Environmental Assessment and Environmental management Plan Report




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Annex 1. Summary of project potential adverse environmental impacts






Component/

Activity


Issues



Anticipated/Potential environmental Impact

Scale of the impacts (local regional)

Effects on Environment

Social/health impacts



Support for Agricultural Inputs

Incorrect disposal and use of treated seeds and fertilizers



potential land degradation in the case of cultivation of agricultural crops on the step slopes as well as pollution and siltation of lakes and rivers threats to human health and wildlife due to poor handling of treated seeds and fertilizers;


contamination of ground and surface water with fertilizers;
increase in usage agrochemicals that might cause environmental pollution that would affect wildlife; and
negative impacts on the health of farmers in the case of inappropriate agrochemicals handling.


Local and regional

Land degradation due to salinization of soil;

Increased ground waters level and over saturation of soil;

Soil erosion of the upper layer; and thus reduced soil fertility.

Increased water courses pollution with drainage waters and siltation of the water reservoirs


Accidental expose of environment and of farmers during their inappropriate handling and usage

Adverse health impacts


      Increased and incorrect use of treated seeds or overuse of fertilizer

Overuse and/or incorrect use of mineral fertilizers may result in nutrient build up in water courses, affecting aquatic life and causing eutrophication of water bodies.


Local, regional


Ground and surface water may contain high levels of N and P and colloids which may have adverse health effects
Reduced dissolved minerals in surface and ground water; degradation of natural habitats.



Adverse impacts on the ground waters as sources of drinking water in rural areas and respectively adverse impacts on the health of population


Annex 2 Environmental Management Matrix



Activity

Effects on Environment



Actions or Mitigation Measures


Responsibilities

Support for Agricultural Inputs

Threats to human health and wildlife due to poor handling of treated seeds and fertilizers

Contamination of ground and surface water with fertilizers;

Soil erosion of the upper layer; and thus reduced soil fertility.

Increased water courses pollution with polluted drainage waters


Increased siltation of water bodies due to soil erosion

Development, adjustment to national standards and norms and distribution of special instructions with necessary requirements for the safe storage, handling and application of treated seed material and fertilizers. All farmers should be informed about the content of the instructions.


Apply nationally established requirements and norms for grain production;
The seed material procured under this trust fund will be in accordance with International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center CIMMYT quality standards for grain seeds.
Train (consult, instruct) population for application of treated seed material and fertilizers according the developed and approved instruction for treated seed material and fertilizers handling and use;
Monitor that all provided seed and fertilizers should be sown on agreed land sites, not on step slopes
A training program (including consulting, guiding, instruction) on sustainable land use practices, including information about full implications of mono-culture on soil fertility, land degradation and crops quality
Training on environmental legislation (can be combined with other proposed trainings)
Public awareness and information dissemination campaign;
Proper disposal of waste materials and rubbish. If disposal by burial or fire, it should not cause negative impact to either the air, soil nor ground water supplies. Minimize damage to natural setting.

FAO PIU&MoA,TAAS

local authorities&jamoates
MoA

FAO PIU, MoA

MoA&jamoates, FAO PIU as facilitator and provider of information materials;

MoA& FAO PIU, CEP (local inspectors)

MoA, TAAS
CEP&MoA

MoA, FAO

CEP (local level); local authorities; sanitary bodies of the Ministry of health


Annex 3. Monitoring Plan Matrix


Project component/ activity

What should be monitored/indicators?

Where to monitor?

How to monitor and sources of information?

When to monitor/frequency?

Costs

Responsabilities

Support for Agricultural Inputs

Safe treated seeds storage, handling and use

Safe Fertilizers transporting, storage, handling and use:

(used amount and number of application – tones; correct storage and disposal of chemicals);
Sustainable land use practices (areas with crop rotation);
Conducted trainings and public awareness activities (number of trainings and trained people; published information materials)


Dushanbe, Selected rayons

PIU Progress reports

PIU Progress reports

Statistical data

MoA and PIU progress reports;

MoA and PIU Training reports


monthly

monthly

Annually

Quarterly

monthly


The cost for these activities are included in the cost for PIU operation.

PIU; MoA

Jamoats CEP local inspectors


PIU, MoA

jamoats


CEP (local inspectors)

PIU&MoA

MoA, responsible people of PIU
MoA, responsible people of PIU



Annex 4. Legal framework and main requirements concerning environmental and health safety of mineral fertilizers usage
Methodical Recommendations for Environment Protection in Use, Storage and Transportation of the Pesticides and Mineral Fertilizers by Goscompriroda of the USSR, 1990
2.10. Special protection areas are established to prevent entry of the pesticides and mineral fertilizers into water objects. In case the water objects are available on the territory, the land user is obliged to mark the following objects on the land using plan, agreed with the local bodies of environment protection:

  • water protection areas and sides of the rivers and other water reservoirs (the dimensions of the water protection areas and riversides are specified by the Republican Regulations on water protection zones (stripes) of rivers, lakes and water reservoirs, and also by Regulation on appropriate zones of small rivers);

  • sanitary zones of the fishery water reservoirs (500 m from the line of flood having maximum standing of the overflow waters, but not closer than 2 km from the existing banks).

2.12. Usage of the mineral fertilizers is forbidden in the sides of the rivers, lakes and water reservoirs.

2.13. It is forbidden to destroy container for fertilizers, clean and wash the containers, vehicles and equipment, used for transportation and application of the mineral fertilizers on the riversides and also on the overflow territories.

2.16. It is forbidden to apply fertilizers into the frozen or covered by snow soil, and also together with flushing water, if the discharge of this water causes pollution of the surface and ground waters.

3.1.17. The losses of pesticides and mineral fertilizers and pollution of the environment by them is not allowed during handling works.

4.3. The storage of packed and unpacked mineral fertilizers is carried out in the conditions, provided they are completely isolated from entering of the atmospheric precipitates, surface and ground waters.

4.4. The chief agronomist makes the operative record of the mineral fertilizers flow.

4.31. The mineral fertilizers which have become worthless (if the act on write off is available) are subjected to burial in the established order by agreement with the environment protection bodies and Sanitary-Epidemic Station.

4.32. The water, flowing down from the sites for storage of the mineral fertilizers shall be collected into the waterproof collectors with subsequent use for fertilizing of the agricultural land.

5.1. Preparation of the fertilizers for application, their crushing and mixing are carried out directly in the storage place, using the crushers and fertilizer mixing machines. In case they are not available, the crushing is made manually – on the asphalt or concrete plate. The delivery of the fertilizers to the field and their application can be done by straight through and transfer technologies.

5.2. The remains of unused fertilizers shall be removed and returned to the storage place.

6.1.12. Application of the solid and liquid fertilizers shall be done according to the scientifically based zone systems of farming. The mineral fertilizers have to be apply to the soil according to the norms and in due time, stipulated for each crop.

6.1.13. The calculation of the doses of the mineral fertilizers is carried out by specialists of the

chemical stations or by the agronomists on the base of the field test data about the efficiency of the fertilizers, and using the correction factor on the agrochemical qualities of the soils.

6.1.14. The fertilizer application has to be done according to a plan, their actual usage shall be registered in the log book, showing the quantity of the actually applied fertilizers, ways and dates of application. The applied fertilizers are registered by the chief agronomist (agrochemist) in the book of field utilization, where the data on fertilizer application by teams, fields and crops is registered.

6.1.16. The application of the fertilizers by aviation shall be done at wind velocity up to 4 m/security at the distance longer than 500 m from the settlements, and also from the sources of water supply, cattle breeding farms.

7.2. Neutralization and washing of the transport facilities, apparatus, containers and working clothes from the pesticides and mineral fertilizers are carried out on specially equipped sites.

7.3. These works are strongly forbidden on the sides of ponds, lakes, rivers, near the walls, irrigation ditches, canals of the irrigation network and other water objects.

7.4. The wastewater, formed after washing the machines and inventory, polluted by mineral fertilizers, needs to be collected and used. The discharge into the water objects is possible only after preliminary treatment.



GOST 17.1.3.11-84 (1985). Nature protection. Hydrosphere. General rules of surface and ground water protection from pollution by the mineral fertilizers

2. In economical activities it is necessary to prevent the pollution of the surface and ground water by fertilizers.

3. The application of the fertilizers should be done according to the plan, their actual usage has to be registered in the log book, showing the quantity of the actually applied fertilizers, size of the territory to be fertilized, ways and dates of application.

4. All ways of fertilizer application are forbidden on the territory of the first belt of the sanitary protection zone of the sources of centralized potable water supply.

5. The temporal storage of the fertilizers is allowed in the second belt of the sanitary protection zone in the houses, providing the prevention of the water pollution by these fertilizers, if there is a need for them to be used in this belt.

6. It is not allowed in the first and second belts of the sanitary protection zones in the side water protection zones, and also on overflow territories to do the following: destroy the containers for the fertilizers; clean and wash the containers, machines and equipment, used for transportation and application of the fertilizers.

7. The fertilizer application is not allowed during the period of direct threat of the flood and during aero spraying of the fertilizers in the second belt of the sanitary protection zone.

8. The application of the fertilizers by aero spraying at wind velocity above 10 m/security is not allowed.

9. The application of the fertilizers on the frozen or covered by snow ground is not allowed.

10. The application of the fertilizers together with the water is not allowed, if the discharge of this water to the water objects causes the pollution of the surface and ground waters.

11. The transportation of the solid and liquid fertilizers shall be carried out in specially equipped transportation facilities, excluding the possibility to scatter the fertilizers or their leakage.

12. The possibility to pollute the surface and ground waters shall be excluded, when the fertilizers are stored. The places of storage of the fertilizers shall not be subjected to flooding. The water, streaming down from the storage site, shall be collected in the waterproof collectors and this water shall be subsequently used for fertilizing the agricultural lands.

13. Washing of containers, machines and equipment, polluted by fertilizers, is not allowed. The wastewater formed as the result of washing has to be collected and used or treated before discharge to the water objects.

14. Utilization, destruction and burial of the containers shall be carried out with due observation of the measures to prevent the pollution of the surface and ground waters.



GOST 12.3.037-84 (1986). The system of labor safety standards. Application of the fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. General rules of safety

1.1. The mineral fertilizers shall be applied in agriculture and forestry according to the requirements of GOST 12.3.002-75, of the present standard, and also according to the rules of storage, transportation and mineral fertilizer application, approved by the Ministry of Health Care of the USSR.

1.2. The levels of dangerous and harmful factors while using the mineral fertilizers shall not exceed the allowable meanings, specified by standards, and also by sanitary and hygienic norms of the Ministry of Health Care of the USSR.

3.2. Daily reserve of the mineral fertilizers is allowed to store on temporal sites under condition of observance the standards of the environment protection requirements and preservation of the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the fertilizers.

5.3. The works to prepare the mineral fertilizers to be applied to the soil are to be carried out with the help of mechanisms, equipped with the devices to reduce the dust formation.

5.6. The application of fertilizers by agricultural aviation shall be carried out at the wind velocity not more than 4 m/security at the distance of above 500 m from the settlements, sources of water supply and animal breeding farms.



GOST 4.77-82 (1983). The system of product quality indices. Mineral fertilizers. Nomenclature of indices

Nomenclature of the quality indices.

1.1. Indices of the chemical composition.

1.2. Indices of the physical and chemical properties.

1.3. Indices of the physical and mechanical properties.

2.1. Indices of shelf life.

2.2. Indices of ability to be restored.

3. Indices of uniformity.

4. Indices of safety.

5. Environmental indices.

5.1. Physical acidity of the fertilizer (GOST 20432-75). Effect on the reaction of the soil solution.

5.2. Physical alkalinity of the fertilizers (GOST 20432-75). Effect on reaction of the soil solution.

6. Processibility indices.

GOST 23954-80 (1981). Mineral Fertilizers. Rules of Taking over

The mineral fertilizers are taken over by lots, …. which are covered by one document on quality.

The document about quality shall contain the following:

- name of the manufacturing plant;

- name of the product;

- sign of the corresponding NTD;

- technical specifications for corresponding NTD;

- indications about special qualities of the product, class of danger by GOST

19433-88, confirmation that the danger sign by GOST 19433-88 has been put, manipulation sign by GOST 14192-77;

- confirmation that the product complies with corresponding NTD;

- date of manufacturing;

The quality of the mineral fertilizers packed into bags and containers is controlled by selecting above 1% of the packing units. If only one index has unsatisfactory results of the analyzes the whole lot is rejected.


Annex 5. List of consulted stakeholders and specialists


  1. Akhmedov Kh. – President of the Tajik Academy of agricultural sciences

  2. Ergashev M. – Senior researcher, Institute of soil science and arable farming, Tajik Academy of agricultural sciences

  3. Khalilov D. – Deputy Head of the State Ecological expertise, Committee for environmental protection under the Government of Tajikistan

  4. Latipov R. – Focal Point of the Convention on environment impact assessment, including trans-boundary context (Espoo Convention)

  5. Saidov I. – Head of the Center for water resources protection, Committee for environmental protection under the Government of Tajikistan

  6. Nazarov T. – Head of the Scientific-Production Center “Tabiat”

  7. Latify A. – Focal Point of Convention on migratory species

  8. Ormonov M. – Head of the Grain production Department, Ministry of agriculture

  9. Nazarova S. – Senior specialist of the Department of science and scientific achievements, Ministry of agriculture

  10. Tilloev F. - Senior specialist of the livestock Department, Ministry of agriculture

  11. Rahimjonova M. – Head of the Department on bee-farming, fish-breeding and poultry-farming, Ministry of agriculture

  12. Abdulloev V. – Senior specialist of Department on bee-farming, fish-breeding and poultry-farming, Ministry of agriculture

  13. Rahmatillaev R. – Deputy head of the Tajik Science Institute of hydro-melioration, Ministry of melioration and water resources

  14. Babadjanov R. - Strategy planning expert, Public sector reform Project, Executive Office of the President of Tajikistan

  15. Blagoveshenskaya S. – Expert on biodiversity, NGO “Kuhiston”

  16. Zardiev N. – Specialist on land management issues, Ministry of agriculture

  17. Idrisov T. – NGO “Little Earth”

  18. Alihanova T. – expert on sustainable development “Network of SD experts”

  19. Karimov M. – Deputy head of the Sanitary Epidemiological Survey, Ministry of health

Annex 6. Minute of EMP public consultations
A meeting was held on 24 November, 2008, at the seminar hall of the FAO office, at Bokhtar street, 35, Dushanbe, preceded by the public invitation. The following included the agenda of the meeting:


  • Environmental Aspects of the Emergency Food Security and Seed Imports Project;

  • Discussion on main activities and responsibilities of Environmental Mitigation and Monitoring matrixes

The team leader of project from FAO and environmental specialist of the project presented the project and the issues with regard to the above points. Following is the brief summary of the participant’s views with regard to the project.




  • The participants unanimously concluded that the outputs of the proposed project components would strengthen sustainable development of the National agriculture, involving technologies, policies and actions directed at the integration of socio-economic principles related to the environmental protection. This, without doubt, would promote development and increase the agricultural production and would economically help the poorest farmers in a timely manner to reduce the negative impact of high and volatile food prices, prevent the risk of the decreased productivity of irrigated and rain-fed (dry-farming) lands, and prevent the degradation of soil fertility.

  • It is expected that the project would promote sustainable and effective use of irrigated land and water, introduction of environmentally sustainable management practices, increased responsibilities for the environment.

  • Participants proposed to include into the matrixes the issues for the future trainings as correct fencing of the farmer’s sites, proper crop and pasture rotation, irrigation norms, advanced watering technologies and etc. The measures foreseen in the matrixes can be implemented also in frame of other programs, projects and strategies and in cooperation with relevant organizations dealing with similar issues.

  • Based on the above the meeting considered the project to be technically feasible, environmentally sound, and socially acceptable and they would provide full cooperation for its successful implementation.

  • The meeting also expressed that it was quite educative to organize such meetings. It was emphasized that more attention is required to be paid to educate the citizens to: (i) sensitize the people about the environmental impacts and their duties and responsibilities (ii) to review the general and technical principles of environmental procedures and the role of government and private agencies; and (iii) to educate the people about the existing legislation, norms and procedures of the Republic of Tajikistan and to suggest any modifications for improvements.

  • It was concluded that environmental management plan is almost fully meets all environmental protection requirements of national legislation and WB policies, and takes into accounts the responsibilities of relevant stakeholders.


1 ADB Memorandum of Understanding. Fact Finding Mission. Proposed Sustainable Subsector Project for the Republic of Tajikistan. 3-26 October 2005.

2 World Bank Tajikistan Poverty Assessment Update (PAU), 2004.

3 National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) of the Republic of Tajikistan. Governmental Decision No. from June , 2006

4 State of the Environment: Republic of Tajikistan. GRID Arendale, 2002 (see State of the Environment: Republic of Tajikistan. GRID Arendale, 2002 (see: http://enrin.grida.no/htmls/tadjik/soe2001/eng/


5 The World Bank. Rural Infrastructure Rehabilitation Project. 2000

6 World Bank Tajikistan Poverty Assessment Update (PAU), 2004.

7 Land Code (1992)

8UN Economic Commission for Europe: Tajikistan Environmental Performance review, 2004 http://www.unece.org/env/epr/studies/Tajikistan/welcome.htm

9 WB Tajikistan Community Agriculture and Watershed Management Project. (CAWMP), Pest Management Plan. 2004.

10 WB Tajikistan Farm Privatization Support Project (FPSP) Integrated Pest Management Plan, 2005

11 United Nations Economic and Social Council. Environmental Performance Review of Tajikistan. First Review, 2004. (see: www.unece.org/env/epr/studies/Tajikistan/welcome.htm)


12 This section contains a general description of environmental and social and economic situation in the Khatlon region while the detailed description of the project rayons is provided in Annex 1.

13 Atlas of Tajik SSR, 1968

14 National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) of the Republic of Tajikistan. Governmental Decision No. from June, 2006 Ibidem.

15 National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) of the Republic of Tajikistan. Governmental Decision No. from June , 2006


16 National Action Plan on Combat with desertification in Tajikistan. Government of Tajikistan, 2000.

17 Natural Protected Areas of the Republic of Tajikistan. CAREC, published under support of EU, 2006



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