Environmental Assessment and Environmental management Plan Report




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a Monitoring for these data was carried out on irrigated fields (furrows, etc.) and excludes house plots. The area monitored was about 690,000ha out of a total of 720,000ha. Source: MWRLR, ASAP.2001
(b) Wind/water erosion. Large areas of agricultural lands in the region are affected y soil erosion. Because of strong winds Khatlon region belongs to areas with a high degree of wind erosion (especially in Shahrituz, Kumsangir rayons) and, water erosion(Yavan rayon)13. About 30 thousand ha of arable lands in Khatlon region were destroyed (washed up) because of erosion, silting of river bed and as consequences the destructions of dams. More than 8 thousand affected ha of Yavan valley provides an almost textbook example of the power of erosion caused by poor design of the system and non-observance of irrigation rules. Inappropriate irrigation ditches, poor techniques of water distribution, application of too much water resulting in filtration losses and land slips are among the observed outcomes.
(c). Water logging. Poor water management and an under performing drainage infrastructure causes water logging problems. The region also faces problems caused by over watering and its impact on soil fertility. Currently, collection and drainage networks cover less than half of the total irrigated land. As a result, about 15 percent of irrigated lands are over-saturated every year. It concentrates salts, drawn up from lower in the soil profile, in the factories' rooting zone.
56. Water resources. There are several river basins in the Khatlon region, the main of them are Vakhsh river basin and Pyandj river basin. Vakhsh river water-collecting area is 39100 km2. Its length is 690 km, and water discharge can be more then 3600 m3/sec. The average annual runoff is 22,1 км3. Water resources quality in Khatlon region is regularly and considerably affected by floods, mudslides and slope denudation processes (soil erosion). The total volume of water resources used in Khatlon oblast was 5513,7 mln.m3/year (2005), the 4035,1 mln. m3/year - for agriculture purposes. Actually there were used 4052,8 mln.m3/year on Vakhsh river basin, and 1460,9 mln.m3/year – on Pyandj river basin.

57. Biodiversity. In the region there are several protected areas. In particular one nature reserve is placed along the Vakhsh river delta (Tigrovaya Balka), in Southern Tajikistan and characterized by tugai forests along the Vakhsh and Panj rivers. The second nature reserve (Dashtijum) also placed along the Panj river, has populations of markhor, snow leopard and Siberian ibex, fauna representatives included in the country’s Red Book. The nature reserve “Karatau” located in Farkhor rayon was founded in 1972 and occupies 14.4 thousand hectares. Its territory includes west slope and watershed of Karatau mountain ridge from 700 to 1500 m altitude above sea level. The main task of the reserve is to preserve ecosystems of ephemeral factories and natural almond and pistachio sparse growth of trees. Xerophyte’s sparse growth of trees of Karatau is a unique one in the republic because many of trees here are older than 600 years and the height of the trees reaches 7 meters, at that the trees still bear fruit well. The pistachio forests of Karatau are typical places for rare kinds of wild animals such as striped hyena, gazelles and urial.



58. Forests. Since 1950s in the country more than 300,000 ha of native tugai (Populus pruinosa, Elaeagnus angustifolia) forests have been converted to farming or destroyed mostly in the lower elevations of Kulyab zone, Vakhsh valley and along the banks of Syr Darya in Sugd leaving only islands of such vegetation in places such as Tigrovaya Balka zapovednik (protected area). Pressures on forests come from cattle grazing, farming, and uncontrolled logging to meet domestic wood consumption. Forest resources comprise such species as Salix turanica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Populus tadshinistaca and some species of Betula. There are many animal species of tugai complex are represented in Khatlon region as gazelle, Servus bucharica, Phasianus colchicus, Ammoperadix griseogularis, Milvus korshun, Coturnix coturnix, Alectornis graeca, several species of jerboa, and others.
59. Environmental pollution. Outside of the major environmental problems described above, the region suffers also from inadequate industrial and domestic solid waste collection and dumping infrastructure, and contaminated drinking water14. The results of recent water quality analysis show an alarming level of chemical and bacteriological contaminants (47.3 percent and 54.7 percent, respectively) in samples of water used for drinking and irrigation15. The heavy dependence on agriculture in Khatlon, and the subsequent exposure to chemicals involved in farming, has a negative impact on health in the region. In addition, the incidence of disease is significantly higher in areas of irrigated agriculture where water consumption for the local population comes primarily from ditches in the village.
60. Fertilizers and pesticide usage; pollution of drainage waters. Before independence (1991), use of pesticides was rather intensive, with a mean annual application of 24.1 kg per ha, mostly on cotton fields. The highest levels of pesticide application have been recorded in Vakhsh Valley where it reached 48 kg per ha. But due to the collapse of the Soviet agriculture system and the civil war there was drastic reduction in the use of pesticides in Khatlon oblast as in the entire country. Furthermore, there is a shortage of institutional capacity to collect and maintain statistics of pesticide use. The total mineralization on drainage waters was higher than MAC.
61. Population and socio-economic conditions. Khatlon region has a population of 2.3 million people, or about one third of the national figure. The vast majority of its residents live in rural areas, about 1.9 million people versus about 400 thousand urban settlers. Even if one excludes the capital city Dushanbe, population density is the highest in the country, 92.5 people/sq km. The region also has the largest portion of irrigated lands in the country, approximately 45 percent, of which 34 percent are located in the area surrounding the regional administrative capital of Kurgan Tube, and 11 percent are in the Kulyab zone. The region’s industry is presented by 165 enterprises. The district’s production ratio is 25.8% of the total industrial production of the republic. The Khatlon region hosts a few large industrial complexes: the Vakhsh Azot Fertilizer factory, the Yavan chemical enterprise, as well as a complex for chemical herbicide entombment.
B Baseline analysis for Rasht valley
62. Project geografic location. The Rasht valley is located in central part of Tajikistan and is an administrative and geographic unit of Tajikistan comprising the five districts of Jirgital, Rasht, Tavildara, Tajikabad and Nurabad. The amount of annual precipitation varies from 400 to 800-1200 mm per year. In spite of high altitude, the climate is mild. The annual average temperature is 10oC. In the summer (July) the average temperature is about 23oC, and in the winter (January), it is below 4oC. Sometimes the summer temperature reaches 38oC, but in the winter it reduces to below 25oC.
63. Land resources. The total area is about is 17,055 km2. 23,000 hectares of lands are irrigated, 308,000 - rain fed. The irrigation is also unique. The canals are short and they are usually laid along the steep slopes. On irrigated lands people are growing potatoes, tobacco plants, cucumbers, tomatoes, lucerne, etc. Along most of the valley slopes and ridges non-irrigated agriculture is possible. Mountain relief and exposure of slopes create different conditions for growing and developing horticulture in the river valleys. Soils are presented mainly by typical mountainous brown soils, high-mountainous meadow-steppe soils, and typical and light serozymes.
64. Land degradation. As in case with Khatlon region lands due to deforestation, improper irrigation and excessive use of agricultural lands, construction of roads without engineering expertise the region’s land resources are affected by several environmental problems – deforestation, desertification, erosion, mudslides, emergency situations and etc.16 The desertification process has affected the entire inhabitable high-mountain area depriving people of gas, coal, kerosene, and electricity, which have led to further destruction of forests in mountainous areas. Lack of flour in some settlements has led to planting of cereal crops on sloping lands. As a result, fertile soil has been eroded, resulting in pollution of reservoirs and increased mud and rock flow.
65 Water resources. There are several river basin in Rasht valley – Surkhob, Obihingou, Kamarou. The main of them is Surkhob basin. Tables 4 below show the characteristics of the Sourkhob’s tributary rivers. Tributary river valleys of the Sourkhob are closed from east and west by huge mountain ridges, but the valleys are open from the south and thus receive warm wet winds.
Table 4. Main Characteristics of Surkhob River Basin in Rasht valley

Characteristics


Rivers

Kizilsou

Mou-kou

Kok-sou

Yar-khich

Yasman

Sorbog

Sangikor

Source

Glacial-snow nutrition

Length (km)

254

88

11

48

30

81

42

Basin Area (km2)

8380

7070

1290

1170

208

1780

291

Altitude Above Sea Level (m):

  • Source

  • End

3800


1835

2714


1835

1823


1705

3309


1570

3400


1568

3580


1246

3400


1242

Average Slope (%)

7.7

10

9.6

36.2

61

28.8

51.4

Soil Erosion Degree

Average and strong water erosion

Average and strong water erosion

Ave-rage and strong water ero-sion

Ave-rage and strong water erosion

Average and strong water erosion

Average and strong water erosion

Average and strong water erosion

Annual Solid Runoff (ton/km2)

380

2200

600-800

600-800

600-800

600-800

600-800

Suspended Substances (gram/liter)

2.0-4.0

2.0-4.0

2.0-4.0

2.0-4.0

2.0-4.0

2.0-4.0

2.0-4.0

Type of Soils

Typical brown mountain soils, typical sierozyom, stone soils

Stone and less stone soils

Stone and less stone soils

Irrigation

Small plots irrigation

Vegetation


Latin names of plants – Populus pruinosa, Elaeagnus angustifa, Tamarix laxa, Tamarix hispida, Phragmites communis , Salix turanica, S.iranica, Populus tadshikistanica, Betula procurva, Betula tadshikistanica, Juniperus turkestanica, Juniperus.seravshanica, Juniperus semigloboca, Festuca sulcata, Elytrigia trichopora, Prangos pabularia, Amygdalus bucharica, Pistacia vera, Calophaca grandiflora, Certis griffithii, Rosa kokanica, Acer turkestanicum, Juglans regia, Artemisia dracunculus, Adonis turkestanicus, Artemimisia lehmanniana, Artemisia korshinsky, Artemisia sogdiana, Artemisia cina, Acantholimon pamiticum, Stipa turkestanica, Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Prangos pabularia, Ferula jaeschkeana, Polygonum coriarium, Ligularia thomsonii, Cousinia stephanofora, Cousinia franchetii, Cousinia pannosa

Agricultural Crops

Cereal Crops, Walnut-Plants, potato

Moisture

Sufficient for cereal crops.

Precipitation, mm

200-400

400-800

200-400

400-800

400-800

400-800

400-800

Air Temperature in July, оC

20-28

8-20

20-28

20-28

20-28

20-28

20-28


Air Temperature in January оC

8-12

12-16

12-16

12-16

12-16

12-16

12-16


River Capacity (thousand kilowatts)

244

550


Runoff (liter/second km2)

20-25

20-30

15-35

15-35

15-35

40-50

40-50

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