machine For Living”

Walter Gropius – The Bauhaus School Building (Germany), Gropius House,

Le Corb – Villa Stein, Villa Savoye, Barcelona Pavilion

Bauhaus Furniture

International Style


1945 – 1960


After The Nazis Rose The Term International Style Was Applied To The American Style Of Bauhaus With Its Pioneers Shifting To The Us

Mies – Ibm Building, Farnsworth House, Seagram Building

Philip Johnson – The Glass House, Transco Building

Le Corb –Unite’ De Habitat, Chandigarh Secretariat Building

Richard Neutra – Miller House


1918 – 1926

  1. Bringing Out The Pure Essence Of The Object Or Structure

  2. De Stijl Influence

  3. Adolf Loos – “Modern Ornaments Have No Parent And No Progeny”

  4. Ornamentation Is Crime

Adolf Loos –

Ornament And Crime


Adolf Loos – “The Evolution Of Culture Is Synonymous With The Removal Of Ornament From Utilitarian Objects”


Amedee Ozenfant – Bottle Violin, Glasses And Bottles

Fernand Leger – Mechanical Elements, Three Women


Le Corb – Villa Garche, Maison Citrohan, Raoul La Roche & Jeanneret House

Mies – Tugendhat Villa,

Peter Zumthor – Saint Benedict Chapel



“Less Is More” Mies

Non Symbolic, Geometric Reference, Basic Required Forms And Elements, Non Aesthetic


Picasso – Femme

Brice Marden – The Dylan Painting

Sol Lewitt – Wall Paintings


Dan Flavin – Monument For Vladimir Tatlin

Carl Andre – Works In Cedar Wood

Donald Jude – Stacks, Boxes, Progressions

Tony Smith – Free Ride, Cigarette

Larry Bell – Transparent Pedestals


Peter Zumthor – Thermal Bath, Bruder Klaus Chapel, Swiss Pavilion,

Tadao Ando – Church Of Light, 4x4 House, Museum Of Wood

Art Deco

1920 – 1930

Common Characteristics Of Streamline Moderne

  1. Horizontal Orientation

  2. Rounded Edges, Corner Windows, And Glass Brick Walls

  3. Porthole Windows

  4. Smooth Exterior Wall Surfaces,

  5. Flat Roof With Coping

  6. Horizontal Grooves

  7. Subdued Colors: Base Colors Were Typically Light And Trim Colors Were Typically Dark


  1. Art Nouveau- Inspiration From Nature

  2. Cubism- Basic Geometry Shapes.

  3. Neoclassicism-Rendering And Colors, Concept Of Lines

  4. Constructivism- Overlapping Figures

  5. Modernism-Vertical Emphasis


Tamara De Lampica – Self Portraits

Jean Dupas – Black Bull


Heitor Da Silva Costa – Christ Redeemer

Demetri Chiparus – Dancers, Discuss Throw

Ferdinand Priess – Aristocrat, Fire And The Flame


Emile Ruhlmann, Edgar Brandt


New York City Hall - John W. Cowper Company

Flw – Jhonson Wax Company Administrative Building

Robert V. Derrah – Coca Cola Building

Willam Wan Allen – Chrysler Bldg

Raymond Hood – Rockefeller Building

Shrevor, Lamb & Harmon – Empire State Building


Sorabji Bhedwar – Eros

Thomas White And David Willams – Metro

Charles Stevens – Regal

Growing Architecture

  1. Merge With Landscape In Design, Material, Construction And Form.

  2. Unfold Like An Organism From The Seed Within

Flw – Falling Waters, Jacob House, Ork Park Studio

Bruce Goff – Bavinger House, Duncan Etzkorn Castle

Nari Gandhi – Moon Dust House, Jain House, Madh Island House For S.H Daya

Self Growing Architecture – The Living Islands Of The Uros People, Natural Root Bridges

Dymaxian And Geodesic Domes

Buckminster Fuller – Geodesic Domes


1950 – 1970

In French Béton Brut – Rawness And Honesty In Material And Design, Exposed Elements, Blocks In Appearance

Associated Material – Concrete

Reyner Banham – The New Brutalism

Peter And Allison Smithson - Hunstanton School,

Le Corb – Monastery Of Saint Marie De La Tourette, Carpenter Centre For Visual Arts

Erno Goldfinger – Trellick Tower,

Paul Rudolf – Orange County Government Centre, Yale Art And Architecture College, University Of Massachusetts

Owen Ludor - Tricorn Centre, Trinity Car Park,

Kallmann Mckinnell And Knowels - Boston City Hall

William Pereira – Giesel Library

Louis I Khan – National Assembly Building Bangladesh,

Moshe Safdie – Habitat 67


Achyut Kanvinde – Iit Kanpur,

Le Corb – Chandigarh (High Court, Secretariat, Assembly Hall), Mill Owner’s Association, Villa Schodan


Japanese Group – Kisho Kurokawa Kenzo Tange, Arata Isozaki, Kiyonori Kikutake & Fumihiko Maki

1960 – 1970

The Metabolists Believed That The City Existed As A Dynamic Organism, Composed Of Cellular Units Giving Rise To Superstructures.

Principles Of Life

Growth, Division, Rings, Recycling, Exchange, Deconstruction, Temporariness, Dynamic Stability, Transformation, Autonomous Part

Mechanical Building + Life = Living Building

Kiyonori Kikutake – Marine City

Kisho Kurukawa – Helix City, Nagakin Capsule Tower, Sony Tower, Osaka, Floating City,

Kenzo Tange – Yamanishi Broadcasting Centre, Kuwait Embassy , Tokyo, Shizuoka Broadcasting Center

Arata Isozaki – City In Air, Clusters In The Air

Funiko Maki – Golgi Structures


1915 – 1940


Fauvism 1904-1908

German Expr.


Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) 1911-1914


Intuitive, Utopian, Reflection Of The Inner Conscious, Expression Of The Immediate Perceptions Or Ideologies

Kenneth Frampton Chp13 – The Glass Chain: European Architectural Expressionism


Fauvism – Henry Mattise – The Joy Of Life, The Dance

German Expressionism


Ernst Kirschner – Self Portrait As A Soldier, Circus Rider, Berlin Street Scene

Kathe Kollwitz – The Survivors, Woman With Dead Child

Sculpture – Kathe Kollwitz – Grieving Parents

Der Blaue Reiter – Vassily Kandinsky – Composition Vii


Vincent Van Gogh – Starry Night, Murnau Street With Women



Edward Munch – The Dance Of Life, The Scream, Despair

Francis Bacon – Scream

George Grosz – Woman Slayer,

Otto Dix – Three Prostitutes, The Odd Couple

Wenzel August Hablik – The Path Of Genius,


Auguste Rodin – The Thinker

Ernst Barlach – Magdeburger Ehrenmal, The Avenger


Erich Mendelsohn – Einstein Tower In Potsdam

Bruno Taut – Glass Pavillion, Alpine Architecture

Wenzel August Hablik – Projects For Glass Buildings

Neo Expressionism

1940 Onwards

Neo Expressionism

Themes Of Natural, Romantic Phenomena Such As Rocks, Mountains, Caves Etc. Were Used.

Largely Mineral And Elemental Themes As Opposed To Florid Themes.

    1. Distorted Shapes.

    2. Fragmented Lines.

    3. Organic Or Biomorphic Forms.

    4. Massive Sculpted Shapes.

    5. Lack Of Symmetry.

    6. Expressionism Aims At The Emotional Aspect.

Neo Expressionism


Flw – Falling Waters, Unitarian Meeting House

Ar. Roger Anger – Matrimandir

Tom Atkins – Burj Al Arab

Fariboz Sahba – Lotus Temple

Eero Saarinen – T.W. A Terminal

Herzog & De Meuron – Beijing National Olympic Stadium

Santiago Calatrava – Turning Torso

Frank Gehry – Guggenheim Museum

John Utzon – Opera House

Le Corb – Chapel Of Notre Dame Du Haut

Post Modernism

1960 – 1990

Gray Architects – Robert Venturi, Charles Moore, Aldo Rossi, Philip Johnson, Robert Stern
White Architects (Nyc 5) – Peter Eisenman, Richard Meier, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk, Michael Graves
Critiques – Vincent Scully & Colin Rowe
Robert Venturi – “Less Is Bore”

References To Be Taken From “Learning From Las Vegas”

  1. Robert Venturi – Complexity And Contradiction In Architecture.

  2. Robert Venturi – Ugly & Ordinary Of The Decorated Shed

  3. Charles Jencks – Language Of Postmodernism And Timeline

  4. Robert Stern – Gray Architecture As Postmodern

  5. Eisenman – Post Functionalism

  6. Colin Rowe – Introduction To Five Architects

  7. Aldo Rossi – The Architecture Of The City


Robert Venturi – Vanna Venturi House, Headquarters Building, Guild House, National Football Hall Of Frame

Philip Johnson – At & T Building

Charles Moore – Piazza D'italia

Robert Stern – Nashville & Jacksonville Public Libraries

Aldo Rossi – Analogous City, Cemetery Of San Cataldo (Italy), Regional Administrative Centre (Italy),


Eisenman – Study Of Cubes, House I

Richard Meier – Casa Saltzman

Charles Gwathmey – Gwathmey Residence And Studio

John Hejduk – One-Half House

Michael Graves – Portland Building


Hafeez Contractor – Hiranandani Towers (Grey)

Louis I Khan – Iim Ahmedabad (White)
Art – Super Graphics

Pop Art

Return To Conventional Reality


Object Without Context

A Comparison To Expressionism And Impressionist Art Conveys The Essence Of Pop


Andy Warhol – Three Cokes, Banana, Mickey Mouse, Marilyn

Jasper John – Three Flags

Claes Oldenburg – Flying Pizza

Robert Rauschenberg – Retroactive Ii

Claes Oldenburg – Bagel, Cherry

Richard Hamilton – Today’s Home

Aya Takano – Future Room Of Me (Japan)

Roy Lichtenstein – Ten Dollar Bill, Sandwich And Soda


Claes Oldenburg – Dropped Cone, Corridor Pin Blue, Spoon Bridge And Cherry, Trowel, Thrown Away Apple,

Andy Warhol –




  1. Defragmentation, Dislocation

  2. Disorientation, Re-Orientation

  3. Clashing Of Elements And Angles

  4. Folding Of Planes

  5. Superimposition

  6. Exaggerated Exterior

  7. Disharmonious To Surrounding

  8. Sculpture Not Structure

  9. No Regular Constructional Elements

  10. Appears Incomplete & Unpredictable

Jacques Derrida – Jacques Derrida For Beginners

Bernard Tschumi – Parc De La Villette

Peter Eisenman – Houses Vi, House Of Cards (X) Wexner Centre, Guardiola House, Holocaust Memorial

Daniel Libeskind – Jewish Museum Berlin, Renaissance; Royal Ontario Museum, Spirit House

Coop Himmeb(L)Au – Akron Art Museum, Ufa Cinema Centre

Frank Gehry – Guggenheim Bilbao

Zaha Hadid – Rosenthal Center For Contemporary Art, Vitra Fire Station, Chamber Music Hall


  1. Vernacularism

  1. Conservative, Direct

  1. Modern Regionalism

  1. Interpreted, Evolved & Material Concrete

  1. Critical Regionalism

  1. Abstract & Questioning

The 3 Cs Of Regionalism

  1. Culture – Surroundings / Region, Inhabitant / User, Structure’s Function

  2. Context – Site Labour, Local Material, Local Construction Techniques

  3. Climate – Macro And Micro

Vernacularism – Contemporary Or Before Modernism. It’s Not Affected By Modernism Trends. Sentimental, Nostalgic

Modern Regionalism And Critical Regionalism – Happen In Response To Modernism; They Are Truly Postmodern. Rational, Binding Past To Future

Kenneth Frampton – Towards Critical Regionalism


Laurie Baker – Hamlet Kerala

Hassan Fathy – New Gourna Village

Raj Rewal – Asian Games Village

B.V Doshi – Aranya Low Cost Housing
Modern Regionalism

Charles Correa – Jawahar Kala Kendra, Bharat Bhavan, Vidhan Bhavan State Assembly, Kanchenjunga

B.V Doshi – Sangath

Achyut Kanvinde – National Science Centre (New Delhi)

Critical Regionalism

Jorn Utzon – Bagsvaerd Church,

Tadao Ando – Church Of Light, Water Temple



Structural Expressionism
Architects Prefer Calling Their Work “Alternative Technology”.


  1. Space Frames And Composite Fabrics

  2. Extensive Glazing, Metal Cladding

  3. Light Appearance

  4. Pre-Fabricated Elements.

  5. Design Is Functionally Orientated

  6. Larger Spans Uninterrupted & Flexible Spatial Volumes

Joan Kron And Suzanne Slesin – High Tech: The Industrial Style And Source Book For The Home
Innovative Structural Form = Technology + New Materials + “Use Less To Give More”

Norman Foster – Renault Distribution Centre, Hong Kong Shangai Bank, 30.St.Mary Axe, Millau Viaduct
Richard Rogers – Centre Gorges Pompidou, Millennium Dome,
Renzo Piano – Kansai International Airport
Santiago Calatrava – Turning Torso, Eden Project Cornwall

Sky Scrapers

Egyptian Civilization - Contemporary

  1. David Bennett – Skyscrapers By

  2. Charles Jencks – Skyscraper- Skycities By

RomanPharos Of Alexandria

Gothic – Ulm Cathedral,Germany

Late 1800s

William Le Baron Jenney –Home Insurance Building

Daniel Burnham –Reliance Building

John Wellborn Root – Monadnock Building

Louis Henry Sullivan- Guaranty Building

Early 1900s

Daniel Burnham – Flatiron Building

Cass Gilbert – Woolworth Building

Art Deco

William Van Alen – Chrysler Building

Shreve, Lamb And Harmon – The Empire State Building

International Style

Mies & Philip Johnson – Seagram Building


Fazlur Khan – Sears Tower

World Trade Centre – Minoru Yamasaki

Post Modern

Philip Johnson – At&T Headquarters

21st Cent.

C.Y. Lee & Partner – Taipei Tower 101

Adrian Smith, Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill – Burj Khalifa

India (Current)
Hafeez Contractor – Imperial Tower

Lodha Group – Lodha Bellissimo

India (Future)

Foster Partners – India Tower

Cobb Freed And Partners, Leslie E . Robertson – World One

Green Buildings / Sustainability

Solar Power/ Electricity

Rain Water Harvesting

Waste Water Recycling

Bio Gas Production

Passive Designs – Heating And Cooling

Tzed Homes Bangalore

Karan Grover – Green Business Centre

Suzlon Group – Suzlon One Earth

Arup Associates – The Druk White Lotus School

Auroville Township

John And Cynthia Hardy – Green School, Bali

Santiago Calatrava – Eden Project Cornwall

Vincent Callebaut Firm – Tianjin Eco City (Transportation System)

Foster+Partners – Masdar City Abudhabi

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