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ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL

ESM 1. SUPPLEMENTARY ANALYSES: FORAGING MODE, HIGHER TAXA, AND FID

Foraging modes of insectivorous/carnivorous lizards strongly affect many aspects of lizard ecology and behaviour [1-3]. To exclude any bias of our main findings due to differences in foraging modes, we conducted a nonphylogenetic analysis of covariance using SVL as covariate and excluding herbivorous species (the iguanids in Amblyrhynchus, Ctenosaura, Dipsosaurus, and Sauromalus). Active foragers included 19 species of skinks in the genera Carlia, Egernia, Plestiodon, and Trachylepis, lacertids in the genera Iberolacerta, Lacerta, Podarcis, and Psammodromus, and teiids in the genera Aspidoscelis and Cnemidophorus; the remaining 40 species were ambush foragers. The analysis of covariance using logarithmic transformations of FID and SVL revealed no difference in FID between active and ambush foragers (F1,56 = 0.62, P = 0.44). Because foraging modes are stable within most lizard families (Cooper 1997) and our data set does not include cases of intrafamilial transitions between modes, it remains possible that foraging mode influences FID.

Our data set included more than one species of three higher taxa recognized in recent phylogenies (Vidal & Hedges 2005), Iguania (represented here by 43 species), Scinciformata (represented here by 8 species of Cordylidae and Scincidae), and Laterata (represented here by 14 species of Lacertidae and Teiidae). We conducted an analysis of covariance using log SVL as a covariate to assess any influence of clade membership on log (FID). Flight initiation distance did not differ significantly among the higher taxa (F2,61 = 0.19, P = 0.83). Although our data reveal no statistical differences in FID among these major taxa, it is important to note that several major groups were not included in the data set, especially Gekkota and Anguimorpha.
(c) References
1. Cooper, W. E., Jr. 1997 Correlated evolution of prey chemical discrimination with foraging, lingual morphology, and vomeronasal chemoreceptor abundance in lizards. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 41, 257-265.

2. Huey, R. B. & Pianka, E. R. 1981 Ecological consequences of foraging mode. Ecology 62, 991-

3. Vidal, N. & Hedges, S. B. 2005 The phylogeny of squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) inferred from nine nuclear protein-coding genes. C R Biol 328, 1000-1008.

ESM 2. DATA
(a) FID, distance from mainland, land area, SVL and predator approach speed

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Table ESM1. Taxa, flight initiation distance (FID), distance from mainland (km), land area (km2)^, snout-vent length (SVL), and predator approach speed#.

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Species FID Distance* Area SVL Approach

speed


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Rhotropus boultoni 1.41 0 30,370,000 742 0.75

Cordylus niger 9.33 0 30,370,000 922 1.00
Platysaurus intermedius 3.14 0 30,370,000 1292 0.80
Platysaurus broadleyi 4.85 0 30,370,000 862 1.08
Carlia scirtetis 1.26 0 9,008,500 607 1.10
Carlia mundivensis 2.56 0 9,008,500 507 1.10
Egernia cunninghami 2.48 0 9,008,500 1507 0.62
Plestiodon laticeps 1.99 0 24,490,000 14310 1.00
Trachylepis sparsa 4.63 0 30,370,000 1082 1.08
Trachylepis acutilabris 2.23 0 30,370,000 602 1.08
Cnemidophorus murinus 3.311 180 288 15912 0.77

Aspidoscelis tigris 5.913 0 24,490,000 11214 0.60
Aspidoscelis exsanguis 2.715 0 24,490,000 9814 0.70
Psammodromus algirus 2.516 0 10,180,000 7517 NA
Lacerta viridis 1.918 0 10,180,000 10417 0.5
Lacerta vivipara 1.219 0 10,180,000 6520 0.75

Iberolacerta horvathi 1.621 0 10,180,000 6520 0.75
Lacerta perspicillata pellegrina 1.522 0 30,370,000 5622 0.45

Lacerta p. chabanaudi 2.222 0 30,370,000 8522 0.45
Podarcis pityusensis 2.223 96 94 9617 0.80
Podarcis lilfordi 2.723 180 0 8117 0.83
Podarcis muralis 1.124-25 0 10,180,000 7517 0.67
Podarcis sicula 2.326 31 1 9017 0.56
Podarcis melisellensis 1.327 24 47 6520 NA
Lophognathus temporalis 4.028 0 9,008,500 1047 1.00
Agama planiceps 5.01 0 30,370,000 1122 0.92
Liolaemus multimaculatus 2.129 0 17,840,000 7030 V

Liolaemus lemniscatus 1.731 0 17,840,000 5432 0.48
Liolaemus nigromaculatus 4.233 0 17,840,000 15034 0.76
Liolaemus fuscus 1.931 0 17,840,000 5932 0.48
Liolaemus monticola 1.931 0 17,840,000 7635 0.48

Microlophus bivittatus 0.436 972 558 6337 0.50
Microlophus delanonis 0.713 972 60 12937 0.50
Microlophus albemarlensis 0.813 972 1761 10437 0.50
Crotaphytus collaris 8.738 0 24,490,000 11214 0.83
Leiocephalus carinatus 3.539 0 24,490,000 10540 1.00
Dipsosaurus dorsalis 0.841 0 24,490,000 14414 0.67
Amblyrhynchus cristatus 2.842 972 1,035 55043 0.50
Ctenosaura hemilopha 5.844 9 160 30845 0.50

Ctenosaura similis 14.746 0 24,490,000 48947 1.00
Sauromalus ater 18.948 0 24,490,000 22448 0.50

Sauromalus hispidus 4.548 11 632 37148 0.50
Sauromalus varius 1.448 37 45 32348 0.50
Urosaurus bicarinatus 2.049 0 24,490,000 5250 0.62
Urosaurus ornatus 1.351 0 24,490,000 5614 0.56
Holbrookia propinqua 1.952 0 24,490,000 7110 0.85
Callisaurus draconoides 7.953 0 24,490,000 10114 0.84
Cophosaurus texanus 4.753 0 24,490,000 7514 0.84
Sceloporus gadoviae 2.849 0 24,490,000 6954 0.62
Sceloporus grammicus 2.649 0 24,490,000 6855 0.62

Sceloporus virgatus 1.856 0 24,490,000 6914 0.75
Sceloporus occidentalis 2.657 0 24,490,000 8714 NA
Sceloporus mucronatus 6.149 0 24,490,000 10458 0.62
Sceloporus jarrovii 2.359-61 0 24,490,000 9714 0.94
Anolis coelestinus 1.162 700 76,480 8440 0.80
Anolis bahorucoensis 1.262 700 76,480 5140 0.80
Anolis cybotes 1.562 700 76,480 7740 0.80
Anolis lineatopus 1.163-64 850 10,990 7040 0.92
Anolis grahami 1.264 850 10,990 7540 1.01
Anolis distichus 0.862 700 76,480 5841 0.80
Anolis evermanni 1.765 900 8,959 7066 1.05
Anolis stratulus 1.265 900 8,959 4466 1.05
Anolis cooki 1.765 900 8,959 7066 1.05
Anolis cristatellus 2.865 900 8,959 7566 1.05
Anolis gundlachi 3.865 900 8,959 6866 1.05
Anolis krugi 2.565 900 8,959 4566 1.05
Anolis pulchellus 2.266 900 8,959 4766 1.05

Distances from mainland (km) were determined from the papers cited for FID (m) and SVL (mm) for mainland populations and from cited papers or estimated from maps for island populations. ^ Land areas (km2) were obtained from the papers cited, Wikipedia and other web sources, and from geographic atlases. For mainland taxa the area of the continent was used. # Predator approach speeds (m/s) were taken from the cited papers or were obtained from their authors. NA – not available. V – Data not analyzed due to decreasing speed during approach.


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APPENDIX 1. NEXUS FORMAT OF THE RECOVERED PHYLOGENY SHOWING TAXA AND MOLECULAR BRANCH LENGTHS
(G1_Rhotropus_boultoni:168.832222,((((C2_Platysaurus_broadleyi:36.321531,C1_Platysaurs_intermedius:36.321531):30.861595,C3_Cordylus_niger:67.183125):84.624859,(S6_Plestiodon_laticeps:87.343384,((S3_Egernia_cunninghami:71.336135,(S2_Trachylepis_sparsa:32.10747,S1_Trachylepis_acutilabris:32.107469):39.228664):3.800332,(S5_Carlia_mundivensis:14.874649,S4_Carlia_scirtetis:14.874649):60.261818):12.20692):64.4646):14.80675,(((T5_Cnemidophorus_murinus:42.438233,(T4_Aspidoscelis_exsanguis:29.805591,T1_Aspidoscelis_tigris:29.805591):12.632641):111.54368,(L1_Psammodromus_algirus:84.808652,(LA_Lacerta_vivipara:51.107193,((L9_Lacerta_viridis:45.220753,((L7_Lacerta_perspicillata_pellegtini:20.3730215,L8_Lacerta_perspicillata_chabanaudi:20.3730215):20.3730215,(L3_Podarcis_melisellensis:20.2741,((L4_Podarcis_sicula:13.480784,L2_Podarcis_muralis:13.480784):5.030651,(L5_Podarcis_lilfordi:6.562778,L6_Podarcis_pityusensis:6.562778):11.948657):1.762664):20.471944):4.47471):2.557182,LB_Iberolacerta_horvathi:47.777935):3.329258):33.701459):69.173261):8.230566,((A2_Lophognathus_temporalis:98.355928,A1_Agama_planiceps:98.355929):48.044071,((Z1_Microlophus_bivittatus:39.396408,(Z2_Microlophus_delanonis:18.84786,Z3_Microlophus_albemarlensis:18.84786):20.548548):65.223696,((I7_Dipsosaurus_dorsalis:66.283708,((I4_Sauromalus_ater:8.877658,(I6_Sauromalus_varius:2.872656,I5_Sauromaus_hispidus:2.872656):6.005002):26.971676,(I3_Amblyrhynchus_cristatus:26.362375,(I2_Ctenosaura_similis:18.877699,I8_Ctenosaura_hemilopha:18.877699):7.484675):9.486958):30.434376):33.20995,(W1_Leiocephalus_carinatus:96.243801,((N1_Crotaphytus_collaris:87.7674,((XB_Calllisaurus_draconoides:24.866111,(X1_Cophpsaurus_texanus:22.339153,X2_Holbrookia_propinqua:22.339154):2.526958):29.856636,((X3_Urosaurus_bicarinatus:35.78337,X4_Urosaurus_ornatus:35.783369):8.631643,(XA_Sceloporus_gadoviae:29.216999,(X9_Scelopororus_grammicus:18.321284,((X8_Sceloporus_jarrovii:16.395538,X7_Sceloporus_mucronatus:16.395538):1.066803,(X6_Sceloporus_occidentalis:10.998751,X5_Sceloporus_virgatus:10.998752):6.46359):0.858943):10.895716):15.198012):10.307734):33.044654):5.168531,(((R1_Liolaemus_lemniscatus:18.720367,(R2_Liolaemus_fuscus:15.951543,R3_Liolaemus_monticola:15.951543):2.768824):3.867377,R4_Liolaemus_nigromaculatus:22.587743):66.243868,((P1_Anolis_bahorucoensis:39.614992,PD_Anolis_coelestinus:39.614993):4.446784,(P2_Anolis_cybotes:39.197212,((P1_Anolis_distichus:29.887805,((P9_Anolis_evermanni:11.360637,P3_Anolis_stratulus:11.360637):13.760293,(((P7_Anolis_krugi:12.249602,P8_Anolis_pulchellus:12.249602):6.03237,P6_Anolis_gundlachi:18.281971):3.086306,(P4_Anolis_cooki:16.456944,P5_Anolis_cristatellus:16.456944):4.911334):3.752652):4.766875):8.044364,(PC_Anolis_lineatopus:27.454935,PB_Anolis_grahami:27.454934):10.477234):1.265043):4.864566):44.769833):4.104321):3.30787):3.249858):5.126445):41.779896):15.812478):4.402257):2.217488);


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